An Overview On Bail

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1.1 Introduction:

Bail is a common word and it is also very much used word in criminal court as well as civil court. Bail is to deliver, to release. Bail is delivering something in trust to somebody for a special purpose and for a limited purpose. Bail is release after a security has been paid.

Bail is right of the party. Anyone want a bail who is arrested living in jail means they wants a bail at any time. To set free, or deliver from arrest, or out of custody, on the undertaking of some other person or persons that he or they will be responsible for the appearance, at a certain day and place, of the person bailed. The person or persons who procure the release of a prisoner from the custody of the officer, or from imprisonment, by becoming surely for his appearance in court. The security given for the appearance of a prisoner in order to obtain his release from custody of the officer; as, the man is out on bail; to go bail for any one. The legal system that allows an accused person to be temporarily released from custody (usually on condition that a sum of money guarantees their appearance at trial); “he is out on bail”. Money that agrees to pay if a person accused of a crime does not appear at their trail. When bail has been arranged, the accused person is allowed to go free until the trail. Bail means release after a security has been paid. Traditionally, bail is some form of property deposited or pledged to a court in order to persuade it to release a suspect from jail, on the understanding that the suspect will return for trial or forfeit the bail (and be guilty of the crime of failure to appear In most cases bail money will be returned at the end of the trial, if all court appearances are made, no matter whether the person is found guilty or not guilty of the crime accused. In some countries granting bail is common. Even in such countries, however, bail may not be offered by some courts under some circumstances; for instance, if the accused is considered likely not to appear for trial regardless of bail. Countries without bail imprison the suspect before the trial only if deemed necessary. Legislatures may also set out certain crimes to be unbailable, such as capital crimes.

Under the current law of England and Wales bail simply refers to the release of the accused before trial. Under Scots law, no deposit or pledge of property is asked for; bail is only granted where the court is satisfied the accused will turn up for trial.

1.2Why Bail Refused

There are many reasons to refuse a bail by court. Generally satisfaction of court is very important, like there is not proper sufficient ground to get bail from court, there is not enough document to get bail.

In below there are some mere possibility reasons of why bail is refused.

•If you have not given a name or address, or the court have reasonable grounds for doubting the name or address you have given.

•If the court has reasonable grounds for believing that you won’t turn up at court (e.g. if you have not turned up in the past and have a ‘bad bail record’).

•If the court has reasonable grounds for believing that detention is necessary to prevent you from causing injury to a person, or loss of or damage to property.

•If the court has reasonable grounds for believing that detention is necessary to prevent you from interfering with the administration of justice or the investigation of an offence.

•If the court has reasonable grounds for believing that detention is necessary for your own protection or, if you are under 17, that you ought to be detained for your own interests.

•If you has been arrested for an impressionable offence, and the court have reasonable grounds for believing that detention is necessary to prevent you from committing an offence.

Note the words “reasonable grounds” and “that detention is necessary” in the above rules. You may be able to argue that they should instead release you subject to particular bail conditions. Alternatively, you could argue that they should release you subject to a surety to vouch that you will turn up at court, if the police want to keep you in because you have a bad bail record. If this is a likely situation, you could arrange with someone to agree to act as a surety for you, in the event that it’s needed. But note that both you and your surety commit a criminal offence if you agree to indemnify your surety (e.g. if you agree to pay them what they will owe if they are your surety and you don’t turn up).

1.3 When does Court Refuse Bail?

The general rule is that the court has to grant bail unless one of the following conditions applies.

•If it’s not an impressionable offence, the court can refuse bail if you have previously not turned up after being granted bail and if the court believes that, if released on bail now, you would fail to turn up.

•If it’s an impressionable offence, the court can refuse bail if it is satisfied that there are substantial grounds for believing that, if released on bail, you would (a) fail to turn up, (b) commit an offence while on bail, or (c) interfere with witnesses or otherwise obstruct the course of justice in relation to yourself or anyone else. You can also be refused bail if the court is satisfied that it hasn’t been practicable to obtain sufficient information to make up its mind.

