Credit Operations and Performance Evaluation of The Trust Bank Limited
The Trust Bank limited (TBL), a private commercial bank sponsored by the Bangladesh
Army Welfare Trust, started its operations in November 29, 1999.The authorized capital
of the bank is Tk. 1000 million. The Army Welfare Trust (AWT) is the major shareholder bearing 51% share. Total shareholders’ equity at the end of December 2002 stood at Tk. 428.80 million, where Paid-up capital is Tk. 350million, statutory reserve is Tk 28.27 million and Retained Earnings is Tk. 50.53 million. The Paid- up capital is indicative of the face value of 3,50,000 ordinary shares of Tk. 1,000/-each fully subscribed by the shareholders.
Philosophy of The TBL
At present the bank has as many as 14 branches across the country and it is committed to
become equal service providers compatible with the norms of commercial schedule bank.
It renders all types of personal, commercial and corporate banking services to its customers within the purview of the Bank Companies Act, 1991 and in line with the
directives and policy guidelines laid down by Bangladesh bank.
Objective of the Bank
The Trust Bank Limited has been established with the objective of providing efficient
and innovative banking services to the people of all sections of our society. One of the
notable strengths of this bank is that it is backed by the disciplined and strongest
Institution of Bangladesh i.e. Bangladesh Army and there is a synergy of welfare and
profits in the dynamics of this institution.
Bank is service-oriented industry and we on our part are committed to ensure customized
Qualitative and hassle free services in our banking operations along with the focus to
Broaden the clientele base. The bank has extensively in the country’s industrial and agricultural sectors in the coming days. The bank is committed to contribute as such as possible within its limitations for the economic growth and for ensuring value of its available resources.
Performance of the TBL
TBL a blend of expertise and technological excellence is in place to meet varied needs of modern customers. The bank aims at mobilizing untapped money of the country and prudent deployment for productive activities in the form of lending at a competitive interest rates/loan pricing. Towards attainment of its goals and objectives, the bank pursues diversified credit policies and strategic planning in credit management. To name a few, the bank has extended micro credit, consumers durable scheme loans, house building loans etc. to cater to the needs of the individuals, which in turn has helped thousands of families. The bank also extends loan in the form of trade finance, industrial finance, project finance, export & import finance etc. The bank’s credit polices aimed at balanced growth and harmonious development of all the sectors of the country’s economy with top most priority to ensure quality of lending by averting growth of non-performing assets.
The Bank raised its Statutory Reserve from Tk. 10.97 million in FY 2001 to Tk. 28.27 million in FY 2002.
Profit and operating results
Total operating income of the bank in FY 2002 was Tk. 190.34 million against a total
operating expenditure of Tk. 85.47 million. Total profit before provision stood at Tk. 104.71million during FY 2002. After keeping Tk. 15.71 million as provision against classified loans & advances, Tk. 2.52 million as provision against unclassified loans (1%)
And Tk. 34.00 million as provision for income tax, the net profit stood at Tk. 52.48 million during FY 2002. Net profit after income tax in the year 2001 posted by the bank was Tk. 25.96 million. There is a significant increase in profit in 2002 over the preceding FY 2001. The earning per share was Tk. 199.45 in FY 2002. The retained earning increased by 229% to Tk. 50.53 million in FY 2002 compared to Tk. 15.34 million in FY2001.
In FY 2002, the deposits of TBL shot up to Tk. 2975.73 million from Tk. 2478.82 million
as recorded in FY 2001. During this period, the deposit base was increased by 20% compared to the preceding year. The combination of competitive interest rates, depositors’ trust in the bank and mobilization efforts of the bank resulted in this growth of deposits. Efforts are a foot being made to further increase deposit base of the bank through promotion of business and exploring of potential scope.
Loans & Advances
Total loans & advances of the bank as on December 31’2002 was Tk. 1897.63 million as against Tk. 1603.95 million in FY2001, showing an increase by 18.31% over the preceding year. The credit portfolio of the bank is a mix of scheme loans, namely Micro credit, Consumers durable scheme loan (CDS), Marriage Loan, Car Loan, HBF Loan and
commercial Loans. Commercial Loans comprise Trade financing in the form of working
capital and industrial loans (both large and medium scale industries) in the form of Term
loans and other funded & non-funded credit facilities. Term financing indicates the Bank’s participation in the industrial development of our country while by extending small loans the TBL has fulfilled the borrowing needs of the low and medium income groups of our society. The bank in the year 2002 extended micro credit to as many as 38,000 clients upto December 2002. The classified loans & advances accounted for only 3.16% of the total Loans & Advance of Tk. 1897.63 million in FY 2002. The bank as a matter of priority in its policy wants to ensure quality of its Loan Portfolio by strengthening post disbursement recovery measures as well as by prioritizing on Early Warning System (EWS) to check the growth of non-performing assets.
