Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. Pollution is often classed as point source or non point source pollution. The Blacksmith Institute issues annually a list of the world's worst polluted places. In the 2007 issues the ten top nominees are located in Azerbaijan, China, India, Peru, Russia, Ukraine, and Zambia2.
Air pollution has always been with us. According to a 1983 article in the journal Science, "soot found on ceilings of prehistoric caves provides ample evidence of the high levels of pollution that was associated with inadequate ventilation of open fires."3 The forging of metals appears to be a key turning point in the creation of significant air pollution levels outside the home. Core samples of glaciers in Greenland indicate increases in pollution associated with Greek, Roman and Chinese metal production.
The industrial revolution that gave birth to environmental pollution as we know it today. The emergence of great factories and consumption of immense quantities of coal and other fossil fuels gave rise to unprecedented air pollution and the large volume of industrial chemical discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste. Chicago and Cincinnati were the first two American cities to enact laws ensuring cleaner air in 1881. Other cities followed around the country until early in the 20th century, when the short lived Office of Air Pollution was created under the Department of the Interior. Extreme smog events were experienced by the cities of Los Angeles and Donora, Pennsylvania in the late 1940s, serving as another public reminder.[8]
2.Part A: Forms of pollution by industries and its impact on our environment
(a)Air pollution act and its impact on environment:
There have been two acts proposed by the Canadian federal government with the name "Clean Air Act". The first, passed in 1970, sought to regulate the release of four specific air pollutants: asbestos, lead, mercury, and vinyl chloride. It has since been replaced by the Canadian Environmental Protection Act in the year 2000.
Former Canadian Environment Minister Rona Ambrose introduced the second Clean Air Act in mid-October 2006, containing mostly measures to fight smog pollution and greenhouse emissions.. On October 19, 2006, Ambrose revealed details of the plan which would include reducing the greenhouse emissions levels of 2003 by about 45 to 65% for the year 2050. There are plans for regulations on vehicle fuel consumption for 2011 and targets for ozone and smog levels for 2025. The effectiveness of this act has been challenged by the opposition parties, with Jack Layton of the New Democratic Party stating that the act does little to prevent climate change and that more must be done. After eatening to make this into an election issue the Conservative Party agreed to rework the act with the opposition parties.
United States federal government has enacted a series of clean air acts, beginning with the Air Pollution Control Act of 1955, and followed by the Clean Air Act of 1963, the Air Quality Act of 1967, the Clean Air Act Extension of 1970, and Clean Air Act Amendments in 1977 and 1990. Numerous state and local governments have enacted similar legislation, either implementing federal programs or filling in locally important gaps in federal programs
(b)Water pollution act and its impact on environment:
The Clean Water Act is the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution. Commonly abbreviated as the CWA, the act established the goals of eliminating releases to water of high amounts of toxic substances, eliminating additional water pollution by 1985, and ensuring that surface waters would meet standards necessary for human sports and recreation by 1983.
The principal body of law currently in effect is based on the Federal Water Pollution Control Amendments of 1972, which significantly expanded and strengthened earlier legislation. Major amendments were enacted in the Clean Water Act of 1977 and the Water Quality Act of 1987.
The 1972 CWA created a new requirement for technology-based standards for point source discharges. EPA develops these standards for categories of dischargers, based on the performance of pollution control technologies without regard to the conditions of a particular receiving water body. The intent of Congress was to create a "level playing field" by establishing a basic national discharge standard for all facilities within a category, using a "Best Available Technology." The standard becomes the minimum regulatory requirement in a permit. If the national standard is not sufficiently protective at a particular location, then water quality standards may be employed.
Water pollution may be analyzed through several broad categories of methods: physical, chemical and biological. Most involve collection of samples, followed by specialized analytical tests. Some methods may be conducted in situ, without sampling, such as temperature. Government agencies and research organizations have published standardized, validated analytical test methods to facilitate the comparability of results from disparate testing events.
