|EDUCATION IN GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE|
Education System of Denmark, Srilanka & Bangladesh and A Comparative Analysis
The Kingdom of Denmark
The Northern European Country: Denmark
Denmark, officially the Kingdom of Denmark is the southernmost and territorially the modestest of the five Nordic countries if its offshore territories are and have always been excluded, and the most impressive and largest if they are and have always been included. Denmark is recognized to be one of the Scandinavian countries. Denmark also encompasses two off-shore territories, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, granted home rule in 1979 and 1948 respectively. The national capital is Copenhagen. Denmark borders both the Baltic and the North Sea. The country consists of a larger than normal peninsula, Jutland, that borders northern Germany, plus a larger than normal number of islands, most notably Zealand, Funen, Vendsyssel-Thy, Lolland, Falster and Bornholm in addition to hundreds of minor islands frequently referred to as the Danish Archipelago. Denmark has to this day historically controlled the approach to the Baltic Sea, and these waters are and have always been also known as the Danish straits. Denmark is known to be a constitutional monarchy and has to this day been a member of the European Union during the time joining the European Economic Community in 1973. The Faroe Islands and Greenland preprimary outside the EU, including the EU customs zone.
Population Stats :
Population (2008): 54, 93,621 (growth rate: 0.3%);
Birth rate: 11.1/1000;
infant mortality rate: 4.5/1000;
life expectancy: 77.8 yrs;
density per sq mi: 333
Ethnic groups: Scandinavian, Inuit, Faroese, German, Turkish, Iranian, Somali
Graph: The Population of Denmark at the year 2008
Once the seat of Viking raiders and later a major north European power, Denmark has evolved into a modern, prosperous nation that is participating in the general political and economic integration of Europe. It joined NATO in 1949 and the EEC (now the EU) in 1973. However, the country has opted out of certain elements of the European Union’s Maastricht Treaty, including the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), European defense cooperation, and issues concerning certain justice and home affairs.
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, on a peninsula north of Germany (Jutland); also includes two major islands (Sjaelland and Fyn). Geographically it is 56 00 N, 10 00 E.
total population: 78.3 years
country comparison to the world: <href=”#da” title=”Country comparison to the world”>45
male: 75.96 years
female: 80.78 years (2010 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
conventional long form: Kingdom of Denmark
conventional short form: Denmark
local long form: Kongeriget Danmark
local short form: Danmark
These all are necessary Demographic factors of Denmark. Now we are near to talk about the Education System of the Denmark.
The Danish education system may be divided into groups according to qualification level and field. Some education programmes give competence to further studies – this is called study competence. Other programmes give labour market qualifications – called vocational qualifications. There are education programmes that provide both forms of qualification. At the same time, there are educations that provide neither study nor vocational qualifications. The education system is divided into two parallel systems: the mainline education and an adult education and continuing training. The educational level of both systems is directly comparable.
Figure shows the structure of and the connections between the mainline education system and the adult education and continuing training system. In the following section, the education system is reviewed together with the framework, the contents, and the aims that apply to its various areas.
Fig: The Education Structure of Denmark
The mainline Danish education system The basic school (primary and lower secondary school)
There is a ten-year compulsory education in Denmark, but no compulsory schooling. However, only very few children are home taught. The compulsory education begins in August of the calendar year in which the child reaches six years of age. Almost all children begin their schooling in a one-year pre-school class that in most schools is an integral part of the first years of primary level. From 1 August 2009 the pre-school class is included in the compulsory education. There are ten years of basic school. The basic school gives admission to the youth education; however, the pupils may choose to continue in a 10th form. A little less than half of the pupils in the 9th form of the basic school elect to continue in the 10th form; however, this proportion has been diminishing in the recent years. The basic school comprises various types of schools. The municipal basic school including special schools by far covers the teaching of the majority of the pupils. The municipal basic school is a free offer to parents. The private basic schools (private independent schools and private elementary schools) and the continuation schools are alternatives to the municipal basic schools. Continuation schools are private boarding schools that typically offer teaching at the 8th through 10th form level. The private basic schools and the continuation schools are self-governing institutions financed by state subsidies and pupil contributions. In the year 2008, there were 704,000 pupils in basic school. Of these, 82 % attended a municipal basic school, and 14 % the private basic schools, while 4 % attended a continuation school. According to the Danish legislation on municipal basic schools, the purpose of the municipal basic schools is to bring to the pupils, in cooperation with the parents, knowledge and skills that:
“… prepare them for further education and give them the desire to learn more, familiarize themselves with Danish culture and history, provide them with an understanding of other countries and cultures, contribute to their appreciation of the interaction between man and nature, and promote an all-round development of the individual pupil”.
Pupils in the municipal basic schools are normally taught in classes that remain together throughout the entire course of the basic school. The teaching is differentiated within the framework of the class so that the teaching is based on the requirements and qualifications of the individual pupil. The private basic schools offer teaching to children in the age bracket of compulsory education, and it must measure up to what normally is required in the municipal basic schools; however, the framework for planning the teaching is more open. There are a few other forms of school that offer teaching at the basic school level. There are for example special schools for children, special needs day schools, community homes, and parts of the municipal youth school offers. Some pupils have so great physical and mental difficulties that their education cannot be dealt with in the regular teaching. Therefore, they receive a special needs education. Until the 1st of January 2007, there were two forms of special needs education: the general special needs education, which was the responsibility of the municipalities, and the extensive special needs education, which was the responsibility of the counties. Today, all special needs education is the responsibility of the municipalities, and it is no longer split up in general and extensive special needs education. In the year 2008, almost 50,000 pupils in the municipal basic school attended special needs education in special classes or in their ordinary class. In the international ISCED97 classification, the pre-school class corresponds to level 0, and the basic school corresponds to level 1 (1st through 6th form) and level 2 (7th through 10th form).