The TBL has taken up a programme to expand its branches. The bank has already 14 branches in many different places in Bangladesh; most of them are inside the different cantonments. The management is filling that they need more branches all over the Bangladesh. So very recent they will open a branch in Gulshan. As per Bangladesh Bank circular that if any bank open a branch in Dhaka then they has to be open a branch in out side Dhaka.
Information Technology (IT) & Automation
All the branches of the TBL are fully computerized. New software is now in use to provide faster, accurate and efficient service to the clients. The bank is continuously striving for better services through extensive automation of its branches. We are soon going to launch “One Branch Banking” through on-line connectivity. The bank has set up a full-fledged IT division to keep abreast of the latest development of IT for better service in the days to come.
Foreign correspondent relationship facilities foreign trade operation of the bank, mainly in respect of export, import and foreign remittance. The number of foreign correspondents and agents of the bank in the year 2001 stood at 244, which covers important business and trade centers of the world. The bank maintains excellent relationship with the leading international banks, for handling all foreign correspondent and maintaining all foreign business there is an International Division, which is called ID.
SWOT Analysis of the TBL
SWOT Analysis is an important tool for evaluating the companies Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. It helps the organization to identify hoe to evaluate its performance and can scan the macro environment, which is turn would help the organization to navigate in the Turbulence Ocean of competition. Following is given the SWOT analysis of The Trust Bank:
1. Top Management:
The top management of the bank, the key strength for The Trust Bank has contributed heavily towards the growth and development of the bank. The top management officials are army’s highest position holder, so they have a good idea about the current situation.
2. Company Reputation:
The Trust Bank has created a good reputation in the banking industry of the country. Their main customers are army persons. The popularity of this bank is increase day by day also in the general public area.
The Trust Bank has founded by The Army Welfare Trust. The main sponsors for this bank is Sena Kalyan Sangstha. The chairperson of this bank is Chief of Army Staff and directors are also appointed by the sangstha, that’s why the sponsor does not have any problem for the fund.
4. Modern Facilities and Computer:
From the very beginning The Trust Bank tries to furnish their work surroundings with modern equipment and facilities. For speedy service to the customer, The Trust Bank had installed money-counting machine in the teller counter. The bank has computerized banking operation under software called PC banking. More over computer printed statements are available to internal use and occasionally for the customers. The Trust Bank is equipped with telex and fax facilities.
5. Stirring Branches:
From the formative stage of The Trust Bank tried to furnish their branches by the impressive style. Their well-decorated branches gets attention of the potential customer, this is one kind of positioning strategy. The Sena Kalyan Bhaban Branch is also impressive and is comparable of foreign banks.
6. Interactive Corporate Culture:
The corporate culture of The Trust Bank is very much interactive compare to other local organization. This interactive environment encourages the employee to work attentively. Science the banking jobs is very much routine work oriented and lovely environment boots up the work capability of the employees.
1. Limitation of Information System (PC Bank):
PC bank is not comprehensive banking software. It is desirable that a more comprehensive banking system should replace PC bank system.
2. Hierarchy Problem:
The hierarchy problem treated as a weakness for The Trust Bank, because the employee will not stay for a long. So there will be a chance of brain drain from this bank to other bank.
3. Advertisement Problem:
There is another weakness for The Trust Bank is advertisement. Their media coverage is so much low that people do not know the bank thoroughly.
The Trust Bank can pursue diversification strategy in expanding its current line of business. They do not serve not only the army but also the general people.
2. Business Banking
The investment potential of Bangladesh is foreign investors. So EBL has opportunity to expand in business banking.
3. Credit Card
There is an opportunity to launch Credit Card in Bangladesh by EBL. Beside this, EBL can acquire services for cards like VISA, MASTER CARD etc. So that they can enhance the market based card service.
1. Contemporary Banks:
The contemporary banks of The Trust Bank like: Dhaka Bank, Dutch Bangla Bank, National Bank, Mutual Trust Bank, Mercantile Bank are its major rivals. They are carrying out aggressive campaign to attract lucrative clients as well as big time depositors. The Trust Bank should remain vigilant about the steps taken by these banks, as these will in turn affect The Trust Bank strategies.
