An Overview of Merchandising in the Garments sector of Bangladesh: A Case Study on Feeha Fashion Ltd

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An Overview of Merchandising in the Garments sector of Bangladesh: A Case Study on Feeha Fashion Ltd.”

Specific objectives

Ø Analyze the organizational activities

Ø Give a brief overview of the task of a merchandiser in a buying house.

Ø Getting knowledge how to execute the buyer’s order.

Ø Take it to others’ learning of merchandising.


The study is exploratory in nature. To prepare this report data are collected from following sources:

Primary Sources

While preparing the report the primary information was explored. The report is the out come of my experience and a little part by interviewing. For the procurement of data, I had to take support of specific method. Some times I went for personal interviews of some of the experts who are related to garments sector in respective positions.

The “Primary sources’ are as follows:

1 Face to face conversation with the officer and staffs.

2 Different section of deskwork.

3 Face-to-face conversation with the respective officers and stuffs of the branch and head office.

4 Face-to-face conversation with clients visited the branch.

5 Practical work experience in the different desk of the department of the branch covered.

Secondary Sources

Some secondary data was collected to make the report more concrete. This are:

1. File study of different section

2. Published documents

3. Relevant books, journals

4. The website of relevant institution

Limitation of the study

Although I am experience and I have obtained wholehearted cooperation from my boss, but both of us were extremely busy. So it was not enough time, as it needs to reach my satisfaction level. I was rotated through on the way of my study. I have faced the following problems, which may be termed as the Limitation/short coming of the study. These are as follows:

  1. It was very difficult to collect the information from various departments for the job constraints.
  2. It is not possible disclosing some data and information for obvious reasons.
  3. Due to time limitation many of the aspects could not be discussed in the present report.
  4. It was really tough to give much time behind this project because of my job responsibility.
  1. Because of the limitation of information some assumption was made. So there may be some personal mistake in the report.
  2. Time is too limited to write all activities of the garments functions doing a job.

7. Almost all the personnel were apparently too busy to assist us with their valuable support.

8. Sometimes we had to face unexpected conduct on the part of some of the sectors that was supposed to be a little bit more cordial.

General Description of Feeha Fashion Ltd.

The garments sector is playing one of the major roles in the county’s economy. There are lots of factories in different categories and lots of garments buying agents to control the qualities as the commissioning agent of the foreign buyers playing the joint role. Feeha Fashion Ltd. is one of the successful buying agents among them which is contributing to the success of the country’s garments sector. It is situated in Uttara at the prominent area of Dhaka city.


FEEHA FASHION LTD. is a leading garments exporter, buying house since 1998. Though it has been established in 1998 but the founder of the company is in this business for about 14 years with great success and leading now a very experienced and expert team. The company has got the Associate Membership of Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA) in 1999.

Formation of the organization:

FEEHA FASHION LTD. Started its foundation formalities in 1998 only with the trade license for export-import business. With in a few days, it was formed and managed under the Company Act 1994. They registered the company with only three share holders. As it is a garments buying agent, as per the government rule it had to take permission from the Bangladesh Bank to act as it intended in the same year. Because buying houses are controlled directly by the Central Bank itself. In 1999 it got the Associate Membership of Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA).


FEEHA FASHION LTD. believes that quality, dynamism, punctuality, and honesty is needed to develop the garments sector. Its mission is to develop the garments sector as well as the country’s economy by supplying quality products and competing the global market.


Ø Export garments to the newer countries.

Ø Increase gross order for the country.

Ø Earn foreign currencies for the country.

Ø Develop relationship with the foreign countries.

Ø Create the employment opportunities for the unemployed people of the country.

Ø Develop the garments sector.

Ø Develop the country’s economic condition.


There are only three members in the management as they are the shareholders of the company. The details of the management are as bellow:

Name Position Shares

Nasim Ahmed Chairman 40%

Khaled Shareef Ahmed Managing Director 50%

S.A. Faruque Tito Director 10%


There are mainly five departments working together to keep going on Feeha Fashion Ltd. smoothly. The departments are inter-related.

