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‘Compare and contrast the domestic implementation mechanism of Human rights between Bangladesh and USA’
Human rights are the basic rights and freedom to which all human beings are entitled. These rights include rights to freedom of expression and movement, equality before the law, the rights to live, right to education, religion, to own property, etc.
It’s important to know our human rights and protect them to reduce the chances of tyranny and such. People everywhere should understand what human rights are. When people better understand human rights, it will be easier for them to promote justice and the well-being of society
Human rights are based on the principle of respect for the individual. Their fundamental assumption is that each person is a moral and rational being who deserves to be treated with dignity. They are called human rights because they are universal. Whereas nations or specialized groups enjoy specific rights that apply only to them, human rights are the rights to which everyone is entitled—no matter who they are or where they live—simply because they are alive.
Human rights, being held by every person against the state and society, provide a framework for political organization and a standard of political legitimacy. Where they are systematically denied, claims of human rights may be positively revolutionary. Even in societies where human rights are generally well respected, they provide constant pressure on governments to meet their standards.
2. Bangladesh Human Rights system:
In 2005, Bangladesh experienced an unprecedented period of continuous political instability. On August 17, 2005, four hundred bombs exploded in all but one of the nation’s sixty-four districts.As a result of this instability and its national security repercussions, Bangladesh’s already questionable human rights have deteriorated.
Bangladeshi security forces have been persistently criticized by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch due to grave abuses of human rights. These include extrajudicial summary executions, excessive use of force and the use of custodial torture.Reporters and defenders of human rights are harassed and intimidated by the authorities. Since 2003, legislative barriers to prosecution and transparency have afforded security services immunity from accountability to the general public.<href=”#cite_note-3″> Hindu and Ahmadi Muslim minorities human rights are in a compromised state, and corruption is still a major problem, such that Transparency International has listed Bangladesh as the most corrupt country in the world for five co consecutive years.
3. Mechanism of human rights in Bangladesh:
The human rights condition determined by the social and political values and also with the economic condition. Most of the people of Bangladesh lead their life below the poverty line. The human rights of Bangladesh are separate from the western values. The condition of human rights of Bangladesh mainly detected by the condition of women child minorities and the role of security forces. International community mainly focuses on the role of security forces and severe violation of human rights. The constitution of Bangladesh provides enough space for rights of every individual human being. Traditional and religious values are on the focus on any discussion of human rights of Bangladesh. If anyone tries to evaluate the human right situation in Bangladesh he must acknowledge the traditional social and religious value of Bangladesh.
In Bangladesh, levels of violence declined significantly and the caretaker government oversaw successful elections, but the government’s human rights record remained a matter of serious concern. The state of emergency, which the government imposed in January 2007 and lifted on December 17, curtailed many fundamental rights, including freedom of expression, freedom of association, and the right to post bail. The government’s anticorruption drive was greeted by
4. Human Rights in USA
The protection of fundamental human rights was a foundation stone in the establishment of the United States over 200 years ago. Since then, a central goal of U.S. foreign policy has been the promotion of respect for human rights, as embodied in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The United States understands that the existence of human rights helps secure the peace, deter aggression, promote the rule of law, combat crime and corruption, strengthen democracies, and prevent humanitarian crises.
Because the promotion of human rights is an important national interest, the United States seeks to:
- Hold governments accountable to their obligations under universal human rights norms and international human rights instruments;
- Promote greater respect for human rights, including freedom from torture, freedom of expression, press freedom, women’s rights, children’s rights, and the protection of minorities;
- Promote the rule of law, seek accountability, and change cultures of impunity;
- Assist efforts to reform and strengthen the institutional capacity of the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and the UN Commission on Human Rights; and
- Coordinate human rights activities with important allies, including the EU, and regional organizations.
The Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (DRL) applies three key principles to its work on human rights:
DRL takes consistent positions concerning past, present, and future abuses. With regard to past abuses, it actively promotes accountability. To stop ongoing abuses, the bureau uses an “inside-outside” approach that combines vigorous, external focus on human rights concerns (including the possibility of sanctions) with equally robust support for internal reform. To prevent future abuses, it promotes early warning and preventive diplomacy. Each year DRL ensures that human rights considerations are incorporated into U.S. <href=”#_ftn1″ name=”_ftnref1″ title=””>military training and security assistance programs; promotes the rights of women through international campaigns for political participation and full equality; conducts high-level human rights dialogues with other governments; coordinates U.S. policy on human rights with key allies; and raises key issues and cases.
DRL forges and maintains partnerships with organizations, governments, and multilateral institutions committed to human rights. The bureau takes advantage of multilateral for a focus international attention on human rights problems and to seek correction. Each year, DRL provides significant technical, financial, or staff support for U.S. delegations to the annual meetings of several international human rights organizations; conducts regular consultations with Native American tribes and serves as the Secretary’s principal advisor on international indigenous rights issues; maintains relations with the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights
5. Mechanism of human rights in U.S.A :
A growing number of social justice lawyers employ human rights standards and strategies to advocate for their clients, human rights mechanisms of the United Nations have become promising way for lawyers to work toward economic justice, these Mechanism are not only an alternative to traditional litigation and administrative advocacy but also unique opportunities for collaboration among U.S civil society groups and engagement with policy makers. Because they are grounded in international human rights norms, human rights mechanisms have the potential to deal with social and economic issues beyond the reach of traditional domestic protections.
A Handful of international human rights treaties make up the core of human rights law. The universal Declaration of Human rights takes up the full panoply of rights. However, economic, social, and cultural rights and civil and political rights were grouped into separate core treaties for political and historical reasons related to Cold War policies and America’s legacy of racial injustice.Along with the universal Declaration of human rights,two key treaties form the International Bill of Rights: the international covenant civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic,Social and Cultural Rights.
6.0 Compare and contrast:
Five year human rights activity project, funded by USAID. Plan shall work with its partners: Bangladesh National Woman Lawyers’ Association and International Center for Research on Women. In addition Plan will work with 20 local NGOs in the delivery of survivor support services to victims of domestic violence. Many of the activities of this project will be national in scope such as advocacy, capacity building, and education. It will focus service delivery and its related Service Improvement Plan small grants component in 102 unions of 8 Upazilas within the 6 districts found in Barisal, Khulna, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Sylhet and Chittagong divisions.
The goal of PHR is to reduce the high prevalence of domestic violence and other related human rights violations (including, but not limited to, child marriage, anti-stalking, dowry, physical humiliation, torture, trafficking, rape, and child abduction). To achieve this goal, PHR will engage in an array of activities that will encourage policy reform and advocacy, enhance public awareness, and increase public dialogue between the government and civil society on issues of domestic violence and other associated human rights abuses. Interventions under PHR will: 1) advocate for the Government of Bangladesh to adopt and enforce comprehensive women‘s rights and domestic violence policies that includes legislation as the Domestic Violence Bill; 2) ensure that survivors of domestic violence and other related human rights abuses have greater access to justice; 3) increase the awareness and capacity of communities throughout Bangladesh to reduce domestic violence.
PHR represents a renewed and expanded effort of the USAID/Bangladesh Mission‘s earlier successful program entitled Bangladesh Human Rights Advocacy Program (BHRAP). PHR will complement existing U.S. government‘s interagency efforts to advance human rights, support adoption and enforcement of women‘s rights legislation and reform, and increase human rights education and awareness.
6.1 Development and Governance: The co-chairs underscored the Bangladesh-U.S. partnership on President Obama’s signature global initiatives on health care, food security and climate change as well as cooperation on women’s empowerment. They recognized Bangladesh’s leading role for countries that are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. They acknowledged Bangladesh’s vibrant and varied civil society and agreed to consider the possibilities of organizing a joint civil society event in the next Partnership Dialogue. The two delegations also discussed other issues relating to governance, human rights, the Rohingya, and the Millennium Challenge Account.
6.2 Regional Integration:<href=”#_ftn3″ name=”_ftnref3″ title=””>The co-chairs acknowledged Bangladesh’s leadership role in promoting greater connectivity in the region. They discussed the security landscape in the region, including Afghanistan and Burma. In the context of regional security, they recognized that the free movement of ideas, goods, and people enhances regional peace and prosperity.
6.3 Trade and Investment: The co-chairs discussed the status of labor law reform, registration of unions in the garment sector, fire and structural safety standards, and the prospects for a Better Work program in Bangladesh. The two delegations discussed market access, including Bangladesh’s request for duty free quota free garment exports to the United States and the ongoing U.S. review of a petition concerning Bangladesh’s eligibility for trade privileges under the Generalized System of Preferences. The co-chairs highlighted the start of a bilateral energy dialogue and underscored U.S.-Bangladesh leadership in organizing the first Sustainable Energy
Like most developing countries, Bangladesh too has its share of human rights issues and problems. While fundamental freedoms are enshrined in the constitution regardless of race, gender and religion, there are many instances where the rights are often ignored and at worst trampled. There is a singular lack of tolerance in the political system where the major opposition parties are often at violent loggerheads. While Bangladesh is a parliamentary democracy with reasonably free and fair elections, opposition to government policies is often displayed through violent demonstrations and enforced strikes (hartals). This is irrespective of which party is in power. In recent years the major opposition parties have boycotted parliamentary sessions.
The party in power usually takes advantage of state resources to suppress opposition activities. Opposition to ruling government policies are often portrayed as anti-state treasonable activities and the state police machinery is used to make politically motivated arrests and repression of opposition members.
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