•If it’s an indictable or ‘either way’ offence (i.e. one that can be tried in front of a jury, like theft, conspiracy or major criminal damage), the court can refuse bail if you were on bail (for another offence) on the date of the offence.

•In any case (whatever the offence), the court can refuse bail if it’s satisfied that you should be kept in custody for your own protection or (if under 17) for your own welfare, OR if you’re in custody following the sentence of a court, OR if you have been arrested for ‘absconding’ (not turning up after being on bail).

If a court withholds bail, you will be kept on remand. Your bail will be reviewed by the court each week (or so) until you are either released on bail or brought to trial. When reviewing bail, the court has to hear submissions from you at the first review (even if you have made the same arguments before), but can refuse to hear the same arguments after that (you can still make a submission, so long as it’s different from before).

2.1 Interim Bail:

No magistrate. Sessions judge or any court has jurisdiction to grant interim bail during the pendency of bail application in that court. Order granting short term bail quashed. If the magistrate, sessions judge feel that such a course should be adopted and it is always open to them either to dispose of the application on the same day and in the alternative release the accused on executing personal bond till the disposal of the application. It may be also pointed out that the applicant is entitled to claim the benefit of the proviso to section 497 (1) Cr.P.c which contains special provision for bail to women. Minors under16 years of age and sick or infirm persons.

As soon as the accused appears or brought before the court and prays for bail the Sessions judge should dispose of his Application. If the session’s judge fails to dispose of the same there is no scope for allowing the accused to continue on the bail granted by the magistrate, he is to be sent jail custody (Sohail Thakur and others v. State)[1].

Ad interim bail cannot be allowed to continue simply because an appeal against conviction is pending in the High Court Division. Interim bail allowed continuing further on specific terms (Nizamuddin v. State)[2].and another important case is (Abdul Hakim Howladar v. State)3.

2.2 Misuse of Bail

Where the co accused issued threats to a prosecution witness and report of the allegation was lodged in police. The co accused was held to have abused the concession of bail granted earlier. His bail was cancelled in the circumstances. Where the accused where reported to be renounced bad mashes likely to misuse privilege of bail. Delay and mere bold assertion of being falsely implicated by enemies is not enough section to allow bail to them. Power available to High Court under Sub section of S 497 no doubt has to be exercised in extraordinary circumstances but the same is meant to be exercised in appropriate case. Misuse sub section but such power has to be exercised with care and circumspection and there should be satisfactory evidence on record to show that accused was thwarting the course of justice by adopting dilatory tactics.4

Mr. X was granted a bail from the lower court against 498A and 406 at the time of bail it was not known that he has a valid passport with UK visa; hence the passport was not ceased by the court. Mr. X visited UK within the bail period without the permission of the court. Subsequently the fact of UK Visit was brought to the notice of the court and a case started .The law year of Mr. X’s lawyer is now pleading on the point that as Mr. X has not break any condition of the bail bond executed (as per section 496 and 499 )and as Mr. X is attending the court on the date whenever called for as Mr. X has not break any condition of the bail bond so he can go anywhere without the permission of the court (Bail bond implies only an oath that he shout attain the court whenever ask for and know special condition has been embedded in the bail bond)So the court has no right to punish Mr. X for the Visit of UK without the permission of the court and the court can not cancel or cease his passport in this case.

2.3 Anticipatory Bail

Court to try and effect a settlement between the warning couple may be laudable act but is alien to the exercise of jurisdiction while deciding an application seeking grant of anticipatory bail. Learned senior counsel urged that the well known parameters viz. gravity of offence, possibility of accused absconding or threatening witness of the prosecution, inherent probabilities, for and against the accused are some of the factors which have to be considered by the court while deciding an application for grant a bail

The Supreme Court of India explains the meaning of Anticipatory Bail and lays the conditions for granting it. Here are the 9 guidelines as laid down by a constitution bench, which the Courts are required to keep in mind while dealing with an application for grant of anticipatory bail:

i) Though the power conferred under Section 497 of the Code can be described as of an extraordinary character, but this does not justify the conclusion that the power must be exercised in exceptional cases only because it is of an extraordinary character. Nonetheless, the discretion under the Section has to be exercised with due care and circumspection depending on circumstances justifying its exercise.

