Bangladesh is a source and transit city’s for men, women, and children subjected to trafficking in persons, specifically forced labor and forced prostitution. A significant share of Bangladesh’s trafficking victims are men recruited for work overseas with fraudulent employment offers who are subsequently exploited under conditions of forced labor or debt bondage. Children – both boys and girls – are trafficked within Bangladesh for commercial sexual exploitation, bonded labor, and forced labor. Some children are sold into bondage by their parents, while others are induced into labor or commercial sexual exploitation through fraud and physical coercion. Women and children from Bangladesh are also trafficked to India for commercial sexual exploitation.

Bangladeshi men and women migrate willingly to Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Qatar, Iraq, Lebanon, Malaysia, Liberia, and other countries for work, often under legal and contractual terms. Most Bangladeshis who seek overseas employment through legal channels rely on the 724 recruiting agencies belonging to the Bangladesh Association of International Recruiting Agencies (BAIRA). These agencies are legally permitted to charge workers up to $1,235 and place workers in low-skilled jobs typically paying between $110 and $150 per month. According to NGOs, however, many workers are charged upwards of $6,000 for these services. A recent Amnesty International report on Malaysia indicated Bangladeshis spend more than three times the amount of recruitment fees paid by other migrant workers recruited for work in Malaysia. NGOs report many Bangladeshi migrant laborers are victims of recruitment fraud, including exorbitant recruitment fees often accompanied by fraudulent representation of terms of employment. The ILO has concluded high recruitment fees increase vulnerability to forced labor among transnational migrant workers. Women typically work as domestic servants; some find themselves in situations of forced labor or debt bondage where they face restrictions on their movements, non-payment of wages, threats, and physical or sexual abuse. Some Bangladeshi women working abroad are subsequently trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation. Bangladeshi children and adults are also trafficked internally for commercial sexual exploitation, domestic servitude, and bonded labor. Recent reports indicate many brothel owners and pimpsaddict Bangladeshi girls to steroids, with harmful side effects, to make them more attractive to clients; the drug is reported to be used by 90 percent of females between 15 and 35 in Bangladeshi brothels.[1]

Bangladesh does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. The government has continued to address the sex trafficking of women and children. Despite these significant efforts, the government did not demonstrate evidence of increased efforts to prosecute and convict labor trafficking offenders, particularly those responsible for the fraudulent recruitment of Bangladeshi workers for the purpose of forced labor overseas. Similarly it did not demonstrate increased efforts to prevent the forced labor of Bangladeshi workers overseas through effective controls on high recruitment fees and other forms of fraudulent recruitment; therefore, Bangladesh is placed on the Tier 3 Watch List for the second consecutive year. Some government officials and members of civil society continue to believe the forced labor and debt bondage of Bangladeshi workers abroad was not considered labor trafficking, but rather employment fraud perpetrated on irregular migrants.[1]

U.S. State Department’s Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons placed the country in “Tier 2 Watchlist” in 2017.

Trafficking from third world essentially involves some very elementary and mélange causes .situations affix which causes will become the prime stimulator and which will stand as a facilitating factor in human trafficking.

Hereby, it depends on variation of circumstances. but in any case all  these components are more or less active and imperative in managing the vicious trafficking chain.

National level:


Poverty is the most ominous curse on our nation .it is the mother of many other vicious circles that are vibrantly dominating our lives life styles, actions, and thoughts, day to day conducts, abilities etc. economical insolvency is the utmost obstruction that incessantly creates problem for its carrier. It has an all most all –dimensional impact on our lives. Empirically the poor are the easiest suffers of many others evil deeds within the society including trafficking. Poverty is a large extent a cause that has been created, maintained and facilitated by human interventions. Again, impoverishment facilitates unemployment and vice versa. It creates a vicious circle that at times fabricates many worst systems; trafficking is one of them. Sometimes, some enterprises including the ruling the ruling elite may become the perpetrator; but in all cases they are the human beings behind the veil of oppression.

Inherent injustice in the socio-economic system

When a system maintains the genesis of exploitation, with the advancement of time, it itself turns into a structural device exploitation. The native socio economical structure has injustices in various corners of its foundation. Here money, might and means dominate the structure irrespective of the true needs of common members of society. Existing socio economic system maintains a vicious circle of poverty that creates and circulates many other problems in the society. Some examples in this regard can be cited; if the market pries of daily goods hike up, it directly hits those who are poor. Again in our society respect follows the rich and not the poor, does not matter how much wise the latter is. This actuality creates hopelessness and sometimes it instigates the trafficking channels. However, the important fact is that the profits are always going to the same doors of white collar criminals.

Lack of Education and Awareness

This is also facilitated by sheer ignorance, lack of information and certain social motivated urge to go abroad and allegedly get the taste of a better (superior) life.


