The role of Dairy Farm in the livestock Sector of Bangladesh


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The role of Dairy Farm in the livestock Sector of Bangladesh.

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1. Statement of the problem:

In agricultural economy, production management, employment of huge people, poverty reduction and animal protein supply, livestock sector plays very crucial role. But expected development of this sector is not occurred because government did not give appropriate priority to this sector. Now the production of this sector among the total production of the country is only 3%. Contribution of this sector in the total production of the country decreasing day after day which is not expected because the foods produced by this sector has a great demand in this country and this industry has a lot of prospect [1-2].

In 1998, there were existence of 30,000 duck farms, 61,000 poultry farms and 30,000 dairy farms in Bangladesh. According to the agricultural census of 1996, the number of cattle, buffalo, goat and ram are almost same from 1983. Per capita it decreases 20 to 30 percent. From 1991 to 2000 the annual growth rate of dairy product, meat and egg are 2.7%, 4.3% and 7.7% respectively. 46% of eggs come from the commercial farm. Major portion of the growth of dairy product is come from the cross breeder cows. 43% cows are cross breeder. Average milk production per week of each dairy farm of Bangladesh is 48 liter [3-4].

In private dairy farm of Bangladesh 73% of the dairy farms contain less than 11 cows, 17% of the dairy farms has 11 to 20 cows. It means that most dairy farms in this country are small in size. Only 13% owner of these farm got bank lone to establishing their farm. Rest owner establish their farm with their own capital. Main profession of 45%, 44% and 11% owners are agriculture, business and service respectively [5].

65% dairy farm are governed by stall feeding system, 30% dairy farm are governed by stall cum open feeding system and the rest 5% dairy farm governed by open feeding system. Farmer on average feed a cow 5.86 kg straw, 9.16 kg green grass and 5.4 kg concentrate food every day. Amount of concentrate food is 26%. Among different diseases, 67% dairy farms affected by diarrhoea, 48.2% dairy farms affected by mastitis and 46.5% dairy farms affected by abort [6].

Cattle population in Bangladesh is about 24.13 million. In the rural area, cattle are kept mainly for draught purpose. Only a limited number of farmers have cow for milk production. Maximum cattle are no descriptive type, which do not belong to any specific breed and termed as indigenous cattle. These animals are kept mainly in the stall with limited grazing on the roadside; embankment slope, fallow land and paddy straw are their staple food. Husbandry practices and health care of these animals are poor. The average milk production of local cows is very low and it varies between 300 to 400 liters per lactation period of 180 to 240 days. Such low productivity of indigenous cows is an important constraint for future development of the livestock sector. High productive exotic breeds and their crosses normally do not have adequate resistance against the prevalent diseases [7-9].

They do not thrive well in our environment. In spite of all these problems, some people have shown interest for development of small dairy farms. Generally crossbred cows under village condition yields 600 to 800 liters if milk per lactation of 210 to 240 days [8-9].

Bangladesh suffers from an acute shortage of livestock products like milk, meat and eggs. The domestic demand for milk has been rising faster than the domestic production of milk. Hence Bangladesh Government has given the priority on the development of dairying at farmer’s level to increase the supply of milk from small dairy farms [10].

1.2. Objectives of the study:

In Dhaka district area, small scale dairy farms have been increasing day by day. People have taken this farming as profitable enterprise. In order to establish future plan for dairy development in this region, it is essential to know details about the management practices and performances of different types of dairy breeds. Thus the study was undertaken with the following objectives.

i) To observe the present condition of dairy farm and its production.

ii) To investigate the relationship of people of different profession with the dairy farm.

iii) To investigate about the diseases, rate of death, vaccine and treatment facilities of the dairy farm.

iv) To determine the source of money to establish dairy farm.

v) To demonstrate the present situation of knowledge and training associate with the dairy farm.

1.3: Scope of the term paper:

Analyzing data are collected from both primary and secondary sources. This term paper covers:

i) Present condition of dairy farm of Dhaka city.

ii) Relationship of people of different profession with the dairy farm of Dhaka city.

iii) Diseases, rate of death, vaccine and treatment facilities of the dairy farm of Dhaka city.

iv) The source of money to establish dairy farm of Dhaka city.

v) Knowledge and training of the farmer.