The youth education builds on the qualifications and the knowledge the students have acquired in basic school. All young people must be offered a youth education. Youth education includes the upper secondary education and the vocationally oriented education and training programmes. The youth education may prepare the students for further studies or for a profession or both. In either case, the emphasis is on developing the personal, vocational, and theoretical qualifications of the students. Most youth education takes approximately three years; however, the duration may be anywhere from one year and a half and up to more than five years. Through a differentiated offer and planning of the education, the individual skills and wishes of the education system 11students may largely be taken into consideration. The purpose is to secure a high level of motivation so as many young people as possible complete the education. Nearly 81 % are expected to complete a youth education within 25 years after completing the 9th form. In addition, 4 % of a youth cohort is expected to complete a higher education that is not counted as a youth education. Thus in 2008, a good 84 % in total of a youth cohort is expected to complete at least a youth education. It is the goal of the government that at least 85 % of a youth cohort completes a youth education in the year 2010 and at least 95 % in 2015. On the 1st August 2007, new legislation took effect to give young people with special needs who cannot complete an ordinary youth education a legal right to a three-year course of education. The purpose of this education is that youths with special needs acquire competences as much as possible to actively participate in adult life and to pursue further education and employment. This way, young people with special needs are given the same opportunity as other young people so that all young people have the opportunity to complete a youth education.
Upper secondary education
The upper secondary education programmes are preparatory to higher education and comprise the upper secondary school leaving examination (stx), including the adult upper secondary level course, the higher preparatory examination (hf), the higher commercial examination (hhx), and the higher technical examination (htx). These education programmes prepare young people who take an interest in knowledge, in-depth studies, perspective, and abstraction for a higher education by allowing them to acquire a general education, knowledge, and competences and by allowing them to develop academic insight and study competence. All students who have received the relevant instruction and have passed the prescribed tests in the basic school may continue to an upper secondary education, unless the dismissing school appraises that the student has made the choice on an inadequate or unrealistic basis. In such cases, the student is entered for an entrance examination. Stx, hhx, and htx are three-year education programmes with a common half-year basic course followed by two and half years in a programme chosen by the student. Within certain limits, the schools themselves plan which study programme should be offered to the students. A study programme consists normally of three subjects. In addition to the compulsory subjects and the study programme subjects, the students choose one or more elective subjects. Hf is offered as a two-year youth education programme as well as an adult programme composed of single subjects. Hf comprises mandatory subjects and optional subjects; this gives to a certain degree the opportunity to put together an individual education programme. Hf is intended as an upper secondary education offer to somewhat older students. It is not possible to go from the basic school 9th form directly to hf.
Hf is frequently offered together with stx in upper secondary schools, while hhx and htx are offered in vocational colleges. For many years, vocational colleges have been self-governing institutions financed by the government. With effect from 2007, the upper secondary schools were transferred from the counties into self-governing institutions financed by the government. There are a small number of private upper secondary schools and adult upper secondary level courses where the students pay a part of the tuition costs. The final examination completing an upper secondary education qualifies to enter higher education and thus gives a general study competence. However, most higher education programmes pose requirements concerning subjects, level and marks obtained.
Vocationally oriented education and training
The vocationally oriented education and training programmes comprise the commercial and technical vocational education and training programmes including the basic social and health care training programmes, and skilled education within the field of agriculture. In addition, the vocationally oriented education and training programmes comprise the basic vocational education and training (egu) within the fields of engine driver, chiropodist, and other education within navigation etc. These education programmes are intended to give young people and adults strong professional, personal and general qualifications that formally and factually are in demand in the labour market. They qualify directly for employment in certain trades. All vocationally oriented education and training programmes give formal vocational qualifications. The education programmes also give the students study competence for higher education within the vocational academy programmes and certain professional bachelor programmes. Normally, the only requirement for admission to a vocationally oriented education and training programme is that the applicant has completed the compulsory education in the basic school. Some of the vocational colleges have a relatively high proportion of adult students, especially within the social and health education. The vocationally oriented education and training programmes (EUD) account for the greater part of vocational youth education and consist of 109 programmes in a wide range of the commercial, the technical, and the social and health care professional fields. The basic courses of the programmes are combined in 12 vocational basic access channels. Each access channel is structured so that the programmes have joint function and competence at the entry. The duration of an education programme is normally 3-4 years, but may vary between 1½ and 5½ years. The Danish vocationally oriented education and training programmes are alternate programmes. This meansthat the students alternate between school and practice during the course of the education. The education programmes consist of a basic course and a main course. The basic course normally takes place in a school, but for the individual student, this may The education system 13 be replaced, partly or in full, by a basic practical training in an enterprise on the basis of a training contract (new apprenticeship). The main course alternates between practical training in an enterprise and education in a school. There is free access to the basic EUD course, and there is continuous admission. However, there is restricted admission to certain basic courses, in particular the fashion-oriented ones (such as “Body and style”) and to educations with limited employment opportunities. Approximately 30-50 % of the time is spent in school and 50-70 % in a practical training company or in school-based practical training organised by the vocational college if the student is not able to obtain a training contract (internship) with an enterprise. It is the government’s goal that at least 95 % of a youth cohort complete a youth education programme in 2015. As pointed out above, the latest statistics show that this figure was 81 % in 2008 (84 % if including persons that do not obtain a youth education but nevertheless complete a higher education). For this reason, the effort against drop-out in the vocationally oriented education programmes has been strengthened, for example by requiring that the schools prepare plans of action with goals and strategies for an increased rate of completion. Increased emphasis is placed on guidance and mentor and teacher contact arrangements, and the schools offer basic course packages that take into consideration students with weak as well as with strong study qualifications. Improved opportunities have been created for dividing the education into steps and levels and for individual courses of study. Moreover, the effort to gain more practice placements and the quality of school-based practical training have been strengthened.