2. Multinational Bank:
The Rapid expansion of multinational bank poses a potential threat to new PCB’s. Due to the booming energy sector, more foreign banks are expected to operate in Bangladesh. Moreover, the existing foreign banks such as HSBC, AMEX, CITI N.A, and Standard ChatteredGrindlaysare now pursing an aggressive branch expansion strategy. Since the foreign banks have tremendous financial strength, it will pose a threat to local bank to a certain extant in terms of grabbing the lucrative clients.
Default culture is very much familiar in our country. For a bank, it is very harmful. As The Trust Bank is new, it has not faced it seriously yet. However as the bank grows older it might become big problems.
Types of Credit made by the TBL
Modern banking operation touches almost every sphere of economic activity. The extension of bank credit is necessary for expansion of business operations. Bank credit is a catalyst bringing about economic about economic development. Without adequate finance there can be no growth or maintenance of a stable output. Bank lending is important to the economy, for it makes possible the financing of commercial and industrial activities of a nation. The credit facilities are generally allowed by the bank may be in two broad categories. They are as follows:
A. Funded Facilities:
Funded facilities can also be divided into the following categories
The term of loan is determined on the basis of gestation period of a project generation of income by the use of the loan. Such loans are provided for Farm Machinery, Dairy, Poultry, etc. It is categorized in three segments:
|Types of Term Loan||Time (Period)|
|Short Term||1 to 3 years|
|Medium Term||3 to 5 tears|
|Long Term||Above 5 years|
Over Draft (OD):
OD is some kind of advance. In this case, the customer can over draw from his/her current account. There is a limit of overdraw, which is set by the bank. A customer can with draw that much amount of money from their account. For this there is a interest charge on the over draw amount. This facility does not provide for every one, the bank will provide only those who will fulfill the requirement. It means that only real customer can get this kind of facility.
Cash Credit (Hypo):
It allows to individuals or firm for trading as well as whole-sale purpose or to industries to meet up the working capital requirements against hypothecation of goods as primary security fall under this type of lending. It is a continuous credit. It allowed under two categories:
1. Commercial Lending
2. Working Capital
Cash Credit (Pledge):
Financial accommodation to individual/firm for trading as well as whole sale purpose or to industries as working capital against pledge of goods primary security falls under this head of advance. It also a continuous credit and like the above allowed under the categories:
1. Commercial Lending
2. Working Capital
Advance allowed to individual/firm against financial obligation (i.e. lien of FDR/PS/BSP etc.) and against assignment of work order for execution of contract works fall under this head. This advance is generally allowed for allowed for definite period and specific purpose. It is not a continuous credit.
Advances allowed for purchasing foreign currency for opening L/C for imports of goods fall under this type of leading. This is also an advance for a temporary period, which is known as preemptor finance and falls under the category ‘Commercial Lending’.
Payment made by the bank against lodgment of shipping documents of goods imported through L/C falls under this type head. It is an interim type of advance connected with import and is generally liquidated shortly against payments usually made by the party for retirements of documents for release of import goods from the customer authority. It falls under the category ‘Commercial Lending’.
Advances allowed for retirement of shipping documents and release of goods imported through L/C without effective control over the goods delivered to the customer fall under this head. The goods are handed over the importer under trust with arrangement that sales proceed should be deposited to liquidate the advances within a given period. This is also temporary advance connected with import that is known post-import finance under category ‘Commercial lending’.
Payment made through purchase of inlands bill to meet urgent requirements of customer fall under this type of credit facility. This temporary advance is adjusted from the proceeds of bills purchased for collection. It falls under the category ‘Commercial Lending’.
Payment made to a party through purchase of foreign documentary bills fall under this head. This temporary advance is adjustable from the proceeds of negotiable shipping/export documents. It falls under category ‘Export Credit’.
Payment made to a party through purchase of local documentary bills fall under this head. This temporary liability is adjustable from proceeds of the bill.
The exporters pay of the imported goods on behalf of the importer through bank guarantee. If the exporter fails to make the fulfill payment at the moment the bank will take the liability and pay to the exporter. This type of guarantee is also needed to attend in any tender.
Loan has given only to the Army Person for the purpose of Repairing and Reconstruction of dwelling Houses.
A credit facility is available for Armed Forces officials (Major and above or equivalent Ranks and Status with minimum length 12 years of services). Car loan and Marriage loan are also included as CDS.
A credit facility is available for the retired Armed Forces officials.
B. Non Funded Facilities:
Non funded facilities are divided into the following categories:
A credit facility in contingent liabilities from extended by the banks to their clients for participation in development work, likes supplies goods and services.