ii) Before power under sub-section (1) of Section 497 of the Code is exercised, the Court must be satisfied that the applicant invoking the provision has reason to believe that he is likely to be arrested for a non-bailable offence and that belief must be founded on reasonable grounds. Mere “fear” is not belief, for which reason, it is not enough for the applicant to show that he has some sort of vague apprehension that someone is going to make an accusation against him, in pursuance of which he may be arrested. The grounds, on which the belief of the applicant is based that he may be arrested for a non-bailable offence, must be capable of being examined by the Court objectively. Specific events and facts must be disclosed by the applicant in order to enable the Court to judge of the reasonableness of his belief, the existence of which is the sine qua non of the exercise of power conferred by the Section.

iii) The observations made in Balchand Jain’s case (supra), regarding the nature of the power conferred by Section 497 and regarding the question whether the conditions mentioned in Section 496 should be read into Section 497 cannot be treated as conclusive on the point. There is no warrant for reading into Section 497, the conditions subject to which bail can be granted, anticipatory bail cannot be refused in respect of offences like criminal breach of trust for the mere reason that the punishment provided for is imprisonment for life. Circumstances may broadly justify the grant of bail in such cases too, though of course, the Court is free to refuse anticipatory bail in any case if there is material before it justifying such refusal.

iv) No blanket order of bail should be passed and the Court which grants anticipatory bail must take care to specify the offence or the offences in respect of which alone the order will be effective. While granting relief under Section 497(1) of the Code, appropriate conditions can be imposed under Section 497(2) so as to ensure an uninterrupted investigation. One such condition can even be that in the event of the police making out a case of a likely discovery under Section 27 of the Evidence Act, the person released on bail shall be liable to be taken in police custody for facilitating the recovery. Otherwise, such an order can become a charter of lawlessness and a weapon to stifle prompt investigation into offences which could not possibly be predicated when the order was passed.

v) The filing of First Information Report (FIR) is not a condition precedent to the exercise of power under Section 497. The imminence of a likely arrest founded on a reasonable belief can be shown to exist even if an FIR is not yet filed.

vi) An anticipatory bail can be granted even after an FIR is filed so long as the applicant has not been arrested.

vii) The provisions of Section 497 cannot be invoked after the arrest of the accused. After arrest, the accused must seek his remedy under Section 496 of the Code, if he wants to be released on bail in respect of the offence or offences for which he is arrested.

viii) An interim bail order can be passed under Section 497 of the Code without notice to the Public Prosecutor but notice should be issued to the Public Prosecutor or to the Government advocate forthwith and the question of bail should be re-examined in the light of respective contentions of the parties. The ad-interim order too must conform to the requirements of the Section and suitable conditions should be imposed on the applicant even at that stage.

ix) Though it is not necessary that the operation of an order passed under Section 497(1) of the Code be limited in point of time but the Court may, if there are reasons for doing so, limit the operation of the order to a short period until after the filing of FIR in respect of the matter covered by the order. The applicant may, in such cases, be directed to obtain an order of bail under Section 496 or 498 of the Code within a reasonable short period after the filing of the FIR.