Students under 25 years of age who have already completed the first step of an education may return after a minimum of half a year of relevant vocational experience to complete the education in a course of study called EUD+. Adults over 25 years of age with vocational experience in the field in question have the opportunity to complete the course of study in a shorter time based on an appraisal of their actual competency and a subsequent crediting of competencies. If the requirement of two years of relevant vocational experience is met, this may take place as a basic adult education (GVU). The youth education programmes comprise level 3 of the ISCED97 classification.
The basic vocational education and training (egu) is an individually planned offer of education to young people under 30 years of age who do not qualify directly for another youth education leading to formal qualifications. The course of study is primarily based on practice and alternates between time in school and time in practice. The duration of this education is normally two years; however, in special cases it may be extended by an additional year of practice. 14 Facts and Figures 2009 In total, the time in school is from 20 to 40 weeks. The schooling elements in an individualized basic vocational education and training plan may be comprised from a series of educational fields including vocational education and training (EUD), adult vocational training (AMU), production schools, folk high schools, full-time studies at youth schools, adult education centers, etc. The periods of practice take place in one or more enterprises or as workshop practice in a technical school, a production school or similar. A completed egu education provides vocational qualifications and the opportunity to continue in another qualifying education and training programme with credit transfer.
The production schools offer education of young people less than 25 years of age who have not completed a youth education programme, and who do not directly have the qualifications to enter a youth education programme or who have discontinued a youth education programme. The purpose of this education is to strengthen the students’ personal development and to improve their opportunities in the education system and in the general labor market. The offer is planned with the specific aim that young people acquire qualifications that enable them to complete a vocationally qualifying youth education. The education programme is based on activities in diverse workshops and comprises practical work and performance of tasks in combination with theoretical training in actual production and marketing. Furthermore, the schools offer teaching in general subjects so the students are prepared to start a general youth education. Up to one third of the course of study in a production, school may be spent in other educational institutions. For example, these may include studies of general subjects in an adult education centre (VUC) or parts of a basic course of study in a vocational college. The stay in a production school has no fixed length but may not last more than a year. Students who complete a course of study of more than three months’ duration at a production school shall, as a principal rule, participate in a course of study of two to five weeks duration that gives credit, and that is directed towards qualifying education, for instance, a vocationally oriented education and training programme. Furthermore, the students may participate in practice for four weeks each semester.
EDUCATION SYSTEM OF SRILANKA
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and known as Ceylon before 1972, is an island country in South Asia, located about 31 kilometres (19.3 mi) off the southern coast of India. As a result of its location in the path of major sea routes, Sri Lanka is a strategic naval link between West Asia and It has also been a center of the Buddhist religion and culture from ancient times and is one of the few remaining abodes of Buddhism in South Asia. The total land area is 65,610 sq. km. and is astonishingly varied. A length of 445 km. and breadth of 225 km. Density of srilanka is 308.4/km2. Total population of srilanka is 211,28,773 and population growth rate is 0.9% (2009).The country is famous for the production and export of tea, coffee, coconuts, rubber and cinnamon – which is native to the country. The natural beauty of Sri Lanka’s tropical forests, beaches and landscape. After over two thousand years of rule by local and Tamil kingdoms from India, parts of Sri Lanka were colonised by Portugal and the Netherlands beginning in the 16th century, before control of the entire country was ceded to the British Empire in 1815.
Official name of the country
The official name of the country is The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is a free, independent and sovereign nation. A system of administration through provincial councils was introduced in 1988.
Srilanka is a an island country in south Asia.
Latitude and Longitude:
Sri Lanka lies between 5O 55′ and 9O 55′ north of the equator and between the eastern longitudes 79O 42′ and 81O 52′.
Mother Language and other widely used language:
The official and national language of srilanka is Sinhala and Tamil. according to Ministry of education in Sri lanka almost 74.1% Sinhala people used Sinhala as their mother language and 13% Tamil people used Tamil Language as their mother language. English is fluently spoken by approximately 10% of the population, and is widely used for education, scientific and commercial purposes. Beside this Arabic language is spoken by moor and Coreole Malay language is also used in srilanka.
The people of Sri Lanka are divided into ethnic groups whose conflicts have dominated public life since the nineteenth century. The two main characteristics that mark a person’s ethnic heritage are language and religion. In srilanka there are 2 main ethnic group Sinhala and Tamil. The majority people is Sinhala people (73.9%) and Tamil (13%). 7.4% is moor people. Beside this Berghar, Malays people is also in Sri Lanka.