1.3. Research Method:

The methodology has been developed with a view to fulfill the objectives of the study. For this purpose I have collected data and information from both primary and secondary sources. All the primary data are collected from the Dhaka city. I have collected some primary data form 30 farmers of Dhaka city by developing questionnaire. I also talked with some experts of this field. I have collected secondary data and information from various books, newspapers, magazines and different web sites. I have talked to some guardians and teachers also. Analysis, interpretation and report writing have followed collection of data and information.

1.4. Definition:

Livestock:

All domestic animal and their productions are called livestock. Contribution of poultry, duck, cattle, buffalo, goat is called the livestock product. In Bangladesh, main contribution of this sector is come from the poultry and dairy farm.

Dairy farm:

Dairy farm is a technique to nurse the cattle under a well-planned house to increase the production of milk and meat.

1.5. Review of literature:

Dairy Farm a livestock farm for rising of dairy cattle, devoted chiefly to the production of milk, and the manufacture of butter and cheese. Livestock has an important role to play in the economic development of Bangladesh, particularly in the dairy development sector. It provides milk, meat, hide and skin in addition to providing of non-human farm energy needed for ploughing, crushing, and transportation. Many scientists have performed their research in this field. Some important reviews of the work of different scientists are given below.

Islam [11] investigated that in Bangladesh the total cattle population is about 24.4 million of which 11.49 million are female. Among the cattle population 3.53 million are milking cows and 2.61 million are dry cows (cows without milking)). Most of the dairy farms in rural and periurban areas of Bangladesh are small scale and each farm consists of 5-20 lactating cows. There are some non-government and government dairy farm that consists of 50-450 lactating cows (personal communication). In spite of our large number of cattle population, the production of calf and milk are insufficient as per our demand and requirement. Generally crossbred dairy cows produce from 600-800 liter milk per lactation of 210 to 240 days.

Azizunnesa [12] the profit of dairy farm depends on the production of more calf and more milk from the dairy cows with optimum fertility management. Calving interval, age at puberty, service per conception, gestation length and birth weight of fetus are most important parameters to measure the farm economy. A farm with 13-15 months calving interval, 24 months for age at puberty, 1.33 services per conception and 5 kg milk per day per cow could be economically profitable. Milk production depends on the systemic management of dairy farm including proper feeding, breeding, housing and also taking preventive measure against diseases and parasitic infestations. Milk production also depends on the parity. The milk production of subsistence dairy farm in Mymensingh was 3.2±2.2 kg per cow per day.

Jabber [13] found that the reasons for low production of dairy cows could be due to their poor genetic makeup, inadequate feeding, management, disease control programme, hot humid environments. Most of the farmers are illiterate and they are rearing their cattle with so called management system. It is also necessary to mention that more than 80% of the cattle population is being kept by the individual farmers in the rural areas under village management that is why the productivity is very low. On the other hand the demand for milk and milk products is rapidly increase in Bangladesh day by day. Usually the production performances of cross-bred cows are better than local cows. For why at present the demand of cross bred cows are many times higher due to higher production of milk ranges between 8-15 liter/day and it is also profitable business in our country. But some constrains decline the rate of production ultimately decline the profit of the dairy farms due to lack of technology. So it is important to measure the different productive and reproductive performances of dairy farms for overall productive and reproductive pictures of farms and accordingly putting some recommendation to

Sainz [14] found that indigenous cows found in Bangladesh are of the small Zebu type with a mature body weight of 150 to 180 kg, having a production capacity of about 250 litres milk per year, with only about 5 months lactation period. The first calf is born when the mother is three or four years old. Thereafter calving intervals are around 18 months, but may be further delayed if adequate nutrition is not provided or if the cow is used for draught purpose. Some improved healthy cows are seen around urban areas and in the Baghabarighat area where winter grazing land is available, and where local cows have been crossed with the superior Hariana, Sahiwal or Sindhi breeds. These crosses may yield up to 750 litres per lactation.