2.4 Bail Bond

Criminal Law term paper Bail Bonds The principle of bail is basic to our system of justice and its practice as old as English law itself. When the administration of criminal justice was in its infancy, arrest for serious crime meant imprisonment without preliminary hearing and long periods of time could occur between apprehension and the arrival of the King’s Justices to hold court. It was therefore a matter of utmost importance to a person under arrest to be able to obtain a provisional release from custody until his case was called. This was also the desideratum of the medieval sheriff, the representative of the Crown in criminal matters, who wore many hats including that of bailing officer. He preferred the conditional release of persons under arrest to their imprisonment for several reasons: it was less costly and troublesome; the jails were easy to breach and under the existing law the Jailer was hanged if a prisoner escaped; the jails were dangerous to health, and as there was no provision for adequate food, many prisoners perished before trial was held Purpose Of Bail – Influenced by factors such as these, the sheriff was inclined to discharge himself of responsibility for persons awaiting trial by handing them into the personal custody of their friends and relatives. Indeed, in its strict sense, the word bail is used to describe the person who agrees to act assuredly for the accused on his release from jail and becomes responsible for his later appearance in court at the time designated. As surety, the bail was liable under the law for any default in the accuser’s appearance. Purpose Of Bail – 3Between the 13th and 15thcenturies the sheriff’s power to admit to bail was gradually vested, by a series of statutes, in the justices of the peace. In the case of a person committed for felony, the justices of the peace had the authority to require, if they thought fit, his remaining in jail until the trial took place, but, on the other hand, a person committed for a misdemeanor case could, at common law, insist on being released on bail if he found sufficient sureties. Writing in the mid-1700’s, Blackstone described the arrest-bail procedure his day in the following passage: When a delinquent is arrested. He ought regularly to be carried before a justice of the peace. If upon inquiry it manifestly appears that either no such crime was committed or that the suspicion entertained of the prisoner as wholly groundless, in such cases only it is lawful totally to discharge him. Otherwise he must be committed to prison or give bail that is, put in his securities for his appearance to answer the charge against him. This commitment, therefore, being only for safe custody, wherever bail will answer the same intention it ought to be taken. Bail is a delivery or bailment of a person to his sureties, upon their giving (together with him) sufficient security for his appearance. The notion of bail pending trial was not changed over the centuries. Admission to bail always involves a risk that the accused will take flight. That is a calculated risk which the law takes as the price of our system of justice the possibility that the accused might flee or hide must, of course, be squared with the traditional right to freedom pending trial. In order to reconcile these conflicting interests, therefore, his release on bail is conditioned upon his giving reasonable assurance in one form or another that he will appear at a certain time to stand trial. In this regard, the Supreme Court has remarked: Like the ancient practice of securing the oaths of responsible persons to stand as sureties for the accused, the modern practice or requiring a bail bond or the deposit of a sum of money subject to forfeiture serves as an additional assurance of the presence of the accused. Modern statutes, which regulate bail procedure in detail today and vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, provide that an accused may be set at liberty pending trial in several ways. For example, he might be released without security by agreeing in writing to appear at a specified time and place, i.e., on his own recognizance; or he may execute a bond with a deposit of cash or securities in an amount equal to or less than the face amount of the bond; or he may execute a bail bond which requires one or more sureties. A bail bond, with sureties, is essentially a contract between the government on the one side and the accused and his sureties on the other. Under the contract the accused is released into the custody of the sureties on their promise to pay the government a stated sum of money if the accused fails to appear before the court in accordance with its terms. Historically, the contract of bail, traced to a gradual increase of faith in the honor of a hostage and the consequent relaxation of actual imprisonment, constitutes one of the first appearances of the concept of contract in our law. The early contract of bail differed from the modern bail bond in its mode of execution as it was simply a solemn admission of liability by the sureties made in the presence of an officer authorized to take it. No signature of the bail was required, and it was not necessary for the person bailed to bind himself as a party sense of moral obligation to satisfy the conditions of the bond is strong. As a result the English experience has been, on the whole, that very few persons admitted to bail fail to appear for trial. In the United States, however, this close relationship has generally yielded to a distant impersonal connection the more obligation has become in the main a financial one. More often than not the sureties on a bail bond are surety companies and professional bail bondsmen who operate on a broad scale and charge fees for their services which may not only be large but also irretrievable regardless of whether the accused appears. Under the traditional view taken in England, bail is not a mere contract of surety ship and the accused is not allowed to indemnify the bail. In fact it has been held that any arrangement between the accused and his sureties to the effect that he will indemnify if he absconds is so contrary to public policy that it is void as an agreement and, moreover, is indictable as a conspiracy to pervert the course of justice. But bail no longer is the medium although a trace of the old relation remains in the right to arrest. The distinction between bail and surety ship is pretty nearly forgotten. The interest to produce the body of the principal in court is impersonal and wholly pecuniary. If, as is this case, the bond was for $40,000, that sum was the measure of the interest of anybody’s part, and it did not matter to the Government what person ultimately felt the loss, so long as it had the obligation it was content to take. Despite the tenor of the foregoing passage, courts still stress the need for a moral as well as financial assurance of the accuser’s appearance in court. For example, in a case where the bail offered was a certified check from a individual, the Federal Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in requiring disclosure of the source of funds on which the check was drawn declared: The giving of security is not the full measure of the bail’s obligation. It is not the sum of the bail bond that society asks for, but rather the presence of the defendant.