Letter of Credit:
A credit facility in contingent liabilities from provided to the clients by the banks for import/procurement of goods and services.
Components of the Lending operations maintained by the Bank
Written Loan Policy
One of the most important ways a bank can make sure its loans meet regulatory standards and are profitable is to establish a written loan policy. Such a policy gives loan officers and the bank’s management specific guidelines in making individual loan decisions and in shaping the bank’s overall loan portfolio. The actual make up of a bank’s Loan portfolio should reflect what its loan policy says. Otherwise, the loan policy is not functioning effectively and should be either revised or more strongly enforced by senior management.
- A goal statement for the bank’s loan portfolio (i.e., statement of the characteristics of a good loan portfolio for the bank in terms of types, maturities, sizes, and quality of loans)
- Specification of the lending authority given to each loan officer and loan committee (measuring the maximum amount and types of loan that each person and committee can approve and what signatures are required).
- Lines of responsibility in making assignments and reporting information within the loan department.
- Operating procedures for soliciting, reviewing, evaluating, and making decisions on customer loan applications.
- The required documentation that is to accompany each loan application and what must be kept in the banks credit files (required financial statements, security agreements etc.).
- Lines of authority within the bank, detailing who is responsible for maintaining and reviewing the banks credit files.
7. Guidelines for taking, evaluating, and perfecting loan collateral.
8. A presentation of policies and procedures for setting loan interest rates and fees and the terms for repayment of loans.
- A statement of quality standards applicable to all loans.
- A statement of the preferred upper limit for total loans outstanding (i.e. the maximum ratio of total loans to total assets allowed).
- A description of the bank’s principal trade area, from which most loans should come.
- A discussion of the preferred procedures for detecting, analyzing, and working out problem loan situation.
Steps in the Lending Process
- Most bank loans to individuals arise from a direct request from a customer who approaches a member of the bank’s staff and asks to fill out a loan application. Business can requests, on the other hand, often arise from contacts the bank’s loan officers and sales representatives make as they solicit new accounts from firms operating in the banks market area. Sometimes loan officers will call on the same company for months before the customer finally agrees to give the bank a try by filling out a loan application.
- Once a customer decides to request a loan, an interview with a loan officer usually follows right away, giving the customer the opportunity to explain his or her credit needs. That interview is particularly important because it provides an opportunity for the bank’s loan officer to assess the customer’s character and sincerity of purpose.
- If a business or mortgage loan is applied for, a site visit is usually made by an officer of the bank to assess the customer’s location and the condition of the property and to ask clarifying questions. The loan officer may contact other creditors who have previously loaned money to this customer to see what their experience has been.
- If all is favorable to this point, the customer is asked to submit several crucial documents the bank needs in order to fully evaluate the loan request, including complete financial statements and, in the case of a corporation, board of directors’ resolutions authorizing the negotiation of a loan with the bank. Once all documents are on file, the credit analysis division of the bank conducts a thorough financial analysis of them aimed at determining whether the customer has sufficient cash flows and backup assets to repay the loan. The credit analysis division then prepares a brief summary and recommendation, which goes to the loan committee for approval.
- If the loan committee approves the customer’s request, the loan officer or the credit committee will usually check on the property or other assets to be pledged as collateral in order to ensure that the bank has immediate access to the collateral or can acquire title to the property involved if the loan agreement is defaulted. This is often referred to as perfecting the bank’s claim to collateral. Once the loan officer and the bank’s loan committee are satisfied that both the loan and the proposed collateral are sound, the note and other documents that make up a loan agreement are prepared and are signed by all parties to the agreement.
The division of the bank responsible for analyzing and recommendations on the fate of most loan applications is the credit department. Experience has shown that this department must satisfactorily answer three major questions regarding each loan application:
1. Is the borrower creditworthy? How do you know?
2. Can the loan agreement are adequately protected and the customer has a high probability of being able to service the loan without excessive strain?
3. Can the bank perfect its claim against the assets or earnings of the customer so that, in the event of default, bank funds can be recovered rapidly at low cost and with low risk?
Let’s look in turn at each of these three key issues in the “yes” or “no” decision a bank must make on every loan request.
Is the Borrower Creditworthy?
The question that must be dealt with before any other is whether or not the customer can service the loan-that is, pay out the credit when due, with a comfortable margin for error. This usually involves a detailed study of six aspects of the loan application- character, capacity, cash, collateral, conditions, and control. All must be satisfactory for the loan to be a good one from the lender’s point of view.
Character. The loan officer must be convinced that the customer has a well-defined purpose for requesting bank credit and a serious intention to repay. If the officer is not sure exactly why the customer is requesting a loan, this purpose must be clarified to the bank’s satisfaction.