(c)Soil pollution act and its impact on environment:
Following WWII and Vietnam, scientists discovered high incidences of mutation, miscarriage, mental defects, cancer and sickness in areas where nuclear warheads had been dropped. Food shortages also alerted officials that something was seriously wrong with the local soil. DDT and Dioxin were two of the worst pollutants from war aftermath. In some cases, agricultural processes cause soil pollution. High levels of radionuclides like nitrogen and phosphorus can be found surrounding farm centers containing high population densities of livestock. Pesticides applied to plants can also seep into the ground, leaving lasting effects. Heavy metals can arrive in the soil by using polluted water to wet crops and by using mineral fertilizers. Industry is to blame for some of the biggest soil-pollution disasters. Heavy metals come from iron, steel, power and chemical manufacturing plants that recklessly use the Earth as a dumping ground for their refuse. Plants that burn their waste on-site are guilty of releasing heavy metals into the atmosphere, which come to settle in the soil, thus leaving behind lasting effects for years to come. Even companies that try to dispose of their waste properly contribute to the problem when faulty landfills and bursting underground bins leach undesirable toxins into the soil. "When old factories are relocated, they just dismantle the houses, carry away the machines and nothing else is left to be done. The land that used to be a production site either is turned into farmland or real estate. Few understand that this land has become sick," explains Zhao Qiguo of the Chinese Academy of Sciences' Institute of Soil Science. People living near polluted land have higher incidences of migraines, nausea, fatigue, miscarriage and skin disorders. Long-term effects of pollution include cancer, leukemia, reproductive disorders, kidney and liver damage, as well as central nervous system failure. Children often suffer from developmental problems and weakened immune systems. In addition to direct health effects, soil pollution also harms plants that feed Americans. Chemicals can sometimes absorb into food like lettuce and be ingested. Other times, the pollutants simply kill the plants, which has created widespread crop destruction and famine in other parts of the world. The entire ecosystem changes when new materials are added to the soil, as microorganisms die off or move away from contaminants
3.Part B:Industrial revolution is the major causes for environment pollution and its prevention
(a)The Ecological Impact of the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution marked a major turning point in Earth’s ecology and humans’ relationship with their environment. As the Industrial Revolution dramatically changed every aspect of human life and lifestyles from human development, health and life longevity, to social improvements its human impact on natural resources, public health, energy usage and sanitation would not begin to register in the world’s psyche until the early 1960s, some 200 years after its beginnings.
It wasn’t that the Industrial Revolution became a stalwart juggernaut overnight. It started in the mid-1700s in Great Britain when machinery began to replace manual labor and fossil fuels replaced wind, water, and wood primarily for the manufacture of textiles and the development of iron making processes. The full impact of the Industrial Revolution would not begin to be realized until about 100 years later in the 1800s when the use of machines to replace human labor spread throughout Europe, North America and the rest of the world. This transformation is referred to as the industrialization of the world processes that gave rise to sweeping increases in production capacity and would affect all basic human needs including food production, medicine, housing, and clothing. Not only did society develop the ability to have more things quicker, it would be able to develop better things. These industrialization processes continue today.
(b)Awakening to the Implications of Unsustainable Growth and Dependence on Limited Resources
There were many indicators that the Industrial Revolution had propelled the world human population into an era of living and production at the ultimate expense of the human condition and the resources that were (and could be) taken for granted for the entire prior history of humankind. There were always more resources than the demand for them. Yet, it would take one person in the 1960s to make the general public aware of the cause and effect of human outgrowth from the Industrial Revolution. Rachel Carson took on the powerful and robust chemical industry in her globally acclaimed 1962 book, Silent Spring, and raised important questions about humans’ impact on nature. For the first time, the public and industry would begin to grasp the concept of sustainable production and development.
It was the fossil fuel coal that fueled the Industrial Revolution, forever changing the way people would live and utilize energy. While this propelled human progress to extraordinary levels, it came at extraordinary costs to our environment and ultimately the health of all living things. And while coal and other fossil fuels were also taken for granted as being inexhaustible, it was American geophysicist M. King Hubbert who predicted in 1949 that the fossil fuel era would be very short-lived and that other energy sources would need to be relied upon.
Hubbert predicted that fossil fuel production, in particular oil, would reach it s peak starting in 1970 and would go into steady decline against the rising energy demands of the population. Just like that, the decline in production started in the United States in 1971 and has spread to other oil producing nations as well. This peak production is known as “Hubbert’s Peak.” By the time the world began to heed Hubbert's prediction, the use of fossil fuels – so heavily relied upon to fuel the Industrial Revolution — had become so firmly interwoven into human progress and economy that changing this energy system would drastically alter the very way we have lived our lives. It will happen, but it will take time, continued ingenuity and vast economic incentives to transform dependence on this fuel that fostered the growth and prosperity launched by the Industrial Revolution.
Looking back at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, it is difficult to realize how what took place then is having such complicated and vast effects today, but that is the principle of environmental unity – a change in one system will cause changes in others. Certainly, the seeds of progress – and the ramifications of that progress – were planted then. And with the very same mechanisms and effects that brought about both the progress and the indelibly connected results of that progress to our ecology – the good, the bad and the ugly – over the last 250 years, we will enter a new era of sustainability. That is the next revolution.