3.1 Forms of Bail

In the most of States there are several forms of bail used, these vary from jurisdiction, but the common forms of bail include:

  1. Recognizance – when an accused is released on recognize, he promises to the court that he will attend all required judicial proceedings and will not engage in illegal activity or other prohibited conduct as set by the court. Typically a monetary amount is set by the court, but is not paid by the defendant unless the court orders it forfeited; this is denominated an unsecured appearance bond or release on one’s own recognizance.
  2. Surety – by a surety bond, a third party agrees to be responsible for the debt or obligation of the defendant. In many jurisdictions this service is provided commercially by a bail bondsman, where the agent will receive 10% of the bail amount up front and will keep that amount regardless of whether the defendant appears in court. The court in many jurisdictions, especially jurisdictions that prohibit bail bondsmen, may demand a certain amount of the total bail (typically 10%) be given to the court, which, unlike with bail bondsmen, is returned if the defendant does not violate the conditions of bail. This also known as surety on the bond.
  3. Property – the accused or a person acting on his behalf pledges real property having a value at least equal to the amount of the bail. If the principal fails to appear for trial the state can levy on the property to recover the bail.
  4. Cash – typically “cash-only,” where the only form of bail that the Court will accept is cash.
  5. Combinations – courts often allow defendants to post cash bail or bond, and then impose further conditions, as mentioned below, to protect the community or ensure attendance.

3.2 Bail Proceedings: Background

Bail is an amount of money that a criminal defendant may be ordered to pay before being released from custody pending trial. Its purpose is to ensure a defendant’s return at subsequent trial proceedings. Bail is typically determined during a defendant’s first appearance in court. A judge or other court officer sets the amount and conditions of bail. At a bail hearing, a judge has three options:

  • Release the defendant on his or her own recognizance or upon an unsecured appearance bond
  • Deny bail to the accused
  • Set terms of bail, including the amount of bail and any special conditions for release

In common usage, bail typically refers to criminal proceedings. However, in rare instances bail may be imposed in civil cases. Civil bail is used to directly or indirectly secure payment of a debt or to secure a performance of a civil duty. For example, bail may be employed in a civil case to arrest someone to prevent them from fleeing to avoid litigation, or it may be used to prevent an unlawful concealment or disposal of assets. The amount of bail set will be based on the probable amount of damages the plaintiff could collect. Sometimes the deposit may be used to pay the judgment to a plaintiff.

Bail law came to the U.S. through English tradition and laws. Even before the adoption of the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights, a judiciary act in 1789 guaranteed a right to bail in all non capital cases. For a person charged with a capital offense (where death is a possible punishment), bail was discretionary, depending upon the seriousness of the offense.

Bail is not meant to act as pre-trial punishment or as a fine. Modern bail laws reflect an intentional emphasis on non-monetary methods to ensure a defendant’s appearance at trial. This is meant to avoid discrimination against poor defendants.