Responsibility, truthfulness, serious purpose, and serious intention to repay all monies owed make up what a loan officer calls character.
Capacity. The loan officer must be sure that the customer requesting credit has the authority to request a loan and the legal standing to sign a binding loan agreement. This customer characteristic is known as the capacity to borrow money. For example, in most states a minor (e.g., under age 18 or 21) cannot legally be held responsible for a credit agreement; thus, the bank would have great difficulty collectors on such a loan.
Cash. This key feature of any loan application centers on the question: Does the borrower have the ability to generate enough cash, in the form of cash flow, to repay the loan? In general, borrowing customers have only three sources to draw upon to repay their loans: or (a) cash flows generated from sales or income, (b) the sale or liquidation of assets, or (c) funds raised by issuing debt or equity securities. Any of these sources may provide sufficient cash to repay a bank loan.
Collateral. In assessing the collateral aspect of a loan request, the loan officer must ask, does the borrower possess adequate net worth or own enough quality assets to provide adequate support for the loan? The loan officer is particularly sensitive to such features as the age, condition, and degree of specialization of the borrower’s assets.
Conditions. The loan officer and credit analyst must be aware of recent trends in the borrower’s line of work or industry and how changing economic conditions might affect the loan.
Control. The last factor in assessing a borrower’s creditworthy status is control which centers on such questions as whether changes in law and regulation could adversely affect the borrower and whether the loan request meets the bank’s and the regulatory authorities’ standards for loan quality.
Can the Loan Agreement Be Properly Structured and Documented?
The six Cs of credit aid the loan officer and bank credit analyst in answering the broad question: Is the borrower creditworthy? Once that question is answered, however, a second issue must be faced: Can the proposed loan agreement be structured and documented to satisfy the needs of both borrower and bank?
A properly structured loan agreement must also protect the bank and those it represents- principally its depositors and stockholders- by imposing certain restrictions (covenants) on the borrower’s activities then these activities could threaten the recovery of bank funds. The process of recovering the bank’s funds- when and where the bank can take action to get its funds returned-also must be carefully spelled out in a loan agreement.
Needs for Collateral
Most Borrowers at one time or another will be asked to pledge some of their assets or to personally guarantee the repayment of their loans. Getting a pledge of certain borrower assets as collateral behind a loan really serves two purposes for a lender. If the borrower cannot pay, the pledge of collateral gives the lender the right to seize and sell those assets designated as loan collateral, using the proceeds of the sale to cover what the borrower did not pay back. Secondly, collateralization of a loan gives the lender a psychological advantage over the borrower.
The goal of a bank taking collateral is to precisely define which borrower assets are subject to seizure and sale and to document for all other creditors to see that the bank has a legal claim to those assets in the event of nonperformance on a loan.
Sources of Information about Loan Customers
The bank relies principally on outside information to assess the character, financial position, and collateral of a loan customer. Such an analysis begins with a review of information supplied by the borrower in the loan application. The bank may contact other lenders to determine their experiences with this customer. Were all scheduled payments in previous loan agreements made on time? Were deposit balances kept at high enough levels? How much was borrowed previously and how well were those earlier loans handled? Is there any evidence of slow or delinquent payments? Has the customer ever declared bankruptcy?
Sources of Information about the Loan customers
- Physical Investigations
- Customer financial statements
- Experience of other lenders with this customer
- Customer Annual Report
- Local or regional credit bureaus
- Local Newspapers
- Local chamber of commerce
Mechanism of Credit Distribution of the TBL
The primary factor determining the quality of the bank’s credit portfolio is the ability of each borrower to honor, on a timely basis. All credit comities made to the bank. The authorizing credit personnel prior to credit approval must accurately determine this. If the report of the project appraisal is very satisfactory to approve the loan proposal, than the following steps furnish the approval procedure:
· Make a proposal by the client to the bank
· Give all the necessary documents
· Bank will send the parties statement to the Bangladesh Bank, their CIB (Credit Information Bureau) will inquiry that whether this party is defaulter or a new one.
· Bank will take the collateral from the party and analysis that how much it will cover the total loans.
· Bank will send this proposal to the head office. In the head office the Board of Directors and Managing Director will approve the loan.
· Head office will send the approval to the branch office.
· Branch office will give the sanction letter to the party.
· Bank will take the security and make it in their favor.
After completing all the necessary steps for sanctioning loans bank will create a loan account by the name of the party and deposit the money to that account. Bank will give chequebooks to the party and advise them to draw the money and use it as soon as possible, because whenever the money will transfer to the account interest will count from that time.