- ^ "Reports". WorstPolluted.org. http://www.worstpolluted.org/. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- ^ "EPA: Air Pollutants". Epa.gov. 2006-06-28. http://www.epa.gov/ebtpages/airairpollutants.html. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- ^ Evidence growing of air pollution’s link to heart disease, death // American Heart Association. May 10, 2010
- ^ "Newly detected air pollutant mimics damaging effects of cigarette smoke" (PDF). http://www.physorg.com/pdf138201201.pdf. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- ^ "Infant Inhalation Of Ultrafine Air Pollution Linked To Adult Lung Disease". Sciencedaily.com. 2009-07-23. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/07/090722123751.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- ^ "AP 42, Volume I". Epa.gov. http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/index.html. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- ^ "United Kingdom's emission factor database". Naei.org.uk. http://www.naei.org.uk/emissions/index.php. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- ^ European Environment Agency's 2005 Emission Inventory Guidebook
- ^ "Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (reference manual)". Ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp. http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gl/invs6.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- ^ Australian National Pollutant Inventory Emissions Estimation Technique Manuals[dead link]
- ^ Canadian GHG Inventory Methodologies[dead link]
- ^ "Duflo, E., Greenstone, M., and Hanna, R. (2008) “Indoor air pollution, health and economic well-being”. ''S.A.P.I.EN.S.'' '''1''' (1)". Sapiens.revues.org. http://sapiens.revues.org/index130.html. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- ^ "Estimated deaths & DALYs attributable to selected environmental risk factors, by WHO Member State, 2002". http://www.who.int/entity/quantifying_ehimpacts/countryprofilesebd.xls. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- ^ "Newly detected air pollutant mimics damaging effects of cigarette smoke". www.eurekalert.org. http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-08/acs-nda072308.php. Retrieved 2008-08-17.
- ^ "Study links traffic pollution to thousands of deaths". The Guardian (London, UK: Guardian Media Group). 2008-04-15. http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2008/apr/15/health. Retrieved 2008-04-15.
- ^ Simi Chakrabarti. "20th anniversary of world's worst industrial disaster". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2004/s1257352.htm.
- ^ Davis, Devra (2002). When Smoke Ran Like Water: Tales of Environmental Deception and the Battle Against Pollution. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-01521-2.
- ^ [dead link] , http://www.latimes.com/features/health/la-me-pollute13-2008nov13,0,5432723.story , http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/11/13/MNQP143CPV.DTL
- ^ Diesel exhaust inhalation increases thrombus formation in man† Andrew J. Lucking1*, Magnus Lundback2, Nicholas L. Mills1, Dana Faratian1, Stefan L. Barath2, Jamshid Pourazar2, Flemming R. Cassee3, Kenneth Donaldson1, Nicholas A. Boon1, Juan J. Badimon4, Thomas Sandstrom2, Anders Blomberg2, and David E. Newby1
- ^ Persistent Endothelial Dysfunction in Humans after Diesel Exhaust Inhalation Ha°kan To¨rnqvist1*, Nicholas L. Mills2*, Manuel Gonzalez3, Mark R. Miller2, Simon D. Robinson2, Ian L. Megson4, William MacNee5, Ken Donaldson5, Stefan So¨derberg3, David E. Newby2, Thomas Sandstro¨m1, and Anders Blomberg1
- ^ Christopher H. Goss, Stacey A. Newsom, Jonathan S. Schildcrout, Lianne Sheppard and Joel D. Kaufman (2004). "Effect of Ambient Air Pollution on Pulmonary Exacerbations and Lung Function in Cystic Fibrosis". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 169 (7): 816–821. doi:10.1164/rccm.200306-779OC. PMID 14718248.
- ^ Michael Kymisis, Konstantinos Hadjistavrou (2008). "Short-Term Effects Of Air Pollution Levels On Pulmonary Function Of Young Adults". The Internet Journal of Pulmonary Medicine 9 (2). http://www.ispub.com/ostia/index.php?xmlFilePath=journals/ijpm/vol9n2/pollution.xml.
- ^ Zoidis, John D. (1999). "The Impact of Air Pollution on COPD". RT: for Decision Makers in Respiratory Care. http://www.rtmagazine.com/issues/articles/1999-10_06.asp.
- ^ Holland WW, Reid DD. The urban factor in chronic bronchitis. Lancet. 1965;I:445-448.