Sarder [15] reported that After the Chernobyl disaster in former Soviet Union, import of milk powder or milk products from European countries was banned temporarily by the Bangladesh Government in 1987. This, together with the increasing price of milk in the global market, resulted in a new awareness about the need of self-sufficiency in milk production in the country. Taking advantage of the favourable government policy, a large number of private entrepreneurs came forward to establish mini-dairy farms in urban and sub-urban areas. The number of small-scale dairy farms established during 1990-1996. At present, there are many registered small-dairy farms in the country. These farms may have 5-200 cows of which 20% are local (average 1.5 litres milk/head/d) and 80% crossbred (5.5 litres milk/head/d) type. These farms are generally well managed but mostly rely on purchased feed (both roughage and concentrate). They used to be profitable with benefit cost ratio of 1:1.03 and provided employment opportunity of about 650 man-days annually. However, reports of closing down of many of these farms are known. For example, in Bogura, out of 201 registered small-scale organized farms, 147 have already been shut down due to problems of milk marketing and higher maintenance costs.

Asraf [16] Farms having more than 200 milking cows and land to cultivate fodder are categorised as large farms. These are mainly of two types, government owned, and private sector farms. Most large-scale farms are government owned, six under the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, and three under the Ministry of Defense. Except the Rajshahi Dairy Farm, most of these farms have crossbred and pure exotic animals. These farms have their own milk processing and marketing facilities. Pasteurized packet milk are sold to Government hospitals, army quarters, and to some extent, in the open market. There are few fairly large private dairy farms eg, Dhamrai Dairy, Tulip Dairy, and Gochihata Dairy farm. These farms have their own cooling, pasteurizing, packaging, and transport facilities, and mostly sale pasteurized liquid milk in poly-bags in urban areas. Animals in these farms are mostly crossbred, but purebred (Friesian) are also found in some cases.

Rahman [17] found that Triticale is a useful dual-purpose crop for grain and forage biomass. In Bangladesh, it is a non-traditional cereal that grows well during the cool and dry Rabi season (November-March) when small-scale dairy farmers face a severe shortage of quality fodder. November to February is the lean period for most popular fodder grasses like Napier and Para in Bangladesh. To meet the shortage of green fodder in the Rabi season, farmers can produce 6-15 t/ha of triticale fodder, followed by grain yie lds that are similar to those from wheat for cattle or poultry feed. Shamsuddin [18] found that Fresh triticale forage (containing about 25 % crude protein), straw and grain are highly nutritious feeds in Bangladesh. Triticale grain could be a cheaper alternative to wheat and maize grain for poultry enterprises. Thus dual-purpose triticale was identified as an exciting new option for forage and grain production.

Bangladesh is a densely populated agricultural country with an acute shortage of dairy milk. There are about 24.5 million cattle in Bangladesh, of which about 10 million are breeding cows. They provide mainly milk, meat, draught power, transport, and hide (an important export item). Dairying is practiced in Bangladesh as a part of local crop livestock farming systems, typically involving one or two animals and half an acre of land. The cows are mostly maintained as bull mothers and to produce a little surplus of milk (0.5–1.5 liters daily) for household consumption. Some fermented milk products, such as yogurt, cheese, buttermilk, and sour cream, are produced by traditional methods. exist to increase milk production throughout the country, through government dairy farms or private dairy farms. The main objectives of these policies are to distribute raw milk at lower cost and to provide calves at marginal cost to poor farmers interested in rearing dairy animals. The DLS staff also provides other services such as the dispensation of advice on feed, health care, and sometimes medicine [19].

The livestock development strategies in thefifth five-year plan of the Bangladeshi government are to increase people’s participation through the development of entrepreneurial groups. Good dairy cattle nutrition is resulting in increased incomes for thousands of Rural Action Committee beneficiaries. The nutritional cycle doesn’t end with the cattle. Nutrients in manure are building soil productivity and better crop production [20].

Hoque [21] Good dairy cattle nutrition is resulting in increased incomes for thousands of Rural Action Committee beneficiaries. The nutritional cycle doesn’t end with the cattle. Nutrients in manure are building soil productivity and better crop production.