Bail may or may not be required in misdemeanor cases, depending upon the circumstances and seriousness of the offense. More serious misdemeanor cases and felonies often require a bail determination. Bail may come into play at three stages of a criminal proceeding:

  • During the pretrial period
  • Pending imposition or execution of sentence
  • Pending appeal of a conviction or sentence

If bail is not required, a defendant may be released on his or her own recognizance. Releasing someone on personal recognizance means that the person has promised to show up for trial or other court proceedings, without posting a bond. Release on personal recognizance may be appropriate when a person has ties to the community and has lawful and steady employment. Family status is also taken into account. Before release, a defendant must sign a document promising to appear. Failure to abide by the terms of release on personal recognizance may result in revocation of the privilege, or further criminal charges, including immediate arrest. A defendant released on personal recognizance may be required to abide by certain rules. For example, the defendant may be forbidden from traveling outside of the court’s jurisdiction, or may be forbidden from contacting the victim or the victim’s family.

A court may also impose an unsecured appearance bond on a criminal defendant. A bond amount is set, but the defendant is not required to post any money. If the defendant fails to appear at subsequent proceedings, or violates any terms of the bond, he or she will be required to pay the full amount of the bond.

According to the Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice statistics, for all defendants charged with state felonies in May 2000 in the 75 most populous counties in the country:

  • 62 percent were released prior to the disposition of their case
  • 38 percent were detained, including 7 percent who were denied bail
  • Of those released, 26 percent were released on their own recognizance
  • 37 percent were released on a commercial surety bond
  • About a third of those released failed to appear for a scheduled appearance, were rearrested for a new offense, or committed a violation that resulted in revocation of the pretrial release

3.3 Important Provision relating to Bail

1. What is bail?

Bail is an alternative preventive measure to the preventive measure applied as detention against the defendant and it is applied only in case the court has made a decision about detaining the defendant.

By saying bail we understand a sum of money, securities, other valuables or, if the court permits, also real estate, which is paid to the court’s deposit account to ensure that the accused is at the disposal of the body carrying out criminal proceedings.

Thus, bail is a guarantee for the defendant to be in freedom until a judgment is made against him.

2. When can a person be released on bail upon the moment he appeared in custody?

An arrested person can be kept under custody no more than 72 hours. During this time a charge shall be brought against him and if necessary the question of choosing detention as a preventive measure shall be determined in court. If a preventive measure is chosen regarding not keeping the person in detention or a preventive measure is not chosen at all, the latter is released. And if detention is chosen as a preventive measure, the defendant has the right to file a motion about being released on bail.

3. Who makes the decision about release on bail and when?

The court makes a decision about releasing the defendant on bail. When discussing the motion made by the pre-investigation body, the investigator or the prosecutor about detention, the court discusses also the possibility of releasing the defendant on bail.

4. What if the bail issue is not discussed at all at that moment? Can the defendant or his defense attorney file a motion later?

Yes, later at any investigation or trial stage the defendant or his defense attorney can file a motion to the court to release the defendant on bail, as well as to reduce the bail amount.

5. If bail has been refused, can the defendant or his defense attorney again apply to court later with a request to discuss the issue once more?

According to the European Convention of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, despite the fact whether the motion about release on bail has once been rejected or not, sometime later the defendant has the right to file the same motion. It is prohibited to reject the motion with the reasoning that the previous court decision about rejecting bail has not been appealed to the Court of Appeals or to the Court of Cassation.

6. In the existence of which circumstances is bail applied?

Bail is an alternative preventive measure to detention. Like detention, it can only be applied to the defendant. Bail should be applied in all cases when the defendant has committed a crime which is not grave or is of medium gravity and detention as a preventive measure has been undertaken against him. Only in the existence of certain circumstances the court can find the release on bail inadmissible by mentioning about the motives by all means. Such motives may include lack of knowledge about the defendant’s identity, not having a permanent place for living or if the defendant has made an attempt to hide from the body carrying out criminal proceedings.

The rejection of bail is impermissible when there are only reasonable doubts that a crime will be committed.

7. Who can file a motion about applying bail?

Detention and bail are applied only by the court’s decision upon the investigator’s or the prosecutor’s motion or on personal initiative while the case is being heard in the court. The court can also apply bail instead of detention upon the motion made by the defense party.