Analyzing the Year Wise Loan Disbursement by the TBL
|YEAR||AMOUNT OF LENDING (IN MILL.)|
From the graph we can say that in the year 2002 the total loan disbursement is 47% (1897.63 million) to compare with other two financial years. In the year 2001 the loan disbursement was 40% (1603.95 million) and in the year 2000 the loan disbursement was only 13% (525.75 million). So according to this graph we can easily say that the bank’s loan disbursement is increasing day by day. It is a positive sign for the bank. But there is one thing that if we see the percentage increase by the year then in the loan disbursement is 47% and in the previous year it was 40%. So the percentage increases by 7% only. In the year 2000 to 2001 the percentage increased by 27% and this increase was high compare with 2001 to 2002. It may be not a good sign for the bank, because bank’s main earning source is loan disbursement, like: interest earning. It is a big part of the bank’s total earning. So the bank should take care in this loan side.
Analyzing the Sector-wise Lending by the TBL (In million)
|Long Term Loan||5.61||294.40||176.02|
|Micro credit (MCL )||271.31||609.55||436.63|
|Consumer Durable Scheme||–||164.80||80.15|
|House Building Loans||–||37.56||57.54|
|Loans Against trust receipts||–||115.66||402.04|
|Payment against documents||–||–||65.52|
Analyzing the Sector-wise Lending disbursement of the TBL in the year 2000
From the graph, we can say that the TBL was not able to maintain a good lending operation in the year 2000, as it was the first year of the TBL Banking operations. The maximum portion of the lending has disbursed in the sector of Micro Credit. About 52% of total has given in this sector. In this year, there were about 18000 clients in this sector. About 41% of total loans have disbursed as other Loans (SOD, Letter of Credit etc.).About 3%loans has given in the sector as overdraft opportunity. 2.70%loans has given as cash credit. Loan also disbursed as staff Loan and Long Term Loan.
Analyzing the Sector-wise Lending disbursement of the TBL in the year 2001
In the year 2001, from the graph we can say that the maximum portion of lending has
disbursed to the micro credit sector. The number of client in this sector were about
23000 in this year that was 18000 in the year 2000. The percentage of lending was
38% of the total in this sector. Term Loans has maintained the second position in loan disbursement by the TBL. The amount of loan was 295 million, which was about19% of the total lending. A large amount of loans was also disbursed as Consumer durable scheme (11%). Loan has also disbursed as short-term loans, cash credit, House-building loans, Staff loans etc.
Analyzing the Sector-wise Lending disbursement of the TBL in the year 2002
In the year 2002, from the graph we can say that the maximum portion of lending has
disbursed to the micro credit sector. The number of client in this sector were about
38000 in this year that was 23000 in the year 2001. The percentage of lending was
23% of the total in this sector. Loans against trust receipt has maintained the second position in loan disbursement by the TBL. The amount of loan was 402 million which was about21% of the total lending. A large amount of loans was also disbursed as secured over draft (13%). Loan has also disbursed as term loans, cash credit , House building loans,
LOAN-PRICING METHOD USED BY THE TBL:
In pricing a business loan, Bank management must consider the cost of raising loanable funds and the operating costs of running the Bank. This means that Banks must know what their costs are in order to consistently make profitable, correctly priced loans of any type. There is no substitute for a well-designed management information system when it comes to pricing loans.
The Trust Bank Limited is generally used the simplest loan-pricing model which assumes that the rate of interest charged on any loan includes four components: (1) the cost to the Bank of raising adequate funds to lend, (2) the Bank’s nonfunds operating costs (including wages and salaries of loan personnel and the cost of materials and physical facilities used in granting and administering a loan), (3) necessary compensation paid to the Bank for the degree of default risk inherent in a loan request, (4) Bank’s desired profit margin.
Marginal cost of raising Nonfunds = loanable funds to lend+ Bankto the Borrower operatingcosts (including RATE wages and salaries of Bank Personnel)
Estimated margin to Bank’+ Compensate the Bank +desired
For default risk profit margin.