1.6. Limitation:

It is not possible to me to collect data from all over the country due to the shortage of time. Officially only 06 hours is given to collect the data, which is rather impossible to collect data from most of the dairy farm of Dhaka city. Traffic jam is a common phenomenon of Dhaka and it is time consuming thing to move one place to other in this city. I only managed to visit 30 dairy farms using all of my available Friday and Saturday, which is not enough to comment about such a complicated topic. Though there is quite high opportunity of dairy farm in the livestock sector of Bangladesh, very limited numbers of research works were performed in Bangladesh and books and other materials associate with this topic are not available at NEAM library. Internet facilities at NEAM are very limited. It is also time consuming things to talk with research personal available at Dhaka and all time they are not available. Having all this limitation I have tried my best to collect the possible data and make an authentic report.

Chapter 2:

2.1. Present condition of Livestock sector of Bangladesh:

Livestock plays an important role in human civilization. Economic uses of livestock sector are developed with the change of the nature of soil, air and sunlight associate with civilization. Our culture highly appreciated large number of cattle of a farmer and culturally we are very much fond of milk. Demand of this sector increases with increase of population. Density of population is very high in this country and growth rate is still high. This sector can play an important role to fulfill the nutrition demand of this huge population. This sector can solve the unemployment problem of the rural people and can ensure the sustainable multipurpose use of our land. So this sector has the ability to ensure the certain mobility of the economy of Bangladesh through poverty reduction, nutrition supply and employment creation.

2.2. Dairy production in Bangladesh:

The Department of Livestock Services (DLS) is the only government department whose responsibility is to motivate and provide extension to livestock-rearing farmers to meet the shortage of animal products (e.g., milk, meat, eggs) as food for the people and also to bring foreign currency to the country. Many policies exist to increase milk production throughout the country, through government dairy farms or private dairy farms. The main objectives of these policies are to distribute raw milk at lower cost and to provide calves at marginal cost to poor farmers interested in rearing dairy animals. The DLS staff also provides other services such as the dispensation of advice on feed, health care, and sometimes medicine [Fo, Sa].

The livestock development strategies in the fifth five-year plan of the Bangladeshi government are to

i) Increase people’s participation through the development of entrepreneurial groups and create new employment opportunities for smallholder farmers, landless laborers, women, and other target groups in livestock development,

ii) Generate income for and alleviate the poverty of rural poor farmers through livestock development,

iii) Increase the supply of milk, meat, eggs, hides and skins, and other animal products through improving breeds, lowering the cost of feed, and improving disease control and

iv) Increase foreign-exchange earning through the export of quality hides and skins and reduce the amount of powdered milk imports [Ba,De].

2.3Milk Producer Cooperatives:

Since 1973, cooperatives of smallholder dairy farmers have existed in Bangladesh, first as a dairy development program, the Co-operative Dairy Complex, with financial assistance from Denmark, and later as the Bangladesh Milk Producers’ Co-operative Union Ltd. (BMPCUL), formed in 1977. The cooperatives market milk and dairy products under the brand name Milk Vita. Today, approximately 40,000 smallholder dairy farmers have become members of primary dairy cooperatives. About 345 of these cooperatives are in existence, covering close to 925 villages in 15 districts of Sirajgonj, Tangail, Manikganj, Takerhat, Baghabarighat, Sree Nagar, Rangpur, Bhairob, and Raipur, supplying over two million liters of milk daily. Farmer members pool their surplus production at the primary dairy cooperative societies, which arrange regular cash payment on the basis of fat content [De,Ja,Sa, Su]. BMPCUL ensures regular collection, processing, and marketing of milk and milk products. The dairy cooperatives also provide necessary support services to farmer members for animal breeding, feeding, health, and training in animal management. In addition, a major part of the surplus earned by the central dairy cooperatives through marketing milk and milk products is paid to the members. Of the total national consumption of 18 million tons per year (t/y) of liquid milk, 15 million are produced domestically. Since 1986, milk production in Bangladesh has increased by 2,635,000 t/y, and imports have decreased by 1,680,000 t/y.

2.4. Smallholder Dairy Production:

In 1991, the Bangladeshi government launched a national program to increase milk production rapidly. This program provided subsidies to farmers who were rearing a minimum of five lactating dairy cows, either deshi, crossbred, or exotic. This program was quite successful: milk production greatly increased, money was saved from not having to import so much powdered milk, and more raw milk was available in the markets for people’s consumption. Bangladesh’s indigenous breed of cattle, known as Red Chittagong, is quite suitable for smallholder farmers due to its low feed requirements in comparison with productivity. The Red Chittagong’s’ daily milk production averages 4–5 liters, and they calve every year [Sa, St].