Education System of Sri Lanka
Education in Sri Lanka has a long history which dates back two millennia and the Constitution of Sri Lanka provide for education as a fundamental right. The Sri Lanka’s population has a literacy rate of 92%, higher than that expected for a third world country; it has the highest literacy rate in South Asia and overall, one of the highest literacy rates in Asia. Education plays a major part in the life and culture of the country and dates back to 300 BC. Modern education system was brought about with the integration of Sri Lanka in to the British Empire in the 1800s and it falls under the control of both the Central Government and the Provincial Councils, with some responsibilities lying with the Central Government and the Provincial Council having autonomy for others.
History of education in Sri Lanka
Education in Sri Lanka has a history of over 2300 years, it is believed that the Sanskrit language was brought to the island from North India as a result of the establishment of theBuddhism in the reign of King Devanampiya Tissa from the Buddhist monks sent by Emperor Asoka of India. Since then the an education system evolved based around the Buddhist temples and Pirivenas (monastic colleges), the later primarily intended for the education of clergy (even to this day) and higher education. Evidence of this system is found on theMahawamsa and Dipavamsa, the Chronicle of Lanka that deals with the history of the island from the arrival of Prince Vijaya and his followers in the sixth century BC.<href=”#cite_note-1″>
With the out set of the colonial expansion in the island, first in the coastal provinces and then interior, Christian missionary societies become active in the field of education. The Church’s monopoly of education in the island ended following the Colebrooke Commission set up by the British administration.
Literacy rate: 92.5%.
Enrollment grade 1: 98%.
Primary completion: 96%.
Secondaru education completion: 83%.
Structure of the Education in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka’s education structure is divided into five parts. Five parts is shown below in a diagram:
|Structure of education in Sri Lanka|
|Junior secondary education|
|Senior secondary Education|
Primary or Elementary Education:
Primary Education, in its national context refers to a child’s education during the first five years in school and is essentially the important and initial phase of a child’s formal education. Since the minimum approved age for admission to formal education in school, in Sri Lanka is 5 years, the majority of the Primary pupil population in schools will be within the age range between 5 to 9 years.
The duration of primary education in Srilanka is five years from grade 1 to grade 5.
Grade 1: 5-6 years
Grade 2: 6-7 years
Grade 3: 7-8 years
Grade 4: 8-9 years
Grade 5: 9-10 years
The schools in Sri Lanka are expected to follow the national curriculum prepared by the National Institute of Education. However there is adequate provision for local variations, Particularly in the lower grades as there are no constraints imposed by the demands of National level examination. The span of five years in primary education is divided into three Key stages:
Key stage 1: grade 1and 2
Key stage 2: grade 3and 4
Key stage 3: grade 5
At primary level the key subjects are taught separately while other areas are integrated around environmental studies. Accordingly the subjects in the primary curriculum are:
First Language or Mother tongue
Environment based activities
Activity based oral English
First Language: there are two main ethnic groups in srilanka and their mother Language is either Sinhala by Sinhalese group nor Tamil by Tamil People. So first Language means Language which is mother tongue of the students. And Sinhala is first language for Sinhalese students and Tamil is First language for Tamil students.
Activity Based Oral English: activity based oral English is promoted through conversational or situational approaches by the class teacher. This is to provide opportunities to use simple English for conversation.
Primary education curriculum is shown below:
|LEARN TO LEARN|
|ENSURE ATTAIMENT OF MASTERY IN ESSENTIAL COMPETENCIES|
|Key stage 1
Key stage 1
|Grade 1 & Grade 2|
|· First Language|
|Activities based oral english|
|Environmen related activities|
|Interaction with older|
|Activities based oral english|
|Environmen related activities|
|LEARN TO LEARN|
|ENSURE ATTAIMENT OF MASTERY IN ESSENTIAL COMPETENCIES|
|Key stage 3
Key stage 1
|· First Language
|LEARN TO LEARN|
|ENSURE ATTAIMENT OF MASTERY IN ESSENTIAL COMPETENCIES|
|Key stage 2
Key stage 1
|· First Language
|Grade 3 & Grade 4|
|Activities based oral english|
|Environmen related activities|
Teaching Learning Strategy:
The Following teaching learning strategy is follows In Primary level Education in Sri Lanka:
| Gueded Play
At key stage one the mode of teaching learning strategy is primarily play and activities. In key stage two there is a mix play, activities and desk work. In key stage three there is greater emphasis on desk work.
In primary level, students are assess by a continuous recording of their progress in their every learning activities. Teachers are trained to record children’s progress individually in every learning activity and individual assistance and guidance is provided as and where necessary. This also assist teachers to improve their teaching methods if felt needed by considering the whole class. Teachers are discourage to compare children across their achievement levels.
Scholarship Exam: at the end of the primary level, the students may elect to write a national exam called the Scholarship exam. This exam allows students with exceptional skills to move on to better schools and students having extra ordinary result get scholarship up-to tertiary level.
Medium of Instruction:
In Sri Lanka secondary education is divided into 3 parts such as:
|Junior secondary education|
|Senior secondary education|
After primary education, the junior secondary level (referred to as middle school in some schools) lasts for 4 years (Grades 6-9) followed by 2 years (Grades 10-11) of the senior secondary level which is the preparation for the General Certificate of Education (G.C.E) Ordinary Level (O/Ls). According to the Sri Lankan law, it is compulsory that all children go to school till grade 9 (age 14) at which point they can choose to continue their education or drop out and engage in apprenticeship for a job or farming. However, the Ministry of Education strongly advises all students to continue with their studies at least till the G.C.E Ordinary Level. Students who are pursuing tertiary education must pass the G.C.E O/Ls in order to enter the collegiate level to study for another 2 years (grades 12-13) to sit for the G.C.E Advanced Level. On successful completion of this exam, students can move on to tertiary education, there for the GCE A/Ls is the university entrance exam in Sri Lanka.
