View With Charts And Images
Beauty not only is what’s on the outside but is what is on the inside as well-illustrate & Explain.
Beauty is skin deep means that being beautiful only counts on your physical appearance, which clearly isn’t true. Beauty not only is what’s on the outside but is what is on the inside as well. People reflect on the ways in which they have experienced or participated in bias based on physical size and appearance, and the ways in which expectations about body image and appearance in our society affect us. They learn about media literacy and examine media images for “attractiveness messages” that consciously and unconsciously impact our attitudes and behavior towards others. To draw their attention the sales people of different organizations try to knock every possible door. These activities of different organizations increase the interest about this sector. As a result, it creates confusion among the general people about the business practice of these organizations and their legal existence in some cases. We conclude the lesson by exploring ways to get beyond appearance as a dominant force in our social life. This report aims to define the legal existence and work practice of people in general and corporations.
2. Basic understanding of Business Ethics:
Here we explain the behavioral pattern of individuals using the theories covered in our course.
Relationship with normative theory:
The role of normative theory in the stages of ethical decision-making is primarily in relation to moral judgement.Moral judgements can be made according to considerations of rights, duty, consequences, etc. However, the issue of whether and how normative theory is used by an individual decision-maker depends on a range of different factors that influence the decision-making process.
Influences on ethical decision-making
Two broad categories: individual and situational
Individual factors: The unique characteristics of the individual actually making the relevant decision. These include factors which are given by birth and those acquired by experience and socialization.
Situational factors: The particular features of the context that influence whether the
individual will make an ethical or unethical decision. These include factors associated with the work context and those associated with the issue itself.
1) Age and gender
– Aged people are more ethical than young
– Female are more ethical than men
2) National and cultural characteristics
People from different cultural backgrounds likely to have different beliefs about right and wrong, different values, etc. and this will inevitably lead to variations in ethical
decision-making across nations, religions and cultures
Hofstede (1980; 1994) influential in shaping our understanding of these differences – our ‘mental programming’
b) Power distance
c) Uncertainty avoidance
3) Education and employment:
– Educated people are more ethical than illiterate. Ex: research reveals that business students not only rank lower in moral development than students in other subjects such as law, but are also more likely to engage in academic cheating, such as plagiarism.
– Relationship between employment experience and education and ethical decision making is still unclear
4) Psychological factors:
Cognitive moral development (CMD) refers to the different levels of reasoning that an individual can apply to ethical issues and problems. The important thing about CMD theory is that it is not so much what is decided that is at issue, but how the decision is reached in terms of the individual’s reasoning process.
Pre-conventional: individuals define right and wrong according to self interest and expected rewards and punishment from authority
Conventional: Individuals live up to what is expected of them immediate peers and those close to them
Post-conventional: Individuals go beyond identifying with others’ expectations, and assess right and wrong according to the upholding of basic rights, values, and contracts of society.
Jones proposes that the intensity of an issue will vary according to six factors:
a) Magnitude of consequences:This is the expected sum of the harms or benefits for those impacted by the problem or action, such as health problems or death as a result of a faulty product.
b) Social consensus: People are in agreement over the ethics of the problem or action.
c) Probability of effect: Likelihood that the harms or benefits are actually going to happen.
d) Temporal immediacy: Concerned with the speed with which the consequences are likely to occur. Ex: long term effects of smoking or other unhealthy products.
e) Proximity: the feeling of nearness (social, cultural, psychological or physical) the decision-maker has for those impacted by his or her decision.
f) Concentration of effect: cheating a person out of a hundred Euros is much more morally intense than cheating the same sum out of a large multinational with millions of shareholders.
The same problem or dilemma can be perceived very differently according to the way that the issue is framed. Language important aspect of moral framing: integrity, honesty, fairness, propriety-or lying, cheating and stealing.
The problem is that many people in business are reluctant to ascribe moral terms to their work, even if acting for moral reasons, or if their actions have obvious moral consequences-
Moral mutenessoccurs because of:
a) Harmony,b) Efficiency and c) Image of power and effectiveness
Context-related factors: the organizational context in which an employee will be working-especially the expectations and demands placed on business people within the work environment that are likely to influence their perceptions of what is the morally right course of action to take.
Systems of reward
People are likely to do what they are rewarded for. Ex: many organizations offer commission or bonuses for salespeople in order to motivate them to achieve greater numbers of sales.