Chart of Interest rate of The Trust Bank for Lending
Revised on 23 March, 2004
Rate of Interest
|House Building Loan (Res)||12%|
|House Building Loan (Com.)||13%|
|Staff Loan (Car)||6%|
|Consumer Durable Loan||12%|
|Micro Credit (TLR)||12%|
|Term Loan (Industrial)||12.50%|
|Term Loan (Commercial)||12.50%|
|Cash Collateral (FDR/SP/WEDB)||12.50%|
|Bills Discounted & Purchased:|
These sector-wise interest rates have been introduced by the Head Office of the Trust Bank Limited. They use cost-plus pricing method in case of pricing the loans. The fourteen branches of the Trust Bank Limited have maintained these rates strictly except in case of some quality and credit-worthy lenders. After judging the lenders’ credit-worthiness, the Trust Bank Limited gives some beneficiary to this kind of lenders. They can enjoy a decreasing interest rate, which maintained by the Trust Bank Limited’s branches internally. Other wise, the scheduled rates are maintained by all the TBL branches. In case of Micro Credit, as the loan amount is not so large that’s why the scheduled rate is maintained by the Bank. Actually, the Lending rate is based on the prescription, which is given by Bangladesh Bank. Recently TBL has revised their lending interest rate on 23 March, 2004. The revised lending interest rates have been effective from April 01,2004 for all existing and fresh sanction of credit facilities.
Sector-wise Interest Income of the TBL during the year 2000-2002
|INTEREST INCOME SECTOR||2000||2001||2002|
|Interest on Consumer Durable Scheme||10.37||17.88||15.48|
|Interest on Over Draft||.93||5.44||17.38|
|Interest on SOD (Industrial )||–||2.31||8.58|
|Interest on Cash Credit||.91||4.75||38.71|
|Interest on Marriage Loan||3.09||12.10||14.44|
|Interest on Car Loan||.88||3.30||3.46|
|Interest on Payment Against Document (PAD )||1.54||3.11||1.82|
|Interest on Micro Credit||7.04||61.58||58.46|
|Interest on House Building Loan||.47||3.16||6.00|
|Interest on Term Loan||–||18.04||39.25|
|Interest on Inland Bills Purchased & Other Loan||.02||3.43||23.77|
|Interest on packing Credit||–||.09||.005|
|Interest on FDR||–||36.08||47.18|
|Interest received from Local Bank||21.45||20.30||.97|
|Interest from Foreign Bank||.78||–||.85|
Analyzing the year-wise total Interest Income of the TBL
From the graph we can say that in the year 2002 the total interest income is 276.41 million to compare with other two financial years. In the year 2001 the interest income was 189.71 million and in the year 2000 the total interest income was only 47.52 million. So according to this graph we can easily say that the bank’s total interest income is increasing day by day. It is a positive sign for the bank. But there is one thing that if we see the percentage increase by the year then in the interest income is 54% and in the previous year it was 37%. So the percentage increases by 17% only. In the year 2000 to 2001 the percentage increased by 27% and this increase was high compare with 2001 to 2002. It may be not a good sign for the bank, because bank’s main earning source is interest earning. It is a main part of the bank’s total earning. So the bank should take care in this interest income sectors.
Analyzing the sector-wise Interest Income of the TBL in the year 2000
According to the graph, we see that in the year 2000, the total interest income was 47.52 million. In this year, the highest interest income was come from the Local bank interests. Next position for the interest income was held from the Consumer durable scheme. Interest on Micro credit also has a large impact on the total interest income in this year. In this year, there were about 18000 clients in Micro credit sector. Interest income from Cash credit, IBP, Foreign exchanges also influence strongly on the TBL’s total interest income in this year.
Analyzing the sector-wise Interest Income of the TBL in the year 2001
According to the graph, we see that in the year 2001, the total interest income was 189.71 million. In this year, the highest interest income was come from the Micro credit sector. In this year, there were about 23000 clients in Micro credit sector. Next position for the interest income was held from the fixed deposit lending. Interest on Term loans, Local banks also has a large impact on the total interest income in this year. Interest income from Cash credit, IBP, Foreign exchanges also influence strongly on the TBL’s total interest income in this year.
Analyzing the sector-wise Interest Income of the TBL in the year 2002
According to the graph, we see that in the year 2002, the total interest income was276.41million. In this year, the highest interest income was come from the Micro credit sector. In this year, there were about 38000 clients in Micro credit sector. Next position for the interest income was held from the fixed deposit lending. Interest on Term loans also has a large impact on the total interest income in this year. Interest income from Cash credit, IBP, Foreign exchanges also influence strongly on the TBL’s total interest income in this year.
Loan Classification and the TBL Bank
Signs for Classification
First and foremost requirement for any credit managers is to identify a problem credit in its earliest stages by recognizing the signs of deterioration. Such signs include but not limited to the following:
01. Non-payment of interest or principal or both on due dates or past dues beyond a reasonable period or recurring past dues.
02. In case of Overdraft no movement in the account beyond a reasonable period.
03. A deterioration in financial condition of the client, as gathered from client’s latest financial statement.
04. A shortfall in collateral coverage, particularly if the collateral was a key factor in the decision-making.
05. Death or withdrawal of key owner(s) or management personnel.
06. Company filing for bankruptcy or voluntary dissolution.
07. Adverse market report about the company itself or its principal owners.
Steps to follow for Classification
Steps to follow in such situations would be:
01. Recheck the account, for all outstanding, including any outstanding in allied or sister company or in owner’s or partners’ or directors personal names.
02. Thoroughly review loan documentation to confirm, “We have what we need”, documents are in proper from, properly executed and current (i.e. not time barred).
03. If possible take current market value of the securities according to liquidation basis. And take a close look at the assets and liabilities to determine who has the prior right on those assets.
04. If Grantors are involved, look closely at the net worth statement and send demand notice.
05. Once the account is classified Sub-Standard, credit lines must be frozen.
For the purpose of determining the “Classified” status of an account, following guidelines are to be observed
01. The process of classification of an account will start with strict application of the risk rating assessment that is
iii. Bad or Loss
02. However unpaid interest or Principal or Expired Limit for a period of 180 days or more or recurring past dues will remain the most significant rules for classification.
CLASSIFICATION AS SUBSTANDARD:
A loan is classified as substandard if any one of the following conditions is met:
(a) If an advance or any portion of an advance or interest thereon remains overdue for 180 days or more but less than 270 days then the advance is classified as substandard.
(b) For an advance of a continuing nature, even if the loan is not overdue as much as 180 days, but the limit stands overdrawn by move than 50% for a period of 45 continuous days preceding the reference date for the classification, then it is classified as substandard.
(c) If a loan has been renewed or rescheduled at least three times but is not overdue, and any of the required payments for the required period have not made when they fall due, then the loan is classified as substandard.
CLASSIFICATION AS DOUBTFUL:
A loan is classified as doubtful if any one of the following conditions is met:
(a) The advance or any portion of the advance or interest thereon remains overdue
for 270 days or more but less than 360 days.
(b) A loan classified as substandard per clause 6 (b) above has remained substandard
for 180 days or more.
(c) A loan classified as substandard per clause 5 (c) above has remained substandard
for 180 days or more.
(d) Legal action has been initiated.
(e) Qualitative criteria based on judgment.
CLASSIFICATION AS BAD.
A loan is classified as bad if any one of the following conditions is met:
(a) The advance or any portion of an advance or interest thereon remains overdue for
360 days or more.
(b) A loan classified as doubtful per clause 6 (b) above has remained doubtful for
180 days or more.
(d) A loan classified as doubtful per clause 6 (c) above has remained doubtful for
180 days or more.
(e) If legal action has been initiated and no court decision has been obtained within
360 days of initiation of action then the loan is classified as bad.
(f) Qualitative criteria based on judgment.
Classified Loan conditions of the TBL (In million)
|Unclassified Loans & Advances||525.74||1583.21||1837.63|
|Sub-Standard Loans & Advances||–||14.95||29.86|
|Doubtful Loans Advances||–||4.42||23.63|
|Bad/Loss Loans & Advances||–||1.37||6.51|
Ratio of classified Loans to Total Loans of the TBL
The Trust bank Limited recorded a satisfactory level of performance in all the areas of its
operations in the year 1999-2002.The success due to the combined and concerted efforts
of the management and staff of the bank under the able guidance, support and patronage of the members of the Board. But these were not enough in case of the Lending operations.
The graph shows that the percentage of classified Loan in the year 2000 was 0%, it was increased in the year 2001 as 1.29% (20.74 million), but in the year 2002, it was vastly increased and went up to 3.16% (60 million). According to international rules, a bank may have a maximum limit of classified Loans as 5% of the total Lending. As TBL did not pass this limit, but it is not a good sign for the Bank. Currently TBL’s CAMEL rating is 3, which means the Bank is only in a fair position. The main problem of the TBL is that it is not able maintain a good Loan policy. As a result, classified loans of this Bank have increased over the years. To improve its CAMEL Rating, TBL must have to improve in this area and has to decrease the amount of classified Loans by a well-designed recovery policy.
What are the main reasons behind classification of the TBL
01. New Banker, or lacking of experience.
02. Most of the time bankers have to relay on the documents provided on the client. But what is the purity of these data. Although the CA firm certifies the dates but financial jugulating is practicing around the world.
03. Client’s over confidence about the project.
04. Change in National and Internationa