8. Where is bail paid at and how?

Bail is paid to the court’s deposit account in the form of money, securities and other valuables. With the court’s permission real estate can also be accepted as bail. In the event bail is made in the form of other valuables or real estate the pawnshop shall bear the burden of proof for the amount of the those valuables.

9. Who can pay the bail?

The defendant, his/her relatives and any person can pay the bail.

10. How and when is the defendant released from detention once the bail is paid?

Once the bail is paid the relevant document evidencing it shall be submitted to the body carrying out the proceedings, i.e. the court, the prosecutor, the investigator, the pre-investigation body. Shortly afterwards the body carrying out the proceedings shall give an assignment to the administration of the detention center, which in its turn is obliged to release the defendant promptly from detention1.

11. Who determines the amount of the bail?

The court determines the amount of the bail by considering the rules mentioned in question

8. Although the legislation does not provide the maximum amount of the bail, nevertheless the court, while determining the amount of the bail, should consider the financial state of the accused, his family conditions and the number of people who are under his care.

12. What kind of responsibilities does a person who has been released on bail have?

The defendant who has been released on bail is at the disposal of the body carrying out the proceedings. This means that he/she should not hide from the trial, must appear upon

Summons and not to leave for another place without his permission.

13. What consequences can violation of the terms of the bail have?

If the terms of release on bail are violated, the prosecutor shall apply to court with a motion to take the bail as state income. The prosecutor can also file a motion on substituting bail with detention.

14. Can the decision on making the bail as state income and/or substituting it with detention be appealed?

Yes, if the court grants the prosecutor’s motion and makes a decision on making the bail as state income and substituting it with detention, these decisions can be appealed. The defendant or his/her defender can appeal such court decisions to the Court of Appeal and later to the Court of Cassation.

15. When is the bail returned?

In all cases the bail is returned to the pawnshop, with the exception of cases when a decision has been made to make the bail as state income. If the defendant has not violated

The terms of the bail, the bail is returned after the judgment has been made. Bail is returned in all cases irrespective of the fact whether the person is sentenced to imprisonment or not.

1 Zahirul Huq, Law and Practice of Criminal Procedure, (Fifth Edition, 1987) by Subarna Publication

4.1 Section Relating to Bail:

When any person other than a person accused of non bailable offence is arrested or detained without warrant by an officer in charge of police station or appears or is brought before a court and is prepared at any time while in the custody of such officer or at any state of the proceedings before such court to give bail. Officer or Court if he or it thinks fit may instead of taking bail forms such person. Discharge him on his executing a bond thought sureties for his appearance as hereinafter provided:

Provided further, that nothing in this section shall be seemed to affect the provisions of section 107 sub section (4) section 117, sub section (3).

(1) When any person accused of any non bailable offence is arrested or detained without warrant by an officer in charge of a police station or appears or is brought before in Court, he may be released on bail but he shall not be so released if there appear reasonable grounds for believing that he has been guilty or an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life.

Provided that the court may defect that any person under the age of sixteen years or any woman or any sick or infirm person accused of such an offence be release on bail.

(2) If it appears to such officer or Court at any stage of the investigation inquiry or trial as the case may be that there are not reasonable grounds for believing that the accused has committed a non bailable offence but that there are sufficient grounds for further inquiry into his guilt the accused shall pending such inquiry be released on bail or at the discretion of such officer or Court on the execution by him of a bond without sureties for his appearance as hereinafter provided.

(3) An officer or a Court releasing any person on bail under sub section (1) or sub section (2) shall record in writing his or its reasons for so doing.

(4) If at any time after the conclusion of the trial of a person accused of a non bailable offence and before judgment is delivered the Court is of opinion that there are reasonable grounds for believing that the accused is not guilty of any such offence it shall release the accused if he is in custody on the execution by him of a bond without sureties for his appearance to hear judgment delivered.

(5) The High Court Division or Court of Session and in the case of a person released by itself, any other Court may cause any person who has been released under this section to be arrested and may commit him to custody.