2.5. Present condition:

Through there are many traditional farms present and expanded still now; many intrinsic and cooperative modern farms in private sector develop in this country. Therefore the production of domestic livestock product such as eggs, milk and meat increases. It saves our foreign currency to reduce the import. Many rural youth people able to be self-employed person by dint of this sector. GDP of this sector increases day by day. 19% product of the agricultural sector comes from this sector.

2.6. Types of dairy farm:

There are three types of dairy farm in Bangladesh. These are

a) Rural dairies,

b) Pocket dairies and

c) Metro dairies.

a) Rural dairies:

68% rural people get cattle / buffalo and number of cattle / buffalo per family is 3.5. Among the cattle, 11% are cross breeder and 43% are cows. Number of cows per family in rural area is 1.5 and on average each cow gives 0.8 liter milk per day. On average each family produces 8.3 liters milk in a week [Ba,De].

b) Pocket dairies:

Some places of Bangladesh are known as milk producing area of Bangladesh. Noticeable milk producing areas are Baghabari of Serajgang district, Munshiganj district, Tekerhat of Matharipur district, etc. According to the data collecting from the farmer of Baghabari a farmer able to income 6088.5 taka in a year if he produces paddy. If he planted green grass in place of paddy he can earn 26552. taka instead of 6088.5 taka if he sales the grass. If he uses these grasses in his dairy farm, he can get 42485 taka and 22 calves in a year, which is very profitable. Milk production and green grass production at Baghabari increases 7 times and16 times respectively within previous 10 years [De,Fo]. 80% cows are cross breeder.

c) Metro dairies:

Metro dairies are developed at the urban areas. Most of them are small in size. All most all farmer byes the total food for their cattle at higher cost but the farming at these areas is still profitable because price of milk and meat in these areas are high. Farmer easily get training, medicine, vaccine, etc compare to the rural people and these farmer are more conscious than the farmer of rural area. 80% cattle are cross breeder. Metro dairies have great opportunity to flourish because it is quite profitable. [St, Su].

2.7. The nutritional contribution contribution of dairy milk:

It is well known that milk is an ideal food for humans, particularly to sustain growth in children, fetal growth in pregnant women, and milk production during lactation. It has also been described as nature’s most perfect food. For the newly born infant or animal, mother’s milk is a complete and well-balanced food. Its main constituents, which supply energy and building materials for the young, are accompanied by various nutrients, such as minerals, vitamins, and organic compounds.

2.8. Policy issues for future dairy production:

To meet the ever-increasing demand for milk, a sound milk policy should be formulated, with due consideration given to the following points:

1) It should be possible, through breeding by artificial insemination or natural services [De]. To crossbreed indigenous cattle with highyielding bexotic cattle. An ideal dairy cow in the present socioeconomic situation should have a potential of yielding on average 2,500 liters in 290–305 days, with an intercalving period of 13–15 months and age at first calving from 28 to 33 months. The application of improved methods of breeding has greatly increased the productivity of dairy cattle in Bangladesh.

2) The constraint of feeds and fodder is considered the greatest problem facing the development of dairy cattle in Bangladesh.

Due to nonavailability of grazing land, dairy animals will be raised using zero-grazing and factory-type farming techniques. For efficient fodder production, a new national fodder policy should be formulated. Cattle feed mills should be established, and cattle feed should be made available through village markets to the farmers at subsidized rates. Great potential exists for increasing fodder production in both irrigated- and dry-land situations in which a single crop is generally harvested, and short-term leguminous fodder crops could be grown on residual moisture. The use of common grazing lands through the silvipasture system for fodder production also warrants serious attention. Agroforestry plans should incorporate fodder trees and herbs. Modern technologies have been developed for improving the nutritive value of crop residue. A number of nonconventional feeds have to be identified and utilized by the organized compound livestock feed manufacturers. However, very little has been done to inform the farmers as to how to improve the nutritive value of crop residues or use locally available nonconventional feed resources. For example, Urea Molasses Multinutrient Block (UMMB) may be used for better utilization of crop residues, i.e., the rice straw of smallholder farmers at the village level, for their dairy animals.

