Environmental Impact Assessment of Jamuna Bridge after construction and its Mitigation measures
The economic development and social unity largely depend on the communication facilities. Improvement of national highway network in Bangladesh has been obstructed due to three mighty rivers: The Ganges (Padma), Meghna and the Jamuna (Brahmaputra). Jamuna is one of the world’s largest river divides Bangladesh into two regions: North West region and the other part of the country. The major transport barrier between the east and west part of Bangladesh is Jamuna Bridge