“Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in teaching practice worship and observation

Introduction

“Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion,” says the Human Rights Act.”[1] First we have to know what are freedom, and the right of freedom. The freedom means doing something without any restriction and it will be accept by social rules and the right of freedom means “the right to freedom of opinion and expression without interference and that accept by society is called freedom of right. Freedom of right and freedom of religious is very important for democracy country but if we look our country, most of the people do not get there freedom of right so I think our country is not democracy because the main condition of democracy is everybody have right of freedom. There are some characterizes of freedom of right:

1. All persons have the right to freedom of thought and speech.

2. All persons have the right to protection against restrictions on grounds of thought, conscience and religion to their access to education and information.”[2]

Now we have to know freedom of religion. The Freedom of religion and belief is one of the fundamental human rights. The European Court of Human Rights has stated that freedom of religion and belief is “one of the foundations of a democratic society”[3]

Right of Freedom

“Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought” In the Bangladesh constitution there is many rules about freedom of right such as:

(1) The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race caste, sex or place of birth.

(2) Women shall have equal rights with men in all spheres of the State and of public life.

(3) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth be subjected to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to access to any place of public entertainment or resort, or admission to any educational institution.

(4) Every people have right to choose his leader and any leader cannot force to choose him/her.

(5) Every people have right to know the government and government have to show their performance on the people.[4]

Freedom of religion

Freedom of religion is very important part of freedom of right but we know most of the people of our country do not get their freedom of religion but in our constitution there are some rules about freedom of religion .The rules of Bangladesh constitution are:

1. Every citizen has the right to profess, practice or propagate any religion.

2.     Every religious community or denomination has the right to establish, maintain and manage its religious institutions.

3.     No person attending any educational institution shall be required to receive religious instruction, or to take part in or to attend any religious ceremony or worship, if that instruction, ceremony or worship relates to a religion other than his own.

4.     Every people can learn other religion and all people have to some respect of the other religion.

5.     Freedom of religion for any religious group in the country.

Now we are looking some religion and their freedom

Hinduism

Hinduism is one of the more open-minded religions when it comes to religious freedom. It respects the right of everyone to reach God in their own way. Hindus believe in different paths to God and religion as a philosophy and hence respect all religions as equal. One of the famous Hindu sayings about religion is: “Truth is one; sages call it by different names.[5]

Christianity

Christians, especially those living in democratic countries, support religious freedom for all, as evidenced by the position of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Many Protestant Christian churches, including some Baptists, Churches of Christ, Seventh-day Adventist Church and main line churches have a commitment to religious freedoms. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints also affirms religious freedom.

Islam

Conversion to Islam is simple, but Muslims are forbidden to convert from Islam to another religion. Certain Islamic countries are known for their restrictions on religious freedom, highly favoring Muslim citizens over non-Muslim citizens. Some Islamic theologians[quote the Qur’an There is no compulsion in religion and Say: “O you who reject faith, I do not worship what you worship, nor do you worship what I worship…To you be your religion, and to me be mine”, (i.e. Sura Al-Kafirun)” to show scriptural support for religious freedom.[6]

If we look every religion and their rules than we look there are some specific rules of freedom and all of this religion support about human right such as

1. In Islam “there is no compulsion in religion and Say: “O you who reject faith, I do not worship what you worship, nor do you worship what I worship…To you be your religion, and to me be mine”, (i.e. Sura Al-Kafirun)”

2. In Hindu It respects the right of everyone to reach God in their own way.

3. In Christians every people should love every peoples think, right and their freedom.

So I can say that freedom of religion is the main part of religion practice.

Freedom of information & legislation:

Freedom of information legislation is rules that guarantee the access by general people to the data which are held by the Government. They establish a “right-to-know” legal process which allows the general public to request for the Government-held information which can be received freely or at a minimal cost except some standard exceptions. Also variously referred to as open records which mean that governments are typically bound to publish and promote openness of information. There are constitutional guarantees in many countries for the right of the people to access to information, but usually remains unused if specific support legislation is not there.

One important feature of freedom of information laws is that it excludes the private sector from practicing this rule. This means that people normally do not have any legal access to the information of the private sector. This limitation is very important because now the private sectors have many functions which were under the public sector previously. So now the private sector has a lot of information which cannot be forced legally to publish. Many countries are working to introduce such laws and many countries with regions have such laws. For example, all states of the United States have laws governing access to public documents of state and local taxing entities, in addition to that country’s Freedom of Information Act which governs records management of documents in the possession of the federal government.