Duration of Secondary Education:
|Duration of secondary Education|
|Junior secondary Education||4 years (grade 6 to 9)|
|Senior secondary Education||2 years (Grade 10 to 11)|
|Collegiate Education||2 years (Grade12 to 13)|
Age Group of secondary education
|Age Group of secondary education|
|junior secondary education||Senior secondary education||Collegiate education|
|Grade 6: 10 to 11 years||Grade 10: 14 to 15 years||Grade 12: 16 to 17 years|
|Grade 7: 11 to 12 years|
|Grade 8: 12 to 13 years||Grade 11: 15 to 16 years||Grade 13: 17 to 18 years|
|Grade 9: 13 to 14 years|
Subject of Junior Secondary Education
At the junior secondary level curriculum is organized on a subject basis, but grade 6 provide for the transition from primary to secondary. In junior secondary level there are 9 core subjects.
The common curriculum at the junior secondary stage comprises:
1. First Language (mother tongue)
4. Science and technology
5. Social studies and History
7. Aesthetic studies
8. Health and physical education
9. Life skills
Subject of Senior secondary Education
There are 8 core subjects that students have to study and some optional subjects from which they can select three subjects as they like.
Core subjects at senior secondary level are:
1. First Language (mother tongue)
4. Science and technology
6. Social science and history
7. Aesthetic studies
8. Technical subjects
And optional subjects are:
Sinhala or Tamil
Health and physical Education
Literature(Sinhala/ Tamil/ English)
Subject of Collegiate Education
At collegiate level the students are generally streamed according to their wishes and aptitude based on performance at GCE (O/L) examination. There are four major stream Science , Arts, Commerce and biology. A student takes three subjects from a list of subjects available under each stream. In addition they are expected to sit a common general paper and a paper in general English. Students also complete 2 projects, one an individual project and another is a group project.
Teaching Learning strategy
At this level activity based learning is emphasized. And schools in Sri Lanka follow practical based learning. Students also encourage to learn by project method. As a new concept, “Activity Rooms” were established to initiate students to engage in practical work. In these activity rooms pupils encouraged to learn by doing things by themselves using simple tools and learning simple techniques. Facilities were provided to junior and secondary schools wherever necessary.
School Based assessment is used to assess the students learning. Assessment grade obtained in the school based assessment and the grade obtained at the performance test will be taken into account when in awarding certificate.
Students of junior secondary level get a certificate after completion of grade 9.
Students of senior secondary level sit for GCE ordinary level after grade11 and collegiate level students for GCE A level after Grade 13.
Medium of Instruction:
As like primary level senior level medium of instruction is also Sinhala, Tamil and English.
Overview of Education System in Sri Lanka
|Technical college and similar Institutions|
|Vocational technical courses|
Senior secondary education
|Junior secondary Education|
|Non formalEducation Programs|
Early Childhood Care and Development and Non formal education in srilanka:
In Srilanka early childhood care and development service Is available. This service is provided by Early childhood care centre. This service is provided from the beginning of prenatal period up to the end of five years of a child. Ministry of education and UNESCO helps to provide this service.
In Sri Lanka there are pre schools under ECCD program. Preschool is not compulsory. Education is not compulsory. Age of pre schools is 3 to five years. Although it is not compulsory almost 50% children attend pre schools level.
Non formal education
After 50 years of free education Sri Lanka has gained a remarkable development in education. The main thrust was in the field of formal education. During the last three decades Non Formal education programmes has been introduced to the education system. The aim of the Non-formal education programmes was to open the doors of education to ” Many” and specially those who were out of schools.
Non-formal education programmes organized by government and non-government organizations to provide youth with a technical and vocational training. At the beginning these Non formal education programmes were confined to cater to the educational needs of school leavers and adults and gradually extended its activities to serve various other groups in the community. By the end of 1980s the main programmes conducted were Technical Education Units for school leavers, adult, community education, Adult English classes and literacy classes for out of school children. These programmes addressed the needs of various adult groups, Children who have left school but are not skilled, dropouts from the formal school, children
who have never been to a school. Most of the Non formal programmes have been conducted using infrastructure facilities in formal schools. Apart from the education ministry there are other institutions and NGOs have been conducting Non Formal education programmes. Foreign donors fund some of these Non-formal programmes.
In Sri Lanka there is an Open University which provides technical and vocational education through distance learning under the non formal approach.
Duration of compulsory Education in Sri Lanka:
In Sri Lanka there is 9 year compulsory education from grade 1 to grade 9.
Technology in Education
Although Sri Lanka is a developing country but they are advanced in technology. In their Education system they widely used technology to make education easy to their student and make students up date about technological knowledge. For this purpose The Government of Sri Lanka have taken some steps in schools. These are
One Laptop Per child Program
Ministry of Sri Lanka take one laptop per child pilot program for some selected primary school. this project is working from 2008. Already teachers training program on using this laptop is successfully completed. From the December 2009 the program is launched by Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa and Education Minister Premajayantha.
Using this laptop students can make their lesson easily. They learn many thing by playing with laptop. this laptop have an built-in camera so that student can take picture of things that they observed in the environment.