Organizational Structure:





An Overview of the Concept of Merchandising:

Overview of the concept of merchandising the word ‘Merchandiser’ comes from the word ‘merchandise’. Merchandise means to produce, or a product, or trade of product. So, as the name implicate, merchandising is producing a product or commodity and selling it to the buyer, and ‘Merchandiser’ is the person who is doing all these things.

As the merchandising concept expresses, the tasks of a merchandiser start from correspondence, than gradually comes consumption, pricing, sampling, production, packaging, shipment and finally the documentation process.

In the correspondence period a merchandiser knocks a buyer for order. Buyer is asked for giving a test order to check out the selling company’s ability. The introductory communication process goes on until any disposal is given by the buyer.

Introductory communication ends through getting inquiries for order. Buyer asks for sample as per his requirement. He sends the artwork and specification chart of the product he requires. The merchandiser then manages the sample according to the buyer’s need in his own company’s sample section or from any associated factory. Then send it to the buyer by parcel.

After getting the right sample, buyer asks for the price for a particular quantity. The merchandiser then make the consumption to calculate the price, adds the yarn or fabric value with dyeing charge, takes into accounts of the factory costs, accessories, and shipping cost incase of CIF term. Then inform the buyer a competitive, workable price including the seller’s commission.

If the price is met by both parties, then the merchandiser send a signed ‘Proforma Invoice’ (PI) to the buyer for opening ‘Letter of Credit’ (LC).

After getting the LC, the merchandiser then contacts a factory for the production of the product with a price for which both the buying house and the factory agreed positively. After agreement signing, Buying house merchandiser than checks the consumption of fabrics and gives correct instructions to execute the order successfully.

The production must be completed within the given shipment date in the LC. Then the merchandiser contacts various freight forwarders or shipping agencies for the shipping schedules and freights. Then after handling over the goods to the freight forwarder, merchandiser than reminds the factory authority to provide correct documents trough bank to the buyers bank, which is required by the buyer and mentioned in the LC.

In between these steps the merchandiser informs the buyer all the up to date news of all moments during production.

Merchandising Practice of Feeha Fashion Ltd.

Correspondence plays a major role in the export or import business. All the garments business especially the garments buying house business depends on a great interpersonal communication process.


The work of a merchandiser starts with this very important step. In this process, a merchandiser communicates with a foreign buyer though email, fax, and telephones. A merchandiser hunts for a new buyer or a new order through correspondence.

Through email, a merchandiser introduces the company to the buyer, establishes relationship, and seeks for queries for order. This takes times for getting a positive response from the buyer’s side. The buyer asks for information about the company’s experience, gives some queries to know the prices and wants some samples to know its efficiency by sending some artwork and technical files through email or courier.

The communication process takes places all the products shipping cycle. The merchandiser must be skilled in correspondence and must keep it continue.

During the production level a merchandiser should inform the buyer all the real conditions of production of the goods. How many garments has been cut, how many has been sewed, how many garments has been pre-quality controlled, how many are finished, in a word all the current production status should be shared with the buyer. It is very important because if there is any problem any solution can come from the buyer by consulting the situation.

An order cycle as starts with the correspondence, it is also finished up by the communication. The merchandiser has to send first the copy of all the documents of the shipment including the packing list of the products, commercial invoice for claiming the payment, inspection certificate issued by the inspector of the goods, GSP, BL and other required documents mentioned in the LC to send like the varieties of test reports before sending all this documents via negotiating bank.

All the above are about the foreign correspondence. Besides, a merchandiser has to keep communication with the local factories, suppliers, banks, freight forwarder etc. This is also important in the purpose of keeping evidence to claim for any mistake of the local parties related.