The Right to Religion Belief & quality:

The right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion is one of the most important factors in the Western human rights ideology and also in the democratic societies. Both international and European rights instruments give great attention to this factor. The right of not to be discriminated in terms of religious ground is also strictly grounded in these and other authoritative instruments.

However, the right of enjoying freedom in terms of thought conscience and religion can be violated in various ways. Sometimes some comments can be made to under estimate any religion or any sacred place. Comments can be made to make incitement of hatred as well. These types of offences are divided into two categories in the UK. One is criminal and the other is civil. Some of the criminal offences are dealt by report of the House of Lords Select Committee on Religious Offences. In our constitution have some rules about freedom of religion but it is only written materials if we look the real situation than look that every people have no right to freedom of religion.

Would such legislation conflict with the right to freedom of expression?

It was important the findings of the Select Committee on Religious Offences because these were used to discover the gap that exists in the legislation against the offensive behaviors against any particular religion. In fact provisions have been made against such offensive behavior against any religion from the earlier of the implementation of laws as being a completely legitimate safeguard against the abuse. The European, international and nation bodies play an important role in implementing these rules. Thus, for example, those drafting the ICCPR had no hesitation in adding after Article 19, the right to freedom of expression, Article 20, which states:

“Any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence shall be prohibited by law”.

People of Bangladesh & Freedom of Right

Although the constitution assure us that every people of our country has the freedom of expression but my opinion is it is an about only written materials. Now think about what about the poor people of our country and what their freedom is. I think most of the poor people of our country are does not know freedom of right and they do not care about freedom of right. It is very important that we should practice freedom of right and we should take more care about our freedom of right. The supreme law of Bangladesh, the Constitution, confers only limited law making competence on Parliament. Unlike the British Parliament, the Bangladesh Parliament is created by, and operative under a written constitution. Parliament does not possess any intrinsic law-making power, which derives from the constitution. The parliament cannot make any law in contravention with the provisions of the constitution. Article 26(2) iterates, “The state shall not make any law inconsistent with any provision of this part, and any law so made shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void.”

Freedom of Movement

Article 36 provides that subject to reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the public interest, every person has the right to move freely throughout Bangladesh, to reside and settle in any place in Bangladesh and to leave and re-enter Bangladesh. Freedom of Assembly: Article 37 provides that every citizen shall have the right to assemble and participate in public meetings and processions peacefully and without arms. This right can be restricted only by a law imposed in the interest of the public order or public health. Freedom of Association: Article 38 secures the freedom of association of citizens upon which the very existence of democracy is dependent. Right to form associations or unions is guaranteed subject to any reasonable.

People of Bangladesh & Freedom of religion

In Bangladesh, the elected government provides freedom of religion for any religious group in the country. Bangladesh is a Muslim majority country where nearly 90 percent of the people follow Islam; there are also large communities of people who follow Hinduism with 9 percent, and others including Buddhism, Christianity and others. Therefore Bangladesh is a religious society with many religions and freedom of religion is guaranteed even though the state religion is Islam, but this is not always the case where other religious groups have sometimes been attacked by Islamic groups.[7]

Restrictions on religious of freedom

Every constitution has some restriction on the freedom of religion. The main restrictions are:

1. Heavy practice of religion like some people take some dishonest practice on the religion, that takes on the bad effect on the society.

2. People cannot force to take the religion.

3. Society is very important part of our life so we cannot practice any behave that can affect on the society.

4. Every religion has some rules and the people cannot force to remove these rules.

Restrictions on Freedom of Right

Freedom is our right but the use of freedom is not our right that means everybody have freedom but they have some limitation like

1. People cannot kill anyone and cannot do anything that affect on the society.

2. Everybody have to maintain some rules like the rules of constitution, rules of government so people cannot do anything that affect on the government and constitution rules.

3. There are some rules of society like people cannot go outside without dress and people cannot do anything that can suffer other people of the society.

4. We have to respect our government and we have to also follow the rules of government.

Poor people and their thought about freedom and freedom of religion

We know that most of the people of our country are poor and the poverty is the big problem for our country. Most of the poor people are illiterate so they do not care about freedom of right and freedom of religion. But if we develop our country we have give the right of poor people. Most of the sector of our country does not get proper service for village people. But the constitution says that every people have same right to get the rule and maintain the rule. Some people of village take the advantage of poor people and they give the bad image of freedom but it destroy the freedom of rural people and for that reason they do not interest about freedom of right. If we look the data of global population than we look that– 3 billion people – live on less than $2 a day, and one fifth of the world population – 1.5 billion people – live in extreme poverty on less than $1 a day. During the past twenty-five years, electricity supplies have been extended to 1.3 billion people living in developing countries.