Natural calamities are very frequent in Bangladesh. They seldom visits our homeland, with sufficient destructive might; leaving behind miseries for our country. Namely, they are floods, cyclones, river erosions etc. Indeed, they are active and grave barriers against our state developments. It creates and some times, facilitates pauperization of the affected peoples. And, as always paupers are the worst victims of any kind of exploitations including human trafficking.

International level

Inequities in the international economic relations

The international economic relations are mainly controlled and dominated by the developed countries. Technological advantage, economical strength and military might now have become the control factors of world politics. Here some produces so that others consume; both products and people of some states can travel anywhere they want but in cases of most other states, products are restricted to travel whether people are not. But not always as travelers some times as victims of trafficking. This creates an imbalance in economic relations. It is incessantly creating a world where a poor state is getting poorer and rich is getting richer. This international trend is also active inside state borders. Thereby the destination countries are n a way fixing the status quo of the source countries.

International labour market 

Demand-supply dynamics

World atmosphere, more and more is being dominated by some cardinal axioms of modern economics. Demand always creates supply and if the demand increases, supply will be increased correspondingly. The whole international labour market has now become an open theater of these demand-supply dynamics. Here demand determines the supply and quantity; market determines from where the demand is to be satisfied. Since, the international market demands human beings as various commodities it collects them mainly from the third world due to less risk and expenditure accompanying high profit.


Earthly heaven, as it is understood by many of the commoners of the third world, is no doubt indicates-the developed western hemisphere. A world of joy and happiness! Where you will have anything and everything you need! For more than half a century, the poor third world is hypnotized by this dream. People from third world are devoted to touch their dreamlands and it is persisting them to anyhow cross the state borders. And from there starts the gospel of trafficking.

Multi-billion dollar business(flesh trade)

Consumerism has turned even human beings into commodities and amusement items. Certainly, it is one of the darkest chapters of human civilization. As mentioned earlier, trafficked women’s are the most frequent victims of this pre-historic trend. Now-a-days, it has become a multi-billion dollar business, that includes not only prostitution but also pornographic trades as adult websites, magazines etc. Moreover, this trade is flourishing in many parts of the globe. It has a direct impact on human psyche. Thereby, demand for flesh is growing up. And the market has to determine from where the supply will be coming.

Trading in human organs

Human organs are invaluable parts of the human body. One of the crucial causes behind trafficking is the demand of human organs in the international market. Because, according to medical science, some parts of the human body (e.g. kidney, cornea etc.) can be transplanted to another human body in order to cure / save another life. In many cases as reported in the media, it is ensured by involuntary donations from the trafficked kids. The victims of this inhuman treatment are tin most cases coming from poor third world countries including Bangladesh. Thus, it has reshaped the grade of human organs as demanded valuables.

Trafficking may have several consequences of multi-dimensional character .It has impacts on different levels and paradigms. It always distorts, by imposing tremendous pressure on the victims /survivors. Alongside, some others facets of it will be disclosed in subsequent discussions of the present module.


Health related problems

Trafficked victims are frequently affected by various health related problems. Albeit, it depends on the nature and length of engagements. Some of these are: AIDS, Hepatitis B and C, Syphilis, Cancer etc. A number of these diseases are infectious and incurable. General observations reveal that trafficked females that are mainly engaged in flesh trade are the most vulnerable victims of these health related threats. Though the degree of threat regarding other types of works varies, but in every case the threat is there.

New form of enslavement

Trafficking necessarily introduce new form of enslavement. When a person is trafficked, he or she is no longer free. Being trafficked requires adjustment with many cruel and inhuman treatments. It gives a new life without hope, without freedom and without dignity. Human beings become slaves of market demand. For example: children’s form poor countries are taken to the Middle East to make then camel jockeys. This enslavement is new, since it is not the age of Spartacus (When enslavement is legal), virtually slavery exists nowhere in the globe, if we want to understand that type of slavery as master vis-a vis slave relation. At present, market has become the master, far more expert and efficient in collecting slaves (albeit it is illegal according to many national and international instruments). Here stands the difference between new and old forms of enslavement.

Physical abuse and torture

A very common attitude towards those who have been trafficked is physical torture and abuse. This tendency is fabricated by the perceptions of those exploiters to whom they are not human beings but simply, commodities. So they can be used and abused like any other commodities. Here, always prevails the consumers (or, master’s) will. They are even subjected to torture as well for the sake of delish pleasure of the consumers. Rough and degrading life always brings some ghastly and pathetic realities. It is such a lane in which every intersection is full of inviolable punishments, miseries and sufferings. If it starts once, no one knows when and how it will stop. There is only one way to survive that is to sustain and adjust with it without any kind of objections. 


Death comes as a reward of becoming commodity. Not exceptionally, but unexpectedly, it comes to eliminate and unfortunate. Death defying working environment, acquiring incurable diseases, organic losses etc may cause death of the affected person. Suicidal tendency is also there amongst the victims. Moreover, since the trafficked people in most cases are illegal aliens in the state of destination, they are not receiving any legal protection there. Hence, the door for death to come and win remains wider.

Undignified treatment by state of destination

Very often the state of destination behaves inhumanly to the trafficked beings. It is in fact a reality, that when they are caught anyhow by the transit or destination countries they have to tolerate a continuous pressure from various state levels. Sometimes they are abused and exploited by the law enforcing agencies of those countries. But in any case, they did not get adequate protection of law since they are illegal foreigners in those countries. For these state affairs, the destined state sometimes remains indifferent about the rights of the trafficked persons.


Sense of alienation

Naturally, leaving home and homeland always gives and alien perception. To the trafficked victims, the degree of alien feeling is much truer and much harsher. They have to face new realities, new types of people and new life styles, with which they are not known and habituated. This new panorama offers them very tough and degrading life, which they are bound to follow. In their day to day business, they have to conduct with people of alien attitudes. In most cases the trafficked beings don’t understand their daily miseries. It creates a sense of alienation amongst the victims of human trafficking.

Loss of self

Loss of self comes as an inevitable consequence of alienation. When a person is lost outside his home and homeland and has to face continuously grave inhuman, degrading and cruel treatment, very certainly, his self dignity is dismantled by tremendous pressure of horrendous realities. It repeatedly strikes his essence of self estimation. He losses himself, because new realities turn him simply into a thing that can be bought and sold, used and abused in any manner demanded. 

Psychological disorders

As a predictable offshoot off being trafficked a number of psychological disorders may infect the victim. These are tension phobia, stress, total insanity etc. Notably, some of these diseases are very remotely curable unless proper medical care is taken. But for the trafficked beings this is probably something far beyond their expectations. This indeed makes their life more tough and complicated.

Family level

Breaking up of the family

Family beaks up in some cases due to become a subject of trafficking. In rural Bangladesh, people are very much motivated by various socio religious prejudices. For example, a married female is being trafficked, either by her husband or by a third person, in consequence, her family breads up. It may as well happen in other cases. But this misfortune in consequence, always prefers the female.

Trauma in and of the family

In any case of trafficking, the concerned family has to suffer the most. It leads the entire family to a mood of uncertainty and fear regarding the whereabouts of the member victimized by trafficking. It pushes the other members’ of the family in a state of continuous pressure or trauma. No one knows what will happen to the lost member; even no one knows what is coming to the family in return of trafficking from various societal levels. It anyhow the lost member returns, the family hesitates or even refuses to accept him/ her. This complexity acts inside and outside the family. It entails, sometimes in internal gap or misunderstanding among the family members and as a whole every individual member of the family has to suffer for this unfortunate incident.

National level

Loss of human resources lost population with accompanying economic consequences

Human beings are the most dynamic and invaluable resources for any country, since they can serve the nation and even the entire human civilization by their intellectual or material contributions. An intellect with the best merit and invincible expertise is sufficient to promote the nation’s image to an unparallel top. In any case, trafficking is not only taking away human resources from our country but also quashing possible intellectual skills.

Furthermore, it has got some negative economical impacts on our state economy. This vibrant chain is dismantling the possible contribution of those persons in the state’s economics. For any weak economy, it is tough to sustain such losses for long.

Security problems for small and weak states like Bangladesh

Trafficking of massive scale may entail in security problems, in some poor countries like “Bangladesh. Though not very certainly, but relatively and contextually we can refer to the ‘push in’ incidents here. The high rate of trafficking is a stimulating factor that leads to the presumption that may be a good number of persons have been trafficked from here outside the sate periphery. Albeit, they may not be trafficked to the same destination. However, in a way it is creating a threat to state security.

Negative image of the country

For any responsible nation, trafficking is a stigma. It creates a negative image of a source country in international level. Interestingly destination countries do not fall in such image crisis. This is a very unacceptable paradox that negatively impacts even in interstate relations.

International level

Proliferation of market forces

In the modern world, market determines many aspects of our day to day conducts. It impacts ion our choice, selection, fashion, taste, temptation etc. This market centered philosophy projects human beings simply as consumers who will consume various products and commodities available in the market. Since trafficking to a great extent has facilitated the conversion of the status of Human beings into commodities; it in this way also serves a vital purpose for the market Philosophy. That is it ensures the stark proliferation of the market forces. Worldwide plexus of trafficking and its marketing trend are regularly giving feedback to those interactive forces. 

Destination countries attempt to get an upper hand over source countries

From practical perspective status of a country stays on many issues. Trafficking in fact stigmatizes the source states by giving them a snide status. In the trafficking chain the latter destinations dominate the earlier stages. Therefore, the destination countries attempt to get an upper hand over source countries, by giving the latter a poor status.