3. Research Methodology:
For research, I have conducted a survey through distributing questionnaire to both teenage boys and girls. From the questionnaire I have found answers of my questions. I have also collected data from secondary sources like books, journals, newspapers and articles published in the internet. These sources have provided elaborate ideas about the statement and also given me a clear idea of the statement.
4. Survey Findings:
After conducting the survey I have found mixed results. First of all the perception of beauty is viewed differently by teenage boys and teenage girls.
From figure- 1 it is clear that teenage boys are influenced more than female children. This is due to the fact that in our country men are viewed as the dominant class in the society. Moreover, men are expected to take care of the women in the household. Whereas, women are expected to settle down with their family duties and maintain other section of the household responsibilities.
There is another thing that I have found and that is dissimilarity of opinions. What boys decide is not similar to the girls choice.
Around 20% of boys decision matches with the girls decision. However, around 80% of boys decision does not match with girls decision. So, it can be said that in most cases boys decide something else as beautiful which girls do not. Therefore, there is a gap of similar mentality between boys and girls according to their choice. In addition, society influences the decision making of boys and girls both directly and indirectly. In addition, this may change the social demography. However, this influence is playing a somewhat bad role to the overall well-being of the society.
In addition, boys mostly like traditional lifestyle and girls mostly like non- traditional lifestyle.
From figures 3 and 4 also we get the same result. Like figure 3 shows that 80% of boys want a traditional lifestyle like having kids, a wife handling household responsibilities etc. In contrast, figure 4 shows 60% girls are more likely to hold non- traditional profession. So, from the above statistics it is clear that there is a significant difference between most of the boys thought and most of the girls thought. Parents play an important role in this thought of boys and girls. As because they are more experienced people and they have seen a lot of the real life. They tend to influence their children to follow their designated path.
I have found quite a few interesting answers of my questions. I have found that girls give more preference to beauty than boys. Many of them feel that societal influence on choice is responsible for this. The reason behind this is mainly society’s own perception. Many of the people feel that if one does not have fair skin than the girl is not beautiful. They also feel that beauty will bring success in life. On the other hand, men think that a beautiful person’s influence in life is necessary. They feel good when they are influenced because they feel that they are their cared for by that beautiful person. But in reality a person beautiful or not should guide their loved ones rather than influence them as it will be better for them on the long run.
I have also found that girls do not want to be dominated by boys. They believe in free will and independent thoughts. As a result the choice and decisions of beauty becomes dissimilar between boys and girls. Most of the boys want their life to follow the traditional pattern because in our society that is the acceptable norm. On the other hand, most of the girls choose non-traditional pattern of lifestyle as they do not want to be influenced by anyone and the society as a whole. So, there is a gap exists between the boys desire and girls desire. As a result, a growing parity of different opinions create a gap of dreams and desires of what they want to do and how it turns out to be.
The phrase “Beauty is skin deep” is presumptive, misleading and a patently false statement. It presumes, first of all, that everyone accepts the standard definition of beauty, i.e., a person whose physical appearance would be appealing to a majority of people. That majority would first have to agree on a definition of beauty. It also denies the concept that beauty comes from within. True beauty goes much deeper than skin. It’s difficult to interpret because one does not know that either gender would view themselves in the same light as someone of the opposite sex would. But, the essence is that, if one perceives that a person’s features are arranged in a way that is pleasing to him/her, then it is a pleasant looking face. Nothing more, nothing less. But the external beauty is not everything that matters there is more to it a person’s mentality, thinking upbringing and the list goes on and on. Finally I would say that no matter how many theories one can invent a beautiful mind is much more appealing than a beautiful person.
- Gabriella Conti & Stephen Pudney, 2011. “Survey Design and the Analysis of Satisfaction,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(3), pages 1087-1093, August._institution [Accessed 15 October 2012]
- Mobius, Markus & Rosenblat, Tanya, 2010. “Why Beauty Matters,” Staff General Research Papers 32112, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Biddle, Jeff E & Hamermesh, Daniel S, 1998. “Beauty, Productivity, and Discrimination: Lawyers’ Looks and Lucre,” Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 172-201, January.
- Beauty is Skin Deep | Teaching Tolerance. 2012. Beauty is Skin Deep | Teaching Tolerance. Available at:http://www.tolerance.org/activity/beauty-skin-deep. [Accessed 20 October 2012].
- Wikipedia. 2012. Wikipedia. Available at: http://www.wikipedia.org/. [Accessed 13 October 2012].