The communication process is treated as the substitute capital for any garments buying house. Establish and maintaining a relation with the foreign buyer as well as the local suppliers’ correspondence is the key term and very cheap means of keeping business running.

Understanding the order sheet

Understanding the buyer’s order sheet is very much important for a merchandiser. Without understanding the order sheet properly, the merchandiser can do nothing.

The order sheet is the sheet where the buyer gives his details instruction about the order. An order sheet includes the fabrics specification suppose types, thickness, styling etc, products quantity and color breakdown as per size, packing details, labeling instruction, attachment of these labels, embroidery or prints, art work of the labels and prints and embroidery, shipping mark, the size specification chart and other technical instructions.

Some times in the order sheet, there is only given the total quantity and a ratio. A merchandiser than has to make the final breakdown as per the color and size by himself. So, a merchandiser must be talented and that much smart to know the paper work.

The merchandiser first tries to understand the order sheet to realize what the buyer wants. After fully capturing the sheets, the merchandiser then divides the instruction as per the working stages or types. Find out the total colors of fabrics, calculates fabric quantity to make the fabric in proper thickness, proper color.

Separates the labeling and packaging parts from the order sheets and provide these papers to the accessories suppliers.

Moreover, the most important thing is to make papers easy for the Quality Controllers who will take care of the production directly. Brief the Q.Cs about all the technical matters and give them the measurement sheets along with all relevant papers they required to do their duties properly.

So, any inability to understand the order sheet or any misunderstanding can lead the whole order into a great harm like discrimination, discount, or even cancellation of the order that causes the factory, his firm and finally the country a great deal of financial losses.

The merchandiser must be attentive, cool and calm when reading the order sheet or the technical specification or the buyers instruction. The merchandiser has to do lots of paper work and to avoid any mistake should make a cross-check with others.


Sampling is the process of testing ones ability and expertise. Without knowing any ones capability it is absurd to work with. In this case sampling is the only way to evaluate the suppliers’ efficiency. It is the proper way to bring the suppliers in the correct way of working. To make them expert, to give them idea of the styling, rectification every thing is for the out come of the right product.

There are some stages or types of sampling and it is mandatory for a merchandiser to have knowledge of it.

Original Sample

The sample which is sent by the buyer to the seller company to have an idea of styling of the goods and to give support for pricing. This is the model which is to follow for every process.

Available Sample

This is the sample made by the merchandiser on behalf of the company at the initial stage. This is made to show the buyer the styling of the garments using available fabrics of available color and GSM (Grams per Square Meter) – thickness measuring way.

Fit Sample

This sort of sample is sent to the buyer with the exact fabrics with right color and GSM to have the approval of the products they will go for bulk production.

Pre-production or Photo Sample

Before the production started to inform the buyer about the setup exactly what is need for this particular order and what will be the output at the bulk production. This is actually testing the pattern and it’s like the photo of the garments what will be in production.

Production Sample

The sample is sent to the buyer from the bulk production to give idea about what is exactly going on in the production level.

Shipping Sample

This sample is sent to buyer to inform him what is the product quality has been shipped finally to the buyer. These samples are sent via courier service for prompt delivery.


Without consumption it is absurd to think about making garments in right quantity and doing business profitably. A merchandiser must have the sound knowledge of all the consumption related to the garments.

Yarn consumption

It is a very vital part for the merchandising job. A merchandiser can not work through in the procurement process without knowing consumption. Consumption can be varied depending on the garments type.

Sweater Yarn Consumption

Sweater consumption is a beat easier than other garments’ consumption. In this case at first a sample is made with a given measurement by the buyer. Incase of multi color sweater, all the parts sleeve, body, neck, and bottom rib of the sweater are made apart by colors. All these parts are weighed on the scale separately as per the color. Then consumption is calculated for every individual color per piece sweater and wastage is added. After that all the color wise consumption is calculated together and multiplied by twelve for yarn in LBS per dozen calculations. For a solid color sweater it is only weighed and wastage is been added and multiplied by twelve for yarn in LBS per dozen.