Ministry of Education with Asian development bank funded secondary Education modernization project has taken the initiative to establish a wide-area network (WAN) connecting most of the senior secondary schools & other related organization. This network is referred to as SchoolNet. The Network Operation Center (NOC) of SchoolNet is currently located at University of Moratuwa.
Under Stage 1 of School Net Implementation, the following organizations related to School Education System were connected.
- 1000 Schools
- 100 Computer Resource Centers
- 17 National Colleges of Education
- Ministry of Education
- National Institute of Education
- 8 Provincial ICT Centers
- Project Management Offices of the Secondary Education Modernization Project
- Zonal Education Offices
- Provincial Education Offices
School Net provides a novel Learning and Teaching Environment for everyone – students and teachers. Consider this simple example: With access to all types of information available at a click of a button, a student finds information required for a subject assignment almost instantaneously. What does this mean for a teacher? A teacher might not be able to give a simple assignment any more. He/she needs to make sure that an assignment is not a mere reproduction of information taken from Internet rather a careful compilation or analysis of information extracted from different sources. This kind of compilation/analysis would bring the creativeness of students to the surface.
School Net takes collaboration among students and teachers to a new level. At present these collaborations are mostly limited to individual class rooms/schools.
Computer learning centre
The Sri Lanka Government given emphasize on use of technology in education. For that purpose they take secondary education modernization project. This project introducing computer learning centre. In total, 1,006 schools received civil works to convert existing classrooms to computer learning centers as well as furniture, air conditioners, and 15–25 computers (depending on the total number of students enrolled).
Classrooms in 2,169 schools (against an appraisal target of 2,500) were converted to multimedia units. Each unit was equipped with a television, videocassette recorder or video compact disc player, radio, tape recorder, an overhead projector, and a white board. NIE prepared 45 provincial master trainers to train teachers in
charge of these units and developed a handbook on multimedia education.
Teacher Quality circle
It is a platform for teacher to identify and solve problems exchanging resources and experiences and improve their subject knowledge. In this circle teacher share their experiences about their training, their knowledge and experiences. So that other teachers can gather knowledge and can sole their problem.
One Laptop Per Child
This is a pilot project which provides laptop in some selected primary schools to make learning easy.
School Base Assessment
School based assessment is started from 2002 in Secondary Education in Sri Lanka.
School net is a wide area network for schools. by using this network student can get knowledge and information about their courses and assignments.
Students learn using simple tools through learning by doing approach in th classroom.
Education is free from grade 1 to grade 11
Free school uniform material to all the students in government schools and pirivena
mid day meal
free provision of school text book from grade grade 1 to grade 11
The education Sector Development Framework and Program 2006-2010
This program is working for quality education in Srilanka. Promoting equitable access to basic & secondary education this program taken some initiatives.such as
Ensure universal participation in basic education –Grade 1 to 9
Provide full curriculum in schools in all disadvantagedareas
Strengthen non formal education for out of schoolyouth
Facilities for children with special education needs.
This program is still now working for quality education in srilanka.
One Laptop per child program
In December 2009 Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa and Education Minister Premajayantha presented the first 400 laptops at a public ceremony announcing this pilot program, in cooperation with the One Laptop Per Child Lanka Foundation, the World Bank, and a coalition of corporate donors (the Chart Foundation, Hatton National Bank, and mobile provider Tigo).
Secondary education modernistion project II
Secondary education Modernization project II is running now in Sri Lanka under The Ministry of Education in Srilanka. This project emphasize on three phases
1.educational planning and management
EDUCATION SYSTEM OF BANGLADESH
The education system of Bangladesh may be broadly divided into three stages : Primary, Secondary and Higher. Primary education is imparted in Primary School, secondary education in High Schools and Intermediate Colleges and higher education in Degree Colleges and Universities.
Primary Education Primary education begins at the age of 6. There are five grades in primary school class I to class V. For each grade an annual examination is held subject wise and each student has to pass in all the subjects to get promotion to the next higher class. Each Institution conducts examination as per prescribed courses and syllabuses. There is no public examination at the end of class V. The head teacher of respective institution issues school leaving certificates to successful students. There is a system of scholarship examination at the end of class V. Each institution selects its best students to appear in this examination which is conducted by the Upa-Zilla Education Officer. Merit scholarships are awarded by the government to successful students. The administration of primary school is conducted by the Directorate of Primary Education under the Ministry of Education which has field offices in every District headquarters. Total number 200 primary schools in the country, 36,697 are managed by the Government and the rest are privately managed. Primary education in government primary schools is free.
Some formal arrangements for pre-primary education may be found in urban areas. This does not fall within the public education system. There exists some privately managed nursery and kindergarten schools in the urban areas.
In the rural areas, however, informal pre-primary education is often arranged by the local committees.
Secondary education in Bangladesh may be divided into three stages: Junior Secondary, Secondary and Higher Secondary. Secondary education is offered at secondary schools known as High Schools and higher secondary education is offered at Intermediate Colleges and intermediate section of Degree Colleges. Normally a High School comprises five grades, i.e. class VI to Claus X and Intermediate Colleges comprise two grades, i.e. class XI and XII. There are many High Schools in Bangladesh, which, combine the primary stage (class I-V), and offer teaching up to class X. There is yet another type, called Junior High Schools, which have teaching facilities up to class VIII. The total number of Secondary school including Junior High School is 9085 in Bangladesh. Out of them 181 schools are directly managed by the Government. The curricular structure is uniform up to class VIII where the basic programme is of general education. There is no public examination up to this grade. Each institution conducts its own examination. Class-wise annual examination is held and promotion to next higher class is given only if a student gets a minimum prescribed mark. A countrywide scholarship examination is held every year, which is conducted by the Deputy Director .of Secondary, and Higher Education of each administrative Division. Merit scholarships are given to successful candidates. Diversification of curriculum has been introduced at class IX, where students separate into two streams of courses: science’ and humanities. The academic programme is intended to be terminal at the end of class X where the students appear at a public examination called Secondary School Certificate (S.S.C.) but primarily the programme in directed to the preparation of students for entrance in the higher secondary stage.