Freedom of speech:

Human are social being. So, everybody should have a right to express his own opinion. Freedom of speech is a constitutional right in our country. I think that it is not possible to establish a fruitful democracy without freedom of speech. People can find out more important agenda for their society by open debate. Without freedom of speech cannot protest legal activates. Freedom of speech can increase awareness among people about various kind of important issue. It has been create new creative argue by freedom of speech which is very important for our society. If a people of community get freedom of speak. Given the strength of peoples’ convictions what, if any, are reasonable boundaries around freedom of speech? If freedom of thought and conscience are human rights, then surely the individual has the right to express their views about the opinions of others? If they do not have this right does it represents a contradiction in principles and a denial of freedom? In the case of religion and belief the parameters around acceptable commentary is blurred and subjective.

Freedom of Speech and the Constitution

Every constitution has some human basic rules that important of freedom of right and freedom of religion. For human being human right is very important and people get their freedom by human right and make something or build something by their own judgment. The Constitution consists mainly of provisions relating to the structure of the Commonwealth Parliament, executive government and the federal judicial system. There is no list of personal rights or freedoms which may be enforced in the courts. There are however some provisions relating to personal rights such as the right to trial by jury, and the right to freedom of religion.[8]

Since 1992 decisions of the High Court have indicated that there are implied rights to free speech and communication on matters concerning politics and government, e.g. permitting political advertising during election campaigns. This is known as the ‘implied freedom of political communication’. Issues arising from these decisions include defining when communication is ‘political’ and when the freedom should prevail over competing public interests.

In 1942 a Constitutional Convention held in Canberra recommended that the Constitution be amended to include a new section 116A preventing the Commonwealth or a State passing laws which curtailed freedom of speech or of the press. The government did not accept this proposal and it was not included in the referendum on 19 August 1944, when other constitutional amendments were proposed. In our constitution have some rules about freedom of speech but it is only written materials if we look the real situation than look that every people have no right to freedom of speech.

The right to freedom of expression and opinions

The right to freedom of expression upholds the rights of all to express their views and opinions freely.[9] It is essentially a right which should be promoted to the maximum extent possible given its critical role in democracy and public participation in political life. There may be certain extreme forms of expression which need to be curtailed for the protection of other human rights.

Conclusion

“Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall include freedom to have a religion or whatever belief of their choice and freedom either individually or in community with others, and in private or public to manifest their religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching.”[10]

But In our country most of the people cannot get their freedom in any sector like in job sector the people get their job by corruption and in our civil society those people are Hindu they cannot apply the Army sector of job but in our constitution says that every people have Bangladesh have same right to apply their position. Now we have to create our belief, we have created our responsibility, we have to create our confidence, we have to create our nation and create our society that gives our freedom. People and government can improve our freedom and rural people of our country those are not care about the freedom we have to build freedom of knowledge of rural people because most of the people are live in rural Area in Bangladesh. Now at the end I can say that freedom is our properties and we have to build our properties by our responsibility.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.   http://blog.echurchwebsites.org.uk/2009/09/24/freedom-thought-conscience-religion-human-rights-act-freedom-includes-manifest-religion-belief-worship-teaching-practice-observance

2.   http://www.ippf.org/en/Resources/Statements/The+Right+to+Freedom+of+ Thought.htm

3.   http://www.forum18.org/PDF/freedomofreligion.pdf

4.   http://www.parliament.gov.bd/Constitution_English/part3.htm

5.   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_of_religion

6.   http://www.everystudent.com/features/connecting.html

7.   http://www.legalserviceindia.com/articles/rel_rel.htm

8.   http://www.article19.org/pdfs/standards/righttoknow.pdf

9.   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_of_information_legislation

10. Right_to_freedom_of_religion.html.

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[1] http://blog.echurchwebsites.org.uk/2009/09/24/freedom-thought-conscience-religion-human-rights-act-freedom-includes-manifest-religion-belief-worship-teaching-practice-observance/

[2] http://www.ippf.org/en/Resources/Statements/The+Right+to+Freedom+of+Thought.htm

[3] http://www.forum18.org/PDF/freedomofreligion.pdf

[4] http://www.parliament.gov.bd/Constitution_English/part3.htm

[5] http://www.everystudent.com/features/connecting.html

[6] http://www.legalserviceindia.com/articles/rel_rel.htm

[7]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_of_religion_in_Bangladesh

[8] http://www.aph.gov.au/LIBRARY/pubs/rn/2001-02/02rn42.htm

[9] http://www.hrea.org/index.php?doc_id=408

[10] Right_to_freedom_of_religion.html