Knit Yarn Consumption

It is a little tougher to calculate the knit yarn consumption. To calculate the knit yarn consumption the following things are required:

Length (length of the largest size in the measurement sheet): Body and sleeve length

Width (width of the largest size in the measurement sheet): Chest width and

Allowances (not given in the measurement sheet): For Sleeve and bottom hem.

The formula of calculating a basic T-Shirt’s consumption for per dozen are as follows:

[{Body Length + Sleeve Length + 10 (for hem for sleeve & bottom)} X {(Chest width + 4 C.M.)} X 2] X 10,000 X G.S.M. (Gram per square meter) ÷ 1000 X 12 X 10% (wastages)

= K.G. (Yarn) per Dozen

** All measurements should be in C.M.

Sewing thread consumption

Plain Machine:

No. of needle No. of S/Thread Actual Consumption Req. Consumption

01 01 (N) +01 (Bobbin) 2.5 5

Over Lock Machine:

01 01(N) + 01 (LOOP) 13

02 02(N) + 02 (LOOP) 17 Average 22

02 02(N) + 03 (LOOPER) 22

Flat Lock Machine:

01 01(N) + 02 (LOOPER) 7.5

02 02(N) + 02 (LOOPER) 17.5 Average 22

03 03(N) + 02 (LOOPER) 22

Feed of Arm:

03 3(N) + 3(LOOPER) 22 Average 28

Kanshi Special :

04 4(N) + 4 BOBBIN 27 Average 32

Poly bag /blister

Poly bags / blisters are made of two types of raw materials:

1) Poly Propylene (P.P.)

2) Poly ethylene (P.E.)

Poly propylene (P.P.) is highly transparent and harder than poly ethylene (P.E.).

P.E has milky appearance and soft than P.P. It is costly than p.p.

Types of Blister / Poly Bag

1) Bottom Sling/ Tube

2) Side Sling

3) Side Sling w adhesive

4) Gusset Poly

5) Pillow Poly

6) Zipper Poly

7) Zip-locked Poly

8) Hanger Shop Poly

9) Poly Bag with Hanger


1) Pieces / lbs = 75000

Length in inch x width in inch x thickness in mm

Rate per dozen in USD = L” x W” x T (MM) rate in Taka per LB

6250xDollar Conversion rate

Rate per dozen in USD = L? x W? x T (MM)X20/3300/1000×2.204x per LBS Rate in Taka x 12÷ 68 (Currency conversion)

* L” = Length per inch

* W”= Width per inch

* T= Thickness


  1. Price of Self adhesive 1000 yd=700 tk
  2. Printing Change: Per color per cone side =.15 tk /pieces
  3. One color one side 3 OR 4 impressions=.15 tk /pieces

Generally the following things are printed on poly:

1) Size

2) Recycle Symbol

3) Green Point or

4) Care Attention

In Self adhesive as gusset poly length =(L+1/2Flap)

Material Tube Side Sling

P.P PER POUND 27 Tk 32 Tk

P.E PER POUND 28 Tk 35 Tk

Problems Found

  1. Stick off
  2. Hard Feeling of poly bag
  3. Less Adhesive in Self Adhesive Poly bag.
  4. Printing Placement mistake, front mistake, color mistake.
  5. Suppliers always try to reduce the thickness the way to find out is we know that pieces/lbs then we count and wt. wt is less then thickness is less.
  6. Scatter of hole.


  1. Size, Front Placement of print, print color.
  2. Measurement, Flap height, thickness,
  3. P.E OR P.P
  4. Bottom sling or side siling
  5. It S/B Necessary -to receive approval.
  6. No of AIR Hole or Not

Hand tag


  1. Letter m/c [India]

Specification: Plate System, using Single plate

  1. Demy m/c 2nd Version

Specification: 4 clock ; 4 plate , Semi Computerized like 12 color in a hang tag but we use 4 plate , If more then one color one plate adding four .