3) The primary objective of dairy cattle development through smallholders is to achieve greater production of milk and meat. Dairy cattle development can be increased only when an assured guaranteed market or an incentive price for the product will be offered. In Bangladesh the most important factor with an adverse effect on animal production is the lack of a well-organized marketing system, particularly in the case of milk, which is highly perishable. Although there is great demand for such products in urban areas, the supply of these products cannot be ensured without an organized marketing system and transport facilities. As a result, the farmers are deprived of the opportunity to sell their products. To ensure fair prices, an efficient and effective marketing system should be developed.

4) Improvements should be made to communication, power, water supply, and modern storage facilities for dairy products.

5) Smallholder dairy production should also be encouraged at the village level, where roadside grass and rice straw are available.

6). both the public and the private sectors should introduce ways to make bank credit available to smallholders on easy terms and through simplified procedures.

7) Powdered-milk imports should be reduced to encourage dairying in Bangladesh. National Milk Development Co-operation should be established. For the dairy manufacturing plants, locally made machinery should be available.

Chapter-3:

Result and discussion:

In this research we mainly deal with the

  1. Present condition and production of metro dairies of Dhaka city.
  2. Influence of profession and education of the women to establish dairy farm.
  3. Supplies of input in dairy farm which are

a) Food,

b) Health management and supply of vaccine and medicine,

c) Technology and training,

d) Source of capital.

3.1. Present condition and production of metro dairies of Dhaka city and its production:

a) Data collecting area:

Data are mainly collected from the Mirpoor and Mathertake region from 30 farmers. Due to lack of time it is not possible to collect data from all area of Dhaka city.

b) Production and reproduction process:

There are many metro dairies in different places at Dhaka city. All are followed stall feeding system. Halim [4] found that 60% farmer followed the stall feeding system. This data differ to our data because we collected data from Dhaka city where open feeding system is not possible he collected his data from the Dhaka district where open feeding system is possible. This results is quite close to our obtain result. 93.3% farms produced only milk. Only 6.7% farmers establish their farms both for milk and meat. Among the respondent, 96.7% breeds their cows by AI process and 3.3% breeds their cows by natural process.

Collected data shows that 73% farms have less than 11 cows, 20% farms have 11-20 cows and 6% farms have more than 20 cows. On average every cow gives 3.55 liter milk per day. Bhuiyan [8] found that on average each cow of the dairy farm gives 3.15 liter milk every day. This result is quite close to our result.

Table – 1: Production systems, purpose of animal rearing and mating system.

Production system Purpose of animal rearing Service
Stall feeding Stall cum open feeding Open feeding Milk Milk + Meat AI Natural
30 0 0 28 2 29 1
100% 0% 0% 93.3% 6.7% 96.7% 3.3%

Table – 2: Dairy farm size.

£ 5 no. 6-10 no. 11-20 no. > 20 no.
15 7 6 2
50% 23.3% 20% 6.7%

3.2. Influence of profession and education of the farmer in dairy farm industry:

From table-3, it is shown that average family each farmer is 5.89. Educational qualification of 6.7%, 26.7%, and 33.3% and33.3% farmers are up to primary education, up to secondary, higher secondary and higher education respectively. Ali [1] also found that educational qualification of 60% farmer is up to higher secondary level, which is very close to our result. 60% farmers are businessman and 40% farmer is service holder.

Table – 3: Occupation, family size and educational qualification of farm owners.

Business Service Family member Up to pri. educ. Up to second. educ. Hi. second. educ. Hi. educ.
18 12 5.89 2 8 10 10
60% 40% 6.7% 26.7% 33.3% 33.3%

3.3. Supplies of input in the dairy farm:

In case of dairy farm; food, vaccine, treatment and medicine supply, technology and training, capital, etc are the input. Information about these input from the collected data are given below:

a) Food:

In dairy farm, 70-75% recurring cost is taken for food. On average everyday farmer supplies 5.86 kg straw, 9.16 kg green grass and 5.4 kg concentrate food to each cattle. In a study of Islam [11] it was found that average green grass supplied by a farmer to a cows is 12 kg which is higher that our obtained value because he collected data from the rural area and I have taken my data from Dhaka city. On average each cow able to take 11 kg dry food every day if we consider 15% lose of food. Among the taken dry food, 6.43 kg is fiber type food and 4.57 kg is concentrated food. Most cows are cross breeder. Average weight of each cow is 350 kg. Supplies food is sufficient to produced 3.54 kg milk per cow in every day. But it is impossible to say how much it balances nutrition. Supplies of straw increase with increase of the number of cow. Most farmer bye green grasses. Sarder [15] observed that most farmers planted their green grass in their field which differs to our result because he collected data from Sirajganj district where farmer has available land to cultivate grass.

Table – 4: Average daily feed supply (kg)/cow.

Dry straw Green grass Concentrate
5.86 9.16 5.4

b) Health management, vaccine and medicine supplies:

It is shown that most dairy farms affected by diarrhoea, mastitis, badla, FMD, anthrax, abort and skin diseases. Table – 5 shows that 63.3% dairy farms affected by diarrhoea, 46.7% dairy farms affected by mastitis, 53.3% dairy farms affected by Bloat, 23.3% dairy farms affected by FMD and 26.7% dairy farms affected by parasite. Nahar [6] also found that 60% of cattle suffered in diarrhoea which is quite close to our result.

Table – 6 shows that 80% respondents told that attract of diseases in the rainy season is more than that of any other season. Mortality rate at the rainy season is more than that of any other season. Deworming rate is 80%. 46.7% respondent managed before milking. Still 46.7% dairy farms are affected by mastitis.

Table –7 shows that 100% farmer used vaccine for their farm. 80% farmers have got their vaccine from the govt. hospital and the rest are got their vaccine from private hospital. 66.7% respondents told that vaccine is available. 93.3% respondent told that the vaccine is effective. In a study of Azizunnesa [12] 90% respondent told that the vaccine is effective. 60% respondent told about the mortality of calves, 43.3% respondent told about the mortality of adult cattle and only 6.7% respondent told about the mortality of growing cattle.

Table – 5: Different diseases occurred in the last year.

Different diseases occurred in the last year
Anthrax FMD Badla Diarrhoea Bloat Dystokia Mastitis Parasite Skin Abort
1 7 2 19 16 4 14 8 2 4
3.3% 23.3% 6.7% 63.3% 53.3% 13.3% 46.7% 26.7% 6.7% 13.3%

Able – 6: Deworming, seasonal variation in disease incidences, mortality and management of udder before milking.

Deworming Disease incidence Mortality Manage udder before milking
Yes No Summer Rainy Winter Summer Rainy Winter Yes No
24 6 2 24 4 2 24 4 14 16
80% 20% 6.7% 80% 13.3% 6.7% 80% 13.3% 46.7% 53.3%

Table – 7: Sources of vaccines, their availability and effectiveness.

Source of vaccine Vaccine used by farmers Availability of vaccine Effectiveness of vaccine
Govt. hospital Private hospital Yes No Yes No Yes No
24 6 30 0 20 10 28 2
80% 20% 100% 0% 66.7% 33.3% 93.3% 6.7%

Table – 8: Difference in age group in respect to mortality.

Age of animal
Calf Growing Adult
18 2 13
60% 6.7% 43.3%

c) Technology and training:

Table – 9 shows that in response to the question about food technology 53.3% farmers told that they know about the UMS technology. 13.3%, 13.3%, 20% and 20% farmers told that they know about the preparation of straw, preparation of green grass, preparation of maize and cowpea mixture and UMB technology respectively. Most farmer told that they will able to know the technology from the livestock officer. In an investigation performed by Rahman [17] most people told that they have got the information about technology from the Upazila and district livestock officer which is similar to our investigation.

Table – 9: Farmer awareness of different technologies.

Technology known to farmers
UMS Pre. of straw Pre. of green grass Maize + Cowpea UMB
16 4 4 6 6
53.3% 13.3% 13.3% 20% 20%

d) Source of capital:

86.7% respondent told that they establish their farm with their own capital. 13.3% respondents able to manage bank loan. Asraf [16] found that 25% farmer have got bank loan. This result is more than our obtain result. May be, some kinds of micro credit program available in these places.