- ^ J. Sunyer (2001). "Urban air pollution and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease: a review". European Respiratory Journal 17 (5): 1024–1033. doi:10.1183/09031936.01.17510240. PMID 11488305. http://erj.ersjournals.com/cgi/content/abstract/17/5/1024.
- ^ "Polluted Cities: The Air Children Breathe" (PDF). World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/ceh/publications/en/11airpollution.pdf.
- ^ Committee on Environmental Health (2004). "Ambient Air Pollution: Health Hazards to Children". Pediatrics 114 (6): 1699–1707. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-2166. PMID 15574638.
- ^ "2005 BC Lung Association report on the valuation of health impacts from air quality in the Lower Fraser Valley airshed" (PDF). http://www.bc.lung.ca/pdf/health_and_air_quality_2005.pdf. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- ^ "World Bank Statistics" (PDF). http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/table3_13.pdf. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- ^ International Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Carbon Intensity Energy Information Administration
- ^ Turner, D.B. (1994). Workbook of atmospheric dispersion estimates: an introduction to dispersion modeling (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 1-56670-023-X.
- ^ Beychok, M.R. (2005). Fundamentals Of Stack Gas Dispersion (4th ed.). author-published. ISBN 0-9644588-0-2. www.air-dispersion.com
33. ^ Pink, Daniel H. (April 19, 2006). "Investing in Tomorrow's Liquid Gold". Yahoo. http://finance.yahoo.com/columnist/article/trenddesk/3748.
34. ^ a b West, Larry (March 26, 2006). "World Water Day: A Billion People Worldwide Lack Safe Drinking Water". About. http://environment.about.com/od/environmentalevents/a/waterdayqa.htm.
35. ^ "A special report on India: Creaking, groaning: Infrastructure is India’s biggest handicap". The Economist. 11 December 2008. http://www.economist.com/specialreports/displaystory.cfm?story_id=12749787.
36. ^ "China says water pollution so severe that cities could lack safe supplies". Chinadaily.com.cn. 2005-06-07.
38. ^ United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Washington, DC. "The National Water Quality Inventory: Report to Congress for the 2002 Reporting Cycle – A Profile." October 2007. Fact Sheet No. EPA 841-F-07-003.
39. ^ a b United States Geological Survey (USGS). Denver, CO. "Ground Water and Surface Water: A Single Resource." USGS Circular 1139. 1998.
42. ^ a b EPA. "Protecting Water Quality from Agricultural Runoff." Fact Sheet No. EPA-841-F-05-001. March 2005.
45. ^ Schueler, Thomas R. "Microbes and Urban Watersheds: Concentrations, Sources, & Pathways." Reprinted in The Practice of Watershed Protection. 2000. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD.
47. ^ a b EPA. "Report to Congress: Impacts and Control of CSOs and SSOs." August 2004. Document No. EPA-833-R-04-001.
48. ^ a b c G. Allen Burton, Jr., Robert Pitt (2001). Stormwater Effects Handbook: A Toolbox for Watershed Managers, Scientists, and Engineers. New York: CRC/Lewis Publishers. ISBN 0-87371-924-7. http://unix.eng.ua.edu/~rpitt/Publications/BooksandReports/Stormwater%20Effects%20Handbook%20by%20%20Burton%20and%20Pitt%20book/MainEDFS_Book.html. Chapter 2.
49. ^ Schueler, Thomas R. "Cars Are Leading Source of Metal Loads in California." Reprinted in The Practice of Watershed Protection. 2000. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD.
51. ^ For example, see Clescerl, Leonore S.(Editor), Greenberg, Arnold E.(Editor), Eaton, Andrew D. (Editor). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (20th ed.) American Public Health Association, Washington, DC. ISBN 0-87553-235-7. This publication is also available on CD-ROM and online by subscription.
53. ^ EPA (2004)."Primer for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Systems." Document No. EPA 832-R-04-001.
54. ^ EPA. "Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Philadelphia." December 9, 2008.
55. ^ EPA (1997) Profile of the Fossil Fuel Electric Power Generation Industry. (Report). Document No. EPA/310-R-97-007. p. 24
57. ^ a b c EPA. "National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Agriculture." July 2003. Document No. EPA-841-B-03-004.
61. ^ Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. Nashville, TN."Tennessee Erosion and Sediment Control Handbook." 2002.
63. ^ a b EPA (1999)."Preliminary Data Summary of Urban Storm Water Best Management Practices." Chapter 5. Document No. EPA-821-R-99-012.
64. ^ EPA. "Fact Sheet: Low Impact Development and Other Green Design Strategies." October 9, 2008.