  1. Computerized m/c


  1. Mate card (Soft)
  2. Mate paper (Hard)
  3. Art card (like back hard)
  4. Art Paper (Improve quality from Art card )
  5. Pasting card


Tag Pin:

1. Auto Lock : 12.5, 13, 15.5 cm etc Price

2. Natural Gunlog : 65, 85, 125, cm etc . Price


  1. Grey Black
  2. Duplex /Both Side White

GSM: 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, GSM

Size: 41.5×31.5″ (packet 100 pieces or 50 pieces)

Quality: 1. Hanson 2. Horse 3. PANDA


  1. GUM TAPE: 50 meter TK=30 TK/Pieces, or 45 DOLLER/DOZ
  1. SCOTCH TAPE : 5 meter TK = 7 TK/Pieces or 2 DOLLER/DOZ
  1. 1″ COTTON TAPE: 1000 M=250 Tk



= (L+w+6) (w+h+4) X Rate per sq meter


Paper Type:

Glossy paper =12.5 Tk (20’x30′)

Transparent paper =20/25 (20×30″)

Garments dying are a new process, which has been introduced a way back. Popularity of garments dyeing especially for casual wear and leisure wear in the western countries are increasing day by day. With the change of season, demand of garments design, fashion & color are also changed. To meet the quick change of demand popularity of garments dyeing is also increasing.

In this technique garments is produced from Grey fabric, then the garments are dyed in require color & shade. This technique is practiced only for 100% cotton garments in our country. In the European countries this technique is applied for woolen garments and also for 100% cotton. Garments dyeing, two types of dyes are mainly used.

– Direct dyes: Poor fastness, chapter method.

– Reactive dyes: Fast color, widely used, reasonable cost.

Advantages of garments dyeing are as follows:

1. Comparatively lower cost of production for any color.

2. Less time is required to product & supply any color of any garments.

3. No possibility of shade variation within the garments.

4. Suitable for producing small lots of different colored garments with in short time of lower cost.

5. It is possible to re-dyes old garments which may look like new garments.

6. De-sizing, Scouring, bleaching, dyeing and finishing treatments on garments is done in one M/C.

7. Lower capital investment cost to set-up garments dyeing project.

8. Garments dyeing is carried out at low liquor ratio, as a result consumption of water & steam is also lower, hence dying cost is also lower.

Color Fastness and dimensional change

Color Fastness to Perspiration:

Purpose and scope:

The test method is used to determine the fastness of colored textiles to the effect of Acid perspiration. It is applicable to dyed, printed or otherwise colored textiles. Fibers, yarns, fabric of all kinds and to the testing of dyestuffs as applied to textiles.


A specimen of colored textile in contact of with other fiber materials (for color transfer) is wet out in Simulated Acid perspiration solution, subjected to a fixed mechanical pressure and allowed to dry slowly at a slightly elevated temperature. After conditioning, the specimen is evaluated for color change and the other fiber materials are evaluated for color transfer.

For evaluation of color change & transfer of color are use gray seal.

Color Fastness to Light:

Purpose and Scope:

This test is done to determine the color fastness to light of textile materials.


Sample of the textile material to be tested & the agreed upon comparison standards are exposed simultaneously to a light of the specimen is evaluated by comparison of color change of the exposed portion to the masked control portion of the test specimen or unexposed original material using the AATEE gray scale for color change or by instrumental color measurement.

Color Fastness to Crocking:

Purpose and Scope:

This test method is designed to determine the amount of color transferred from the surface of colored textiles materials to other surfaces by rubbing. It is applicable for all textiles.

Test procedures employing white test cloth squares both dry & wet with water.


A colored test specimen is rubbed with white crock test cloth under controlled condition. Color transferred to the white test cloth is assessed by a comparison with Gray scale for.