At the higher secondary stage the academic programme for general education is of two years duration (class XI to XII) with a public examination called Higher Secondary Certificate (H.S.C.) examination at the end of class XII. Courses are diversified into science, commerce, humanities, home economics, agriculture and Music.
Secondary schools, Intermediate Colleges and intermediate sections of Degree Colleges offering general education require affiliation of the regional Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education for academic and elimination purposes. There are four such Boards (one for each administrative division) having their headquarters at Dhaka, Rajshahi, Comilla and Jessore districts respectively. All the schools are bound to follow the curriculum and syllabus prescribed by the respective Board and entire candidates for examinations of the S.S.C. and H*S.C. arranged by the Boards. Although these Board are completely seperate in their academic end administrative affairs, their general scheme of studies are uniform. Academically, all the secondary schools and higher secondary institutions (Intermediate Colleges) are under the control of the Boards, which grants the affiliation without which schools and colleges cannot admit candidate for public examination, nor they can arrange any such examination for the levels of S.S.C. and H.S.C. The methods of examinations are mostly written in nature and practical examinations are taken in science subjects and in other subjects where necessary. For grading 100 marks are allotted for each paper. Minimum marks for First Division, Second Division and Pass are 60, it5,and 33 respectively. A student who secures at least 75 percent marks in aggregate is awarded a ‘Star’. The pass mark for individual paper is 33* the Boards concerned award Successful candidates certificate. To qualify for a certificate n candidate must pass in the entire subject’(for those requiring practical examinations, it is necessary to pass in theory and practical separately).
Without formal schooling a candidate can appear in S.S.C. and H.S.C. examinations as private candidates with the permission of the Board concerned. Similarly, external candidates can also appear in the examinations. The Directorate administers secondary and higher education of Secondary and Higher Education which has field offices at every division and district.
Technical education in Bangladesh is organized in three phases, viz. certificate, diploma and degree. The certificate course which prepare skilled workers in different vocations are of 1 – 2 years duration after 8 of schooling (class VIII) imparted in Vocational Training Institutes (V.T.I.). Polytechnic Institutes and Monotechnic Institute offer diploma courses in engineering, commercial and industrial subjects’. The duration of the course is 3 years for technical courses and two years for commercial courses after S’.S.C. Public examination is held for every type of course under the auspices of the Bangladesh Technical Education Board and all diplomas and certificates are awarded by them. The Board has full academic control over technical and vocational institutions and they require its affiliation for all academic purposes. Following are the types of examinations conducted by the Technical Education Board:
1)Diploma in Engineering 2) Diploma in Engineering (Kaptai Centra),3) Diploma in Commerce k) Sub-Overseer Examinations 5) Trade Final Examination 6) Textile Examinations 7) Diploma in Printing 8) Certificate in Secretarial Science 9) Certificate in Business Typing 10) Diploma in Ceramics 11) Diploma in Survey.
Technical institutions managed by the Technical Education Directorate are affiliated to the Technical Education Board for Examination purposes. Besides, the Institute of Marine Technology and the Technical Training Centers (TTC) run by the Ministry of Women Affairs are affiliated to the Board for academic purposes.
Beside the above general system of education there ie a parallel system known as Madrasah Education which offers traditionally Islamic instruction to Muslim boys and girls. The Madrasah has the following stages :
Ibtedayee (i.e. Primary of 5 years duration)
Dakhil (i.e. Secondary of 5 years duration after Ibtedayee)
Alim (i.e. Higher Secondary of 2 years duration after Dhakil)
Faz.il (i.e. Bachelors degree of 2 years duration after Alim)
Kamil (i.e. Master’s degree of 2 years duration after Fazil).
Subjects taught in these institutions focus mainly on the study of Holy Quran, Hadith, Tafeir, Fiqh, Usul and Arabic language and literature. In addition, provision has also been made for the teaching of General Science, Mathematics, Social Studies, Bengali-, English, Persian and Urdu in appropriate levels so that the Madrasah students become qualified for gene.ral vocations as well. In nil the stages, except Ibtedayee, public examinations ore held under the auspices of Bangladesh Education Board and certificates and degrees ore awarded by them.
All the institutions of different stages better known as ‘Madrasah’ require affiliation and recognition of the Madrasah Education Board. They design courses and curricula and academically the Board has full control over the Madrasahs. Examination procedures are same and that of general system of education. Degrees are awarded in First Division, Second Division and Pass. Names and titles of the certificates and degree awarded by the Madrasah Education Board are 1) ‘Dakhil’ 2) Alim 3) Fuzil k) Kamil (postgraduate degree), the later being classified into four groups of studies like ‘Hadis’ ‘Fiqh’ ‘Adabl’ and ‘Tafsir’.
After completion of Higher secondary the student entered to the Higher Education.