Table – 10: Financial support to establish farm.

Source of money to establish farm
Personal Bank loan
26 4
86.7% 13.3%

4. Milk price, demand, priservation facilities and selling places:

Average milk price of 1-liter milk is 45 taka. Sultana [5] found that the average milk of 1 kg milk is 20 taka. Our obtained milk price more than twice of her obtained milk price because she collected data from Rangpur district where living cost is lower if we compare it with Dhaka. Also price of every necessity things increases in the recent time. Demand of milk is higher in the winter. A preservation facility is not available. Only 16.7% people told that they have got the preservation facility. 60% farmers sell their milk to their neighbor, 26.6% farmers sell their milk at the sweet market and 20% farmer sell their milk to the different agencies.

Table – 11: Milk price, seasonal variation in milk demand and availability of preservation facilities of milk.

Milk price/liter (taka) Seasonal variation in milk demand Preservation facility
Summer Rainy Winter Yes No
45 3 9 18 5 25
10% 30% 60% 16.7% 83.3%

Table – 12: Selling places (farm product)

Sweet market Neighbor Agencies
8 18 6
26.6% 60% 20%

5. Farmers problems and suggestions:

80%, 6.7%, 33.3%, 20%, 33.3%, 6.7%, 20%, 33.3% and 20% farmers give their suggestion about having easy bank loan, high yielding cows supply, feed cost and fodder germplasm and subsidy, vaccine supply and treatment, ensure price and cooperative system, low medicine price with availability and training respectively.

Table – 13: Farmers problems and suggestions.

Respondent Easy bank lone To supply high yielding cows Feed cost. fodder germplasm & subsidy Vaccine supply and treatment facilities Ensure price and co-oprative collection system Medicine price low and available Training
30 24 2 10 2 6 10 6
80% 6.7% 33.3% 6.7% 20% 33.3% 20%

Findings:

Dairy farms can play an important role to poverty reduction and to fulfill the necessity of nutrition of our country. The important findings of this study are given below:

1) Most farmer followed stall feeding system.

2) Most farmers breeding their cows by AI process at Dhaka city.

3) Production of milk of cross breeder cows is 5 times greater than that of natural breeder cows.

4) Cultivation of grass instead of paddy is more beneficial and nursing cross breeder cows in scientific way is highly beneficial.

5) Most farmers’ educational qualification is up to higher secondary level which is very low.

6) Supply of all vaccine is not sufficient and available. These are costly also. The vaccine supplied by the government is effective.

7) Recurring cost is higher. Therefore the production cost of dairy products is higher if we compare it to the other countries.

8) Attract of many diseases are found. Diseases are more severe in the rainy season.

9) There is great demand of milk at Dhaka city.

10) Most farmers hear about the modern technology but most of them do not use these technologies.

Recommendations:

The following recommendations may be suggested as broad guidelines for successful operation of dairy farm in the study area:

1. Private sectors should be given priority to establish small-scale cattle feed industry providing financial industries will sell the feed to the registered dairy farms in a fixed price recommended by government time to time.

2. The shortage of feeds and fodder may partially be overcome by introducing HYV fodder cultivation.

The government and non-government organizations should play a vital role in disseminating the technology of HYV fodder cultivation in rural areas.

3. Good quality semen should be preserved centrally and distribute to the AI centres for further use as and when required basis.

4. Veterinary care and services to the farm owners should be strengthened.

5. Regular short training programme on different management of dairying should be arranged for the farm owners and short term institutional loan or credit should be given to actual farm owners and to be checked regularly.

6. The price of milk should be fixed at a reasonable level and milk-marketing system should be improved through the intervention by the government. Milk preservation facilities should be created for the farmer to ensure the marketing of their product.

7. Improvements should be made to communication, power, water supply, and modern storage facilities for dairy products.

8. Both the public and the private sectors should introduce ways to make bank credit available to smallholders on easy terms and through simplified procedures.

9. Powdered-milk imports should be reduced to encourage dairying in Bangladesh. National Milk Development Co-operation should be established. For the dairy manufacturing plants, locally made machinery should be available.

10. Production of vaccine and supplies to the marked should encourage and monitor to ensure their quality.

11. Technical education related to this term should include in the secondary level.