Formaldehyde Test:

Purpose & Scope:

This test method is applicable to textile fabrics that may evolve formaldehydes for determining the formaldehyde released under the condition of accelerated storage.


A weighted fabric specimen is suspended over water in a sealed jar. The jar is placed in a controlled temperature for a specified length of time. The amount of formaldehyde absorbed by the water is then determined calorimetrically.

Color Fastness to Chlorinated Water:

Purpose & Scope:

This test method is intended for evaluating the resistance to chlorinated pool water of dyed, printed fabrics.


The specimens are agitated at a fixed rate in diluted chlorine solution under specified conditions of temperature, time PH & hardness. The dried specimens are evaluated for change in color.

Color Fastness to Sea Water:

The test method is designed to measure the resistance to sea water of dyed printed or otherwise fabric. Artificial sea water is used to this test because natural sea water is variable in composition and often different to obtain.


The specimen is backed by multi-fiber test fabric, is immersed in artificial sea water under specified conditions of temperature & time, and then placed between glass & plastic plates under specified conditions of pressure, temperature & time. The change of colour of the specimen & the staining of the attached multiple fiber test fabric are observed.


Normally garments washing means cleaning of dirty garments with soap or detergent. But it is not that garments washing. An industrial garment washing is a technology. The technology which is used to modify the outlook, appearance, comfort ability & design of the ready made garment made from solid color dyed or pigment printed fabric is called garments washing. In our country garments washing technology started from 1988 and popularity of garments washing is increasing day by day.

Garments washing process is getting popularity day by day. In this process after manufacturing garments from colored and printed fabrics the garments are washed with varieties types of chemical to give special color effect in the garments. This special color elect on garments is not possible in any other method except any other garments washing method. For example, by using these techniques on jeans Trouser, Jacket & Shirts color of these garments are changed resulting new color effect fashion & comfort. There are varieties of washing are discussed here.

Normal Wash:

It is the simplest type of garments washing. Washing is carried out with hot water, detergent & some softener. After washing garments are rinsed & tumble dyed until it is 100% dry. Depending on what type of fabric the garment is made of and how much of a washed look you need our should adjust the temperature and the length of time to wash by this type of washing starch present in the fabric is removed, garments becomes soft & fluffy.

Pigments Wash:

The process of pigment wash is similar to normal wash but this pigment wash is done specifically for the garments which are made from pigment dyed or pigment printed fabric. In pigment w3ashing process the effect of colored pigments are faded resulting a new colored effect. To get the desired faded colored effect on garments, it may required to alter washing temperature, quantity of detergent used and processing time.

Bleach Wash:

Bleach wash is a process of controlled bleaching action on garments. This type of wash may be carried out on garments made from Grey fabrics or garments made from color fabrics. In case of garments made from colored fabrics, the colors of the garments are partially faded by controlled bleach wash process.

Stone Wash:

This type of washing is common on garments made from jeans fabrics. The idea of washing with porous volcanic stone is to give the garments a strong or rough wash to achieve the pronounced washed effect through abrasion bleach to the wash to make the color fade more seriously such as denim, from navy to light blue. A lot of experienced and skill are needed to achieve desired effect.

Acid Wash:

Acid wash is specifically done on garments made from jeans fabrics. The garments are at first designed, rinsed & dried. Then the dried garments are loaded in the garments washing m/c but without any water. Leaky stone i, c pumice and the dry garments are rolled by the rotation of rotary garments washing m/c. chemicals with stone, discolors the garments and the effect of stone on garments gives brushing action.

Next step is to wash the garments thoroughly in water. After washing, the partly discolored effect is made prominent by using whitening agent. The discolored areas are partly white 7 irregular white pattern effects is produced in the garments which is not possible to produce other than washing technique. Acid wash effects on jeans trouser common all over the world.

Enzyme Wash:

Enzyme is a kind of live cell. We use it to wash because we want to clean the projecting hairy from the fabric surface of the garments. It dissolves the hairy fibers and also produces acid wash effect on jeans garments. By this enzyme treatment better and nicer blue and white contrast effect is produced on jeans. However enzyme is rather expensive and therefore enzyme wash is more expensive than stone wash.