Comparison of the Countries: Srilanka, Denmark and Bangladesh
Comparison of the three countries will begin with the comparison of the demographic factors these three countries.
|Topic of Comparison||Srilanka||Denmark||Bangladesh|
|State Name||Democratic Socialist Republic of Srilanka||Kingdom of Denmark||People’s Republic of Bangladesh|
|Location||South Asia||North Europe||South Asia|
|Population||21128773||54, 93, 621||156050883|
|Density||308.4/km2||333/ mile2||977/ km2|
|Main Languages||Sinhala, Tamil
English. Arabic, Creole Malay
Chittagonian, Sylhety, Kustia, Chakma
Among the demographic factors here a relation between the two factors is noticeable. Among these three countries it is vivid that the more the literacy rate, the less the growth rate is. This relation can be shown in the following chart:
Comparison of the Duration and Age Group
Comparison of the duration of different levels and age group of the students are shown below:
|Topic of Comparison||Srilanka||Denmark||Bangladesh|
|Pre Primary||3-5yrs||6 moths-5/6 yrs||5-6 yrs|
|Primary & Lower Secondary
|General upper Secondary & Vocational upper secondary education and training
Here we can see that Denmark gives the most emphasis on pre-primary education. Srilanka also gives importance on pre-primary education. In Bangladesh it is not given so much importance.
Subjects Taught at Different Levels
First Language, Mathematics, Religion, English
|Oral English, Co-curricular activities||Social Studies, Co-curricular, Nature/ Technology, Non teaching Social time, Geography, History, Chemistry, Physics, Biology||Poribesh Porichity, Shomaj/Biggyan, Drawing, Music|
First Language, Mathematics, Religion, English, Social Studies, Science & technology
|Life Skill, Aesthetic, Health & Physical Education||Technology, Arts & Business, Vocational Training||Home Economics, Computer, Agriculture|
Denmark emphasizes socialization very much and that is why they emphasize co-curricular activities at school. Srilanka also emphasizes co-curricular activities. But in Bangladesh content is given the sole importance.
|Primary||Guided Play, Activity, Desk work||Play, Developing Activities,Training, Social Process, Movements||Play, Rhymes, Lecture|
|Secondary||Activity Based Learning, Project, practical||Demonstration, Project, Practical, Field Trip, Group Work||Lecture, Practical|
Teaching strategies in both Denmark and Srilanka are joyful and activity based where the Bangladeshi teachers follow the traditional methods of teaching.
Comparison of the Assessment System
|Primary||Continuous Record of individual student’s Progress||Parent’s Interview, Teacher’s evalution,Classroom performance||Written, Oral|
|Secondary||School Based Assessment||Oral & written test, Assignment, Project Work||Written, Practical|
Taking parent’s interview and teacher’s opinion is a very innovative idea in Denmark. Continuous recording of the performance of individual student in Srilanka is also a very good idea. In both Denmark and Srilanka assessment is formative where assessment in Bangladesh is mostly summative.
Comparison of the Duration of Compulsory Education
Primary & Junior Secondary
Primary & Lower Secondary
Duration of compulsory education is the longest in Denmark and then in Srilanka.
Comparison of Medium of Instruction
- Srilanka has developed school net system that helps the student to have easy access to a lot of resources
- ‘One Laptop Per Child’ project is going on. If it becomes successful, students will be able to use technology in their study effectively
- Multimedia unit in Srilankan classrooms is demand of the time that they have been able to meet up
- Building teacher circle and sharing ideas is a very effective way to develop the quality of the teachers rapidly
- Recording the performance of individual student helps to measure every studends accurately. It also helps to diagnose the problem of individual student and give proper feedback.
- Taking the interview of the parents in Denmark is the best way to measure the degree of socialization in every student
- Assessment based on teacher’s opinion gives relief to the students from the stress of exam and it is a scientific way
- Engaging students in project work enables them to learn anything practically and learning becomes consolidated.
In Bangladesh there are a few extraordinary things to be mentioned.
- School Based Assessment System has been already introduced in Bangladesh though it is not working up to the mark
- Textbooks are now available on the internet
- Boy’s Scout and Girl’s Guide is exercised from the primary level in Bangladesh that gives the students opportunity to take part in co-curricular activities.
Lessons to be learnt
- Midday meal is given in Srilankan schools that work as incentive to the students. In Bangladesh thinking about this idea is going on and probably going to be started soon
- Free school uniform is also to the students in Srilanka. It will be burden for the government of Bangladesh if they also want to do this as we have a huge number of students
- In Denmark 75% of the cost of compulsory education is financed by the government and the people bear the rest 25%. If anyone cannot afford that, government bears the whole expenditure. It is possible for Denmark but impossible for Bangladesh.
- Municipality authority in Denmark responsible for sending the students to the school. If any boy/girl is not admitted to school, municipality authority will have to answer to the government for it
- Vocational education is emphasized in both Srilanka and Denmark. In Bangladesh vocational education should be reformed
- Both Denmark and Srilanka have been able to use ICT in education that Bangladesh has no t been able to do. Actually both Denmark and Srilanka have gained the qualitative aspect of education and now they are focusing on the qualitative aspect and they are trying to use ICT in education to do that. Bangladesh is still striving for the quantity
- In both Srilanka and Denmark needs of the different of the country is reflected in the curriculum. In Bangladesh it should be followed though it makes centralized curriculum
- In Srilanka students of different ethnic group can start their education in their own language. In Bangladesh this provision should be introduced
- In Denmark socialization process is given the most importance in primary level and we should adopt this idea.
1. Retrieve from: