Consumer Attitude towards TV Commercial: A Case Study on Banglavision
Chapter 1: Introduction
A ‘television advertisement’ or television commercial (often just commercial (US) or advert or ad (UK) or ad-film (India)) is a span of television programming produced and paid for by an organization that conveys a message. Advertisement revenue provides a significant portion of the funding for most privately owned television networks. The vast majority of television advertisements today consist of brief advertising spots, ranging in length from a few seconds to several minutes (as well as program-length infomercials). Advertisements of this sort have been used to sell every product imaginable over the years, from household products to goods and services, to campaigns. The effect of television advertisements upon the viewing public has been so successful and so pervasive.
The world’s first television advertisement was broadcast July 1, 1941. The watchmaker Bulova paid $9 for a placement on New York station WNBT before a baseball game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and Philadelphia Phillies. The 10-second spot displayed a picture of a clock superimposed on a map of the United States, accompanied by the voice-over “America runs on Bulova time.”
Many television advertisements feature catchy jingles (songs or melodies) or catch-phrases (slogan) that generate sustained appeal, which may remain in the minds of television viewers long after the span of the advertising campaign.
Advertising agencies often use humor as a tool in their creative marketing campaigns. In fact, many psychological studies tried to demonstrate the effect of humor and indicate the way to empower advertising persuasion.
Animation is often used in advertisements. The pictures can vary from hand-drawn traditional animation to computer animation. By using animated characters, an advertisement may have a certain appeal that is difficult to achieve with actors or mere product displays. For this reason, an animated advertisement (or a series of such advertisements) can be very long-running, several decades in many instances. A notable example is the series of advertisements for Kellogg’s cereals, starring Snap, Crackle and Pop. The animation is often combined with real actors.
Prior to the 1980s music in television advertisements was generally limited to jingles and incidental music. The use of previously-recorded popular songs in television advertisements began in earnest in 1985. Sometimes a controversial reaction has followed the use of some particular song on an advertisement. Often the trouble has been that people do not like the idea of using songs that promote values important for them in advertisements. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, music was increasingly used as background scores for television advertisements, Other long-running ad campaigns catch people by surprise, or even tricking the viewer,
Television Commercial Pros and Cons
The media consumption habits of average people, despite the Internet’s steady rise in popularity over the last few years, television remains the dominant medium in most households. On average, the general population spends over four and a half hours a day in front of the TV, making TV watching one of the most common modern leisure activities. Is it any wonder then that television advertising is also the most powerful form of advertising?
Advertising on television allows to show and tell a wide audience our business, product, or service.
TV commercial can show how product or service works and how it’s packaged so prospective customers will know what to look for at the point of sale. In advertising, it often takes multiple touch points to effectively influence consumers’ purchasing behavior.
Television advertising has been a popular medium for large retailers ever since the TV first began to appear in living rooms. With the arrival of cable television came lowered production costs and the opportunity to reach smaller, more targeted markets, making it a viable option for small to medium-size businesses as well.
To create an effective television ad, it’s first necessary to have a good script that highlights a strong offer. Ads must also be effectively produced, and it’s for this reason that it’s often better to enlist the services of an advertising agency, which can help to create an entire campaign.
Some of the advantages to advertising on television include the following:
¨ TV reaches a much larger audience than local newspapers and radio stations, and it does so during a short period of time.
¨ It reaches viewers when they’re the most attentive.
¨ It allows conveying message with sight, sound, and motion, which can give the business, product, or service instant credibility.
¨ It gives an opportunity to be creative and attach a personality to business, which can be particularly effective for small businesses that rely on repeat customers.
Some Disadvantages to TV Advertising
For all its advantages, advertising of business on TV does have some disadvantages. Barring late night spots on local cable television network, no other advertising medium is as likely to eat up budget as quickly as TV will. Producing the ad, which can include hiring script writers, actors, film editors, or an advertising agency, is only the first step. Business must also pay for air time, and because studies have shown that TV ads are most effective with repetition. Because of this, most television stations structure their pricing to make it more attractive for to purchase advertising in chunks.
Another disadvantage is how difficult it can be to make changes. Whereas with newspaper advertising, updating sale pricing or a special offer is often as simple as swapping out a coupon, with television advertising it means updating script and re-shooting the entire ad, which costs additional money.
It can also be difficult to effectively target core audience with television advertising, although there are a few best practices that can help.
Origin of the Report
Today practical experience is as much essential as academic education that enables someone to be successful business executive especially in the glove, competitive business environment. In order to gather knowledge and exposure regarding the organization culture, behavior the business students has to be go internship after the successful completion of their business degree. Daffodil Institute of It is known for the global standard education, due to this slogan of Daffodil Institute of IT, the business students of this Institute is renowned for their excellent knowledge both theoretical and also practical which makes a competitive and more global across the globe. This thesis report is proposed my academic supervisor Md.Sharif Hossain (Daffodil Institute of IT). In this regard, I would like to add that this thesis report is completely confidential and prepared with a view to expose myself to the practical exposure and knowledge. I know that I am doing this project for academic purpose. But at the same time I want to make a contribution for the development of our television channels Marketing,
Scope of the Report
Mainly analyzing and interpretations of this report have been done with the help of academic supervisor in the campus. This project has done through primary and secondary data. The project is being done through by questionnaire as well. For primary data I have done the survey among the 30 people of different region of Dhaka city.
Beside that I have take help from the marketing department and human resources department of Shamol Bangla Media Ltd (Bangla Vision). I have also take help from marketing department of international television channel ltd (ntv) and some research report from Sirius.
Objective of the Study
The main objective of the study is to evaluate the “consumer attitude toward TV commercial” in perspective of the Shamol Bangla Media Ltd (Bangla Vision). To achieve this main objective, the study seeks to realize to following.
· To find out the consumer attitude toward TV commercial.
· To know the present situation of the Shamol Bangla Media Ltd. (Bangla Vision).
· To analyze the performance of Shamol Bangla Media Ltd (Bangla Vision) as well as other television media.
· Identify the marketing structure and strategies of Shamol Bangla Media Ltd. (Bangla Vision).
· To give consultation in making various policies for a total improvement of the Marketing area of Bangla Vision.
· To expand the span of knowledge.
· To fulfill the academic purpose.
Methodology of Data Collection
The study is based on the internship program. The study is conducted on Shamol Bangla Media Ltd (Bangla Vision). Which is located Shamol Bangla Media Ltd. Noor Tower, I/F Free School Street, 110 Bir Uttam C R Dutta Road, Dhaka – 1205, Bangladesh.The present study is concerned with the prospects of Shamol Bangla Media Ltd. The approach adopted is basically analytical and interpretation in nature considering the objectives of the study on primary and secondary data.
Source of data:
The related data are collected from two sources:
Ø Primary sources
Ø Secondary sources
Ø Primary sources: Primary data is collected from Shamol Bangla Media Ltd. through direct interview and also interview schedule through questioner in different region in Dhaka city.
Ø Secondary sources: Main secondary data are the annual brushier of the Shamol bangla media ltd. various website on broadcast media. And an thesis report on competitive strategies of the private TV channel in Bangladesh. And also prospectus of different TV channel.
Data collection period:
The necessary data has been collected on 14 december2010 to 14 February 2011.
Data processing and analysis:
By using various statistical tools and computer, processing and analyzing all data.
Using table, chart diagram to analysis and presentation the data.
Limitations of the study
Internship needs long period of visits to work field’s money, patience and inspiration. But, for the lack of those elements doing internship becomes difficult and as a result, our knowledge yet remains much limited within the framework of the theoretical knowledge and it needs further practice for right application to the real field of work.
The main problems of data collection are as follows:
· Management restriction of company. For management restriction of the company they may not provide all necessary data and information to the internees.
· Problems for lack of sufficient knowledge about the activities of the conducted organization
· Negligence of the conducted company because they don’t like to give concentration and time. They think it as a time consuming and expensive one.
· I also have done a survey. But that is done upon very few numbers of people.
· The research has conducted within a limited span of time.
A random sampling was done to survey the consumers and therefore may not be representative of the whole population. Due to our narrowed down scope this report may not provide the whole picture.
|Company Name:||BANGLA VISION|
|Products & Services:||Satellite TV Channel|
|Address:||Shamol Bangla Media Ltd. Noor Tower, I/F Free School Street, 110 Bir Uttam C R Dutta Road, Dhaka – 1205, Bangladesh|
|Name of Satellite||Telestar firstname.lastname@example.orgE|
|Downlink Frequency||4049 MHz|
|L-Band Frequency||1101 MHz|
|Symbol Rate||3.600 Msym/s|
Bangla Vision Downlink Parameters:
To watch Bangla Vision from a supported location please collect a C Band TVRO unit with a Digital Receiver and tune with following data:
History & Origin of Banglavision
Shamol Bangla Media Ltd, A leading Media Company in the satellite TV channel sector. Shamoll Bangla Media Ltd. (Bangla Vision) was incorporated in 1988 with a spotlight to carry out the responsibilities on true and real circumstances and commited to the nation with bearing the motto “Drishty Jure Desh”. Overall turnover of the Shamol Bangla Media Ltd. (Bangla Vision) is over BDT 300 million to BDT 350 million per year.
Bangla vision is the 6th ever private satellite TV channel in Bangladesh. Banglavision is a bangla television channel which is the channel of reliability and with of full entertainment. Bangla Vision installation starts from 2004.1st commercially launched in 31march, 2006. Bangla Vision has taken up the challenge of providing its viewers with the latest information about development at home and abroad. Bangla Vision has already stepped into its 2nd Anniversary. It has made its mark all over the country and also outside of the country. Bangla Vision is a 24-hour TV channel and telecasts its programs keeping in mind the internationally accepted broadcast criterion- Education, Information and Entertainment.
Bangla vision has emerged as a powerful and effective mass media since its inception in 2006.Bangla Vision is putting out drama, documentaries, musical and educational programs and events of national & international importance as well as 12 bulletins in Bangla and English languages daily. In the context of Bangladesh’s social perspective, the organization has earned the trust of its viewers for which the producers, artists and supporting manpower deserve commendation for their coordinated efforts, creativity and sincere devotion.
Bangla vision is successfully running in all over the Bangladesh. Bangla Vision is also highly popular in South East Asia, Middle East, Europe, the United States of America, Canada and Australia. Bangla Vision News & Islamic programs have specially drawn the attention of TV viewers for its innovative approach. This has been reflected in the volume of advertisement it receives from within and outside the country.
Mission Vision and Objective of Banglavision
Bangla Vision is a leading private TV Channel with the slogan “DRISTI JUREY DESH” reflects own culture and resources. The objectives of channel are to dissemination of information, extension of education, motivation for development activities and entertainment. The target viewers of Banglavision are all over Bangla speaking people and it is a general entertainment exclusive Bangla channel, suitable for all members of a family.
Bangla Vision aims at promoting media and cultural world. Dynamism is the key word for Bangla Vision. It has opened up opportunities for national and international interactions in the broadcasting world through satellite transmission besides supplying visual material within & outside the country.
Bangla Vision aims at providing information, entertainment and education through its programmes all over the world. In the process it also ensures that the country’s culture and heritage are put to exposure for understanding and appreciation. Bangla vision is committed to entertain all generation around the world. The channel intention is to expose and focus our culture, people, economic development and the generation in front of the universe.
Bangla Vision is determined not to be politically biased and to offer objective news.Bangl vision is always tried to present fare news and program for its viewer. Though Bangla vision is a private satellite TV channel but it is a property of Bangladesh. Always the channel trying to present current and upgraded news also the channel trying to present program like drama, talk show various types of entertainment show , movie etc as per demanded laid the present generation.
Functional Department of Banglavision
The channel has the following major departments:
· News and Current Affairs.
· Sales and Marketing.
· Administration and Human Resources.
· Broadcast and Engineering.
· Finance and Accounts.
· Program department has the following sections:-
ð Set Design and Properties.
ð Press & Publication.
ð Library and Archive.
Programming section arranges various sorts of materials which include:-
· Drama and Entertainment – Full-length and Series & Serial dramas, Music, Dance and dance drama, Magazine and Game shows etc.
· Educational and Social Affairs programs—Documentaries, Talk Shows, Instructional program (cooking shows and beauty tips etc) Women Empowerment shows, Child-issues oriented program, Students’ Educational program, Edutainment shows and Public Services Announcement (PSA).
Film and Sport Feature films, Short films (local and foreign) and Local, National and International Sports.
· News and current Affairs department has the following sections:-
· Talk shows on current Affairs
· Research, Reference and Archives.
· Sales and Marketing has the following sections:-
· Market Analysis and Research.
· Collection of advertisements.
· Agreements and documentation.
· Production and promotion.
· Administration and Human Resources department has the following sections:-
· Management and Human Resources.
· Broadcast and Engineering has the following sections:-
· Outside broadcasting.
· Satellite and communications.
· Training and Research.
· Finance and Accounts has the following sections:-
· Tax and VAT
Growth and Development
BanglaVision is a new private satellite, cable and dish TV channel from Bangladesh. The channel offers many diverse and interesting programs, created especially for adults, children and women. Banglavision is a new channel, but it intends to play a positive and large role in building the nation through healthy entertainment. Banglavision already passed its two years. Within one year bangla vision reached break-even point and the reason behind the success for its program and news quality. BanglaVision’s program lineup includes dramas, talk-shows, feature films, entertainment, modern lifestyle programs, education series, music programs, soap operas, magazine shows, and program covering agriculture, politics, education and religion. Besides, the channel produces eight news bulletins in Bangla and one in English.In below shows the bangla vision statement of billing, recovery, and outstanding position and also the chart of billing amount. From the year 2008 to 2010.
Source: Accounts Department of Shamol Bangla Media Ltd.(Banglavision)
Company at a Glance
Television is a mirror for a nation and country. Banglavision is mirror of Bangladesh. From the starting day Banglavision has become a television for the country and its nation. Banglavision has stirrup their self with their own ability to the world culture. Banglavision is established as a integrated satellite television channel in Bangladesh with the use of world class technology and skilled workforce. Banglavision is now a good company for viewers of all over the world. Banglavision acquire reliability trust and affection from the viewers around the world. This achievement is strength of Banglavision.
Bangla Vision is a bangla television channel which is of reliability and pure pleasure of countless viewers. Bangla Vision is stepping forward with love and encouragement of a lot of viewer of our own country and also foreign countries.
Now Bangla Vision is satellite TV channel of fondness and love of the Bengali viewer of the whole world. By presenting various show and complete news Bangla Vision have already achieve faith of viewers and also the system of the channel prosperity is continuous.
Viewer is the 1st and main goal of Bangla Vision. The main theme of Bangla Vision is BANGLA, BENGALI AND BANGLADESH. Great 21st February and freedom fight is the channels policy and guideline. Bangla Vision has a group of efficient employee. Latest technology and impetus of youth is making brighter and acceptable day by day.
Organogram of Banglavision
Organogram of Marketing Department
Theoretical Background of TV media industry in Bangladesh
History of TV Media Industry in Bangladesh
To start with, East Pakistan, as Bangladesh was then known, had very poor telecommunications. Between 1959 and 1963, the first 100 KW medium wave and short wave transmitters were installed in Dhaka in order to improve communication between the two wings of Pakistan separated from each other by over 1,200 miles. There were relaying stations in Chittagong, Sylhet, Rangpur, Rajshahi and Khulna.
The 1971 war for the liberation of Bangladesh destroyed most of the facilities particularly in Khulna. Immediately after liberation, the government established the Bangla Betar Radio (BBR) with eight regional stations. In June 1975, Bangladesh opened its first earth satellite radio station at Betbunia, 140 miles south-west of Dhaka with $8 million from the Canadian International Development agency.
Television began in 1964, thanks to Nippon Electric Company as part owner of the pilot TV project. By the end of the 1960s, there was a satellite station operating from Chittagong along with two relay stations in Khulna and Rajshahi. By 1970, there were 35 hours of weekly telecasts, mostly in Bengali. Following the liberation of Bangladesh, Mujibur Rahman nationalized TV Bangladesh (BTV) Corporation with the government as the controlling stockholder and Nippon Electric as a major stockholder. The BTV has expanded considerably since then with its headquarters in the Rampura sector of Dhaka.
The Betar Radio (BR) has eight radio stations in Dhaka, including one for overseas service. There are FM facilities in Dhaka, Sylhet, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Rang-pur and Khulna. As for television, there were 15 broadcast stations in 1999 with an estimated 1.5 million sets in 2001. Programs are aired nationwide and to the other countries of South Asia, South and Southeast Asia, Middle East, Europe and the US. The BTV covers 95 percent of the population with relay stations in Dhaka, Rangpur, Mymensingh, Noakhali, Satkhira, Sylhet, Khulna, Natore, Rangamal, Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar, Jenaidah, Thajurgaon, Brahmanpura and Patunkhali. In the early 1990s, Cable TV was introduced. It became quickly popular and was availed of in more than one million homes with about 2,000 cable operators having an average of 200-250 subscribers, mostly in Dhaka and Chittagong. In 2002, they charge an average $3 or about 175 takas per connection. All operators need a license from the BTV, costing them an annual 25,000 Takas in the four main cities and 10,000 Takas in other urban centers. In 1991 and 1996 elections, both the principal political parties —the AL and the BNP— called for a free, national and democratic broadcasting system under an independent authority.
|1||Bangladesh Television (BTV)||State-owned||Bengali||December 25th, 1964|
List of television stations in Bangladesh
The first television signal broadcast in Bangladesh was in 1964 by the state-owned television network BTV. From then onwards BTV had a virtual monopoly until the late 1990’s. Ever since then a number of stations had arrived. Many have also shut down in the process.
Almost every channel is broadcast from the Telstar 10 satellite with the exception of ATN Bangla which is broadcast from Thaicom2/5
|3||BTV World||State Owned||Bengali||Entertainment||2005|
|6||CSB News(defunct)||Private||Bengali||News/Current Affairs||2007|
|7||Desh TV||Private||Bengali||Entertainment||Test Transmission|
|9||Ekushey Television||Private||Bengali||Entertainment||April 14th, 2000|
|15||Channel S||Private||Sylheti, Bengali and English||Entertainment||2004|
NSMtv is the First Online Bangla Entertainment Television.
|1||Northstar Music Television (NSMTV)||Private||Bengali||Entertainment||June 20th, 2008|
One of the newer Bangladesh TV channels to come onto the scene is Bangla Vision. The objective of the private channel is to build up the nation by means of wholesome entertainment. Bangla Vision is determined not to be politically biased and to offer objective news.
Launched in March 2006, BanglaVision is a new satellite TV channel that pledges to play a positive role in building the nation through healthy entertainment.
The channel offers many diverse and interesting programs, created specially for adults, children and women. Banglavision may be a new channel, but it intends to play a positive and large role in building the nation through healthy entertainment.
BanglaVision’s program lineup includes dramas, talk-shows, feature films, entertainment, modern lifestyle programs, education series, music programs, soap operas, magazine shows, programs covering agriculture, politics, education and religion. Besides, the channel produces eleven news bulletins in Bangla and one in English.
Shamol Bangla Media Limited
1st Mid break
2nd Mid break
|2nd Mid break
(Effective from January 01, 2011)
Tariff for Spot Advertisements in BDT (Peak Hours*)
*Peak hours are from 6-00 PM to 12-00 AM from Saturday to Thursday & full transmission of Fridays and special days
1. Rates for Sponsorship of programs: Rates for Sponsorship of programs shall vary from program to program depending on the cost of production, telecast time, program category and will be determined through negotiation.
2. Commercial Time allotted to sponsored programs of different duration: Programs up to 25 minutes include commercial time 300 Seconds (05 Minutes)-in the opening & 2 mid breaks Programs up to 50 minutes include commercial time 600 Seconds (10 Minutes)-in the opening & 3 mid breaks.
3. Branding & Naming rights: Rates for Branding & Naming rights for sponsored programs can be negotiated
4. Payment: Payments of full contract value is to be made along with booking order by Pay Order/Bank Draft in favour of ‘Shamol Bangla Media Limited’
5. VAT: 15% Value Added Tax (VAT) will be charged on Gross value of all advertisement or at the rate to be determined by the government from time to time.
6. Agency Commission: 15% Agency commission on net air time rates will be payable to advertisement agencies enlisted with Bangla Vision
7. AIT: 3% Advance Income Tax (AIT) to be deducted from Agency Commission of all advertisement
8. Discount for social welfare/voluntary organizations: 25% discount on air time rate will be applicable on advertisement relating to public awareness & motivational program put up by non-profitable organizations
9. Off Peak Rate: Off peak rate 50% of Peak hour rate.
Tariff for Prime Time News Segment Branding at 7: 30 PM & 10:30 PM:
Time reading Clock Branding (10 Sec) @ Tk. 10,000 per News
News Headlines Branding @ Tk. 12,500 per news
Rest of News Headlines Branding Before 1st mid Break @ Tk. 5,000 per News
Business News Branding @ Tk. 10,000 per News
Sports News Branding @ Tk. 10,000 per News
Headlines Recap Branding at end of the News @ Tk. 4,000 per News.
News Bulletins at: 7:30 AM 10:00 AM 11:00 AM 12 :00 PM 1:30 PM 3:00 PM 4:00 PM 5:00 PM 6:00 PM- English Bulletin 10:30 PM 7:30 PM
One of the main types of broadcast media in Bangladesh is TV, namely: “Bangladesh Television”. Bangladesh Television is the only terrestrial channel in the country. Several satellite TV stations have also made headway in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Television is a government owned TV station. Very few broadcasts contain information about the political opposition until the general elections become nearer and the government in power takes control.
Bangladesh Television has been running since 1964 with the aim of improving the national culture with information, education, motivation and entertainment. Such programming allows viewers greater insight into world trends. It also recognizes and works to fulfill the country’s needs. About 2 million televisions receive transmissions from the network’s 17 relay stations. Most of the programs are locally produced mainly in Dhaka.
Programs of Bangladesh Television:
BTV presents an array of quality programs daily to its esteemed viewers in line with its solemn pledge “Bangladesh Television speaks for the country, the land and the people”. The spirit of the vow is reflected through the innocent amusement programs side by side with emphasis on creating social awareness and motivation for nation building.
Percentage/Ratio of various programs:
1. Education, Science and Information Technology: 10%
2. Health, Nutrition and Family Planning: 10%
3. Current Affairs: 5%
4. Agriculture and Environment: 5%
5. Programs for Children and Juvenile: 15%
6. Programs on Development issues: 10%
7. Recreational/Drama/Music/Magazine programs: 45%
ATN Bangla is the first ever private satellite TV channel in Bangladesh. The channel started operating in the year 1997. In May 1999 the channel switched over from analog to digital technology and the screen became brighter and more attractive. In 2000, the channel extended its transmission to Europe and beyond. It was converted to digital system globally in May 2000. In July 16, 2001 ATN Bangla started broadcasting news bulletins. In 2002, ATN Bangla changed its analog format of transmission to digital satellite newsgathering system (SNG). It started English news bulletins from 01, September 2002. ATN Bangla earned wide appreciation for its coverage of the Iraq war by introducing hourly news bulletins. Among the TV channels of Bangladesh ATN Bangla has taken up the challenge of providing its viewers with the latest information about development at home and abroad.
ATN Bangla also introduced its own star search programme Tarokader Taroka to find and promote talents all over the country and to bring them to national level through healthy competition. ATN Bangla is also highly popular in South East Asia, Far East, Middle East, Europe, the United States of America, Canada, Australia and Africa. ATN Bangla News & Islamic programmes have specially drawn the attention of TV viewers for its innovative approach. This has been reflected in the volume of advertisement it receives from within and outside the country.
ATN Bangla has already stepped into its 10th Anniversary. It has made its mark allover the world. ATN Bangla is a 24-hour TV channel and telecasts its programmes keeping in mind the internationally accepted broadcast criterion- Education, Information and Entertainment.
Technical Information of ATN Bangla:
|Location||78.5 deg E|
|FEC||2/3 or Auto|
Bangla, a Bangla-language channel, offers high-quality programming broadcast 24-hours-a-day. NTV Bangla is rated #1 in Bangladesh and is very popular. NTV Bangla offers a variety of programming including news, entertainment, top drama serials like “Sporsher Baire” and “Tin Purush,” musical programs, movies, documentaries, children’s programs, cultural programs and much more for Bangladeshis in the U.S.
It started operation in 2003. It is one of the most popular Bengali TV channels in the country. In the anniversary of the channel, the founder expressed interest in creating NTV2 to satisfy the watchers further, however he is now in jail and all of his properties have been seized by the government. The channel broadcasts coverage of news, soap operas, educational, religious and politics related programs.
‘s Satellite down-link parameters
NTV has its own fully redundant state of the art Satellite Earth Station. The earth station is used to broadcast. Ntv’s digital signal is to Telstar 10 satellite. This Satellite has a huge coverage area across Asia and Africa and well into Europe.
|Orbital Location||76.5° E|
|Downlink Frequency||4175 MHz|
|L-Band Frequency||977 MHz|
|Carrier Type||MPEG-2 / DVB|
|Symbol Rate||4.300 MS/s|