Caustic Wash:

Caustic wash is special type of wash which is done on the garments made from specially printed fabric. The fabric is printed on grey state with pigment color & binder. This type of specially fabric is used to make the garment. The garments are then are washed with caustic & hot water. By this treatment about 30% pigment is washed out together with natural impurities present is the fabric making the printed design or stripe nice & soft. This is the look we call caustic wash.

For caustic wash, the printing must be pigment print with binder and backing treatment to an extent that the color will stay on the fabric only fairly securely to coincide with wash to be done later.

Advantages of Garments Washing:

With the change of time, human choice, demand, garments design & fashion is changing very quickly. To meet the demand of users, garments manufactures are adapting new technology & process. This new technology which is capable to meet the present requirements needs new machines & various types of chemicals. Advantages of garments washing are summarized below:

(a) Starch present in the new fabrics of the garments are removed, hence feels soft during use.

(b) Softness feeling of garments could be increased.

(c) Dirt and soft present in the garment is removed.

(d) Shrinkage occurs in the garments during washing, hence no possibility of further shrinkage.

(e) Washed garments could be used directly after purchase from store.

(f) Fading affect is produced in the garments by regular or irregular pattern.

(g) Different outlook could be produced in the garments by different washing techniques.

(h) Similar outlook could be produced in the garments by different washing techniques.

(i) Initial investment cost to set up a garments washing plant is comparative low.

Packing Accessories:

TheAccessories which are used for garment packing during garment shipment to buyer are called packing accessories. Packing accessories are depended on garment packing and folding etc which is instructed by buyer.

Poly bag, packing board, tissue paper, hanger, scotch tape, gum tape, carton etc are part of packing accessories.

Packing should be varying (as per buyer garment packing instruction) in different orders as per instruction of buyer garments packing. , The number of one carton garments it is weight on depend carton quality.

Understand quality of carton follow 3 ply, 5 ply, and 7ply.

The number of carton is high ply number it is very much it is hard and strong.

The sea frights depend on dimension of the export carton and the air frights depend on dimension of the export carton or gross weight of the carton.


Types of Carton:

  1. Depend on paper

I. Khaki Carton Or Brown Carton

II. Duplex Carton

III. Box Carton

  1. Depend on stitching

I. Stitching Carton

II. No stitching /Gum Pasting Carton or Metal Free Carton

  1. Depend on ply

I. 3 Ply Carton

II. 5 Ply Carton

III. 7 Ply Carton

  1. Depend on liner

I. Both Side Liner Carton

II. out Side Liner Carton

  1. Depend on size

I. Master Carton

II. Inner Carton

Shipping Mark

Shipping marks are basically 2 (two) types. Like:

  1. Main shipping mark
  2. Side Mark (Size / ratio mark)
Surface Code Shipping mark type Mark includes
01 Main shipping mark Buyer’s Name& address
Destination of the goods
Short description of the goods
02 Size, Ratio mark Size , Ration, Quantity, Color
03 Sender’s Name & address
04 Net weight of the carton garments Weight including all accessories
Gross weight of the carton Weight of the carton + garments. Weight.


Both air transportation and sea transportation used in delivering goods from one country to another. However, the calculation for the changes of air freight and sea freight are different, as following:

Sea Freight

Sea freight is changed on a volume (cubic meter or CBM) basis. Firstly, the volume of a carton is calculated by multiplying the length by the width by the height of the carton. Secondly, the freight charges for the deliver merchandise can be calculated by multiplying the volume of a carton by the number of needed cartons by the price charged per cubic meter (CBM).

Sea Freight Charges:

= Volume per carton in CBM x number of cartons x cost of sea freight per (CBM).