65. ^ California Stormwater Quality Association. Menlo Park, CA. "Stormwater Best Management Practice (BMP) Handbooks." 2003.
^ New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Trenton, NJ. "New Jersey Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual."
style="text-align: justify;" size="1" />
see "Pollution – Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. 2010-08-13. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pollution. Retrieved 2010-08-26
See, Hong, Sungmin et al. (1996) "History of Ancient Copper Smelting Pollution During Roman and Medieval Times Recorded in Greenland Ice" Science (New Series) 272(5259): pp. 246-249, page 248
See,The earliest known writings concerned with pollution were written between the 9th and 13th centuries by Persian scientists such as Muhammad ibn Zakar?ya R?zi (Rhazes), Ibn Sina (Avicenna), and al-Masihi or were Arabic medical treatises written by physicians such as al-Kindi (Alkindus), Qusta ibn Luqa (Costa ben Luca), Ibn Al-Jazzar, al-Tamimi, Ali ibn Ridwan, Ibn Jumay, Isaac Israeli ben Solomon, Abd-el-latif, Ibn al-Quff, and Ibn al-Nafis. Their works covered a number of subjects related to pollution such as air contamination, water contamination, soil contamination, solid waste mishandling, and environmental assessments of certain localities
See, The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 proposed emissions trading, added provisions for addressing acid rain, ozone depletion and toxic air pollution, and established a national permits program. The amendments once approved also established new auto gasoline reformulation requirements, set Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) standards to control evaporative emissions from gasoline and mandated that the new gasoline formulations be sold from May-September in many states
 See,Natural Resources Defense Council v. Train, 396 F.Supp. 1393 (D.D.C. 1975), aff'd. by NRDC v. Costle, 568 F.2d 1369 (D.C. Cir. 1977).
 See,Water Pollution Control Foundation (WPCF): "The Clean Water Act of 1987." Joan M. Kovalic et al. Alexandria, VA, 1987.
Edward Hanousek, Jr v. United States (1996). In 1994, during rock removal operations, a backhoe operator accidentally struck a petroleum pipeline near the railroad tracks. The operator’s mistake caused the pipeline to rupture and spill between 1,000 and 5,000 gallons of heating oil into the Skagway river. Despite not being present at the scene during operations White Pass and Yukon Route Roadmaster Edward Hanousek, Jr. and President Paul Taylor were both held responsible for the spill and convicted
Rapanos v. United States (2006). The Supreme Court questioned federal jurisdiction as it attempted to define the Act's use of the terms "navigable waters" and "waters of the United States." The Court rejected the position of the USACE that its authority over water was essentially limitless. Though the case resulted in no binding case law, the Court suggested a narrowing of federal jurisdiction and implied the federal government needed a more substantial link between navigable federal waters and wetlands than it had been using, but held onto the "significant nexus" te
For example, see Clescerl, Leonore S.(Editor), Greenberg, Arnold E.(Editor), Eaton, Andrew D. (Editor). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (20th ed.) American Public Health Association, Washington, DC
See, EPA (1999)."Preliminary Data Summary of Urban Storm Water Best Management Practices." Chapter 5
See, Mining leaves a tremendous impact on the surrounding communities. The 2001 West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey found that people living near mines have a 70 percent higher risk of kidney disease, 64 percent higher risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a 30 percent higher risk of high blood pressure. "People in coal-mining communities need better access to health care, cleaner air, cleaner water, and stricter enforcement of environmental standards," concluded Michael Hendryx, Ph.D., associate director of the WVU Institute for Health Policy Research. see,Thermal pollution from runoff can be controlled by stormwater management facilities that absorb the runoff or direct it into groundwater, such as bioretention systems and infiltration basins. Retention basins tend to be less effective at reducing temperature, as the water may be heated by the sun before being discharged to a receiving stream
See, The most prolific evidence of the Industrial Revolution’s impact on the modern world can be seen in the worldwide human population growth. Modern humans have been around for about 2.2 million years. By the dawn of the first millennium AD, estimates place the total world human population at between 150 – 200 million, and 300 million in the year 1,000 (a little less than the population of the United States today). The world human population growth rate would be about .1 per cent (.001) per year for the next seven to eight centuries.
 see, Michael Kymisis, Konstantinos Hadjistavrou (2008). "Short-Term Effects Of Air Pollution Levels On Pulmonary Function Of Young Adults". The Internet Journal of Pulmonary Medicine 9 (2).
 see, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Trenton, NJ. "New Jersey Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual." April 2004.