4.2 Application of These Sections:

The basic conception of the word bail is release of a person from the custody of police and delivery into the hands of sureties who undertake to produce him in Court whenever required to do. For the purpose of bail. Offences are classified into two categories, bailable and non bailable. This section provides for the granting of bail in bailable case and section 497 in non bailable cases. Grand of bail in baliable offence is a right while in nonbailable offence the grant of bail is not a right but concession grace. Grant of bail in offence punishable with imprisonment for less than 10 years is a rule and refusal and exception in bailable offences, there is no question of discretion in granting bail as the word of the section are imperative. The only choice for the court is as between taking a simple recognizance of the principal offender or demanding security with surety. Ordinarily the world bail applies to the second kind of security to the practice and procedure to the court[3].

Section 496 CR P.C confers an absolute right on accused to be released on bail with no provision imposing any liability for his rear rest whilst sections 497 Cr P.C confers no absolute right to bail. Which privilege is discretionary with provision imposing a liability for his re arrest and committal to binds him to the principles and limitations flowing from the grant of such a concession it being understood that but for the concession, he could be in custody concession, it being understood that but for the concession, he could be in custody. Even in case not falling from the grant of such a concession it being understood that but for the concession, he could be in custody. Even in case not falling within prohibitory clause, accused person cannot claim bail as a matter of right Grant of bail is not favour or concession but is a right of the detente regulated by law. Ball shall not be granted if the offence is punishable with death. or imprisonment for life if the court is of the view that there appear reasonable grounds for believing that the person concerned accused or suspected of the commission of the offence provided that he may in his discretion grant bail to a woman or a minor under the age of sixteen or a sick or infirm person. The power of release may be exercised by the Court when the accused appear or is brought before if whether during investigation or otherwise.

The basic essential governing the matter of granting bail is that bail should never be withheld as punishment. Grant of bail is a rule and same could not be withheld by way of punishment2.

5.1 bail on humanitarian ground:

A sick or infirm may be released on bail even in a case of capital punishment. Grant of bail to a woman is not a matter of right yet intention of Legislature appears to be that bail should invariably be granted to a woman unless any special circumstances exist on record to warrant refusal of bail. A Court should grant bail to a woman even when she is an accused of murder. Where there was no evidence to show that woman accused had been party to conspiracy to commit murder they were enlarged of bail (PL) 1983 in such circumstances the existence of a suckling baby may be a additional ground in favour of grant of bail.

Bail may be granted to a student to taken an examination with the direction that he should surrender to the court on the conclusion of the examination.

Minor is a also point of granted to Bail. Lunatic also point to granted to Bail.

5.2 Principles for Granting of pre-arrest Bail:

Power of granting anticipatory bail is very sparingly used by High court to save a citizen from unnecessary harassment and humiliation in the hands of police on flimsy ground or with ulterior motive or out of political design. This power can not be exercised in each and every case as a substitute to the exercise of such power by the court below. A person can not be enlarged on anticipatory bail how high so ever he maybe unless conditions for granting such bail are satisfied. The considerations which are to weigh with the Court while dealing with an application for bail before arrest are quite different from those which arc to be taken into account after a person has been arrested and he moves for being released on bail: It is only in extraordinary circumstances that a person maybe admitted to ball before arrest In a cognizable case. Where petitioners were apprehending arrest on account of some ulterior motives on part of someone in authority or otherwise hostile to them. Criminal law must have its normal course and it would be for the competent Court to determine the question of bail in accordance with law after the accused persons had surren­dered. Though grant of bail before arrest is rare, yet petitioner has probably. been falsely involved in a case and it likely to suffer irreparable Injury to his dignity respect and reputation.

In order to justify the grant of pre-arrest bail, the petitioner must show that he apprehends his arrest on account of ulterior motives. Pre-arrest bail may not be granted where there is no allegation made against the police that they have falsely implicated the petitioner in the case. Where there is nothing to show that there has been false involvement and the accusation is of a heinous offence like sodomy bail before arrest cannot be granted.

The main conditions to be satisfied before exercise of jurisdiction to allow pre-arrest bail under section 498. Cr. P. C. are :

(a) That there should be a genuine proved apprehension of imminent arrest with t