Volume per carton (CBM) =

Length (cm) x Width (cm) x Height (cm)

= ——– ——- ——–

100 100 100

Length (cm) x Width (cm) x Height (cm)

= — — — – — — — — — — – – — – — — — – – – – – – –


Air Freight

Air freight is charged on a weight basis, either by volume weight or actual weight of the freight. In Hong Kong, in most cases, both volume and actual weight are calculated and the air freight will be charged based on the weight, wherever is greater:

Air freight charges basis on volume weight

Volume weight:

= Volume per carton (Kg) x number of cartons x cost of air freight per (Kg).

Where Volume per carton (Kg)

Length (cm) x Width (cm) x Height (cm)

= – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –


Length (in) x Width (in) x Height (in)

= – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –


Actual weight:

Air freight charges basis on volume weight

= Volume per carton (Kg) x number of cartons x cost of air freight per (Kg).

Inspection and Delivery



Finally, after all the packing formalities complete a packing list of the goods is made. The packing list is made mentioning carton number, style, color, ratio, carton measurement etc. Before delivery, Goods are been inspected by the inspector using the packing list. The inspector may be the merchandiser himself, or by the management members who are expert. If the buyer requires, third party inspection can by occurred. The third party inspector is nominated by the buyer. All about the inspector is mention in the L.C.

Goods are inspected to check the following things:

Are the goods made by right fabrics?

Are the styles of the goods ok?

Are the measurements accurate?

Are all the colors correct?

Fabrics thickness ok?

Fabrics construction ok?

Is the quantity ok?

Is the quality fine?

Is the sewing ok?

All the accessories ok?

Is the packing ratio correct?

Carton number correct? etc.

After all these checking a report is sent to the buyer for approval incase of the third party inspection. Other wise an inspection certificate is issued to the beneficiary who makes the goods. The ultimate beneficiary is the factory.


At the finishing, goods are handed over to the freight forwarder or the shipping agent with in the latest shipment date in both case of air or sea shipment. Sometimes the ultimate buyer nominates the freight forwarder to take the delivery. Then the goods are delivered to the port of destination.


Merchandising is a very massive job. Merchandising practice in Feeha Fashion Ltd. is almost enjoyable. The company has a large work force and this is why it has some systematic error which some times leave the merchandiser in to a bunch of problems.

The problems I have found in the view point of the merchandisers in Feeha Fashion Ltd. are:

Pressure of duties on the merchandisers are enormous

Responsibilities of the merchandisers are extreme

Duty time has no limit

Very often have to do night duties in the factory

Difficult to articulate the inexperienced people

Difficult to direct the inexpert Quality controllers

Inadequate payment in terms of duties

No overtime payment system

Ism in the administration results the merchandisers to fall in hazard

Due to the quality fault merchandisers are cursed equally with the quality controllers

Some times treat the merchandiser as Q.C


It is not unexpected to have many problems in any organization. For this reason already I have found many problems of Feeha Fashion Ltd. To solve these problems, the following recommendations can be suggested:

There should be adequate number of merchandisers so that the pressure can be reduced from one’ shoulder.

Duties of merchandisers should be equally distributed.

Feeha Fashion Ltd. should follow the government and ILO rules for the office time.

The entire task should be finished in the office time and for this the company should change its system.

Feeha Fashion Ltd. should arrange training sessions for the executives and staffs to increase their efficiency.

A weekly, monthly general meetings should be arranged to brief the work

Designation specific accountability should be assigned to the executives and staffs.

Payment should be higher as per the duty ratio.

The influences of personal relationship should be omitted

Feeha Fashion Ltd. should pay for the over as the ILO standard.


Garment is the rising sector in our country. Merchandising is an important factor for garments industry. Merchandisers should be explored effectively in this field to face challenges in the global market. This paper describes the key roles of the merchandisers in the garments sector especially in the buying house. The merchandisers of Feeha Fashion Ltd. should help the owners to take challenges competing the global market and provide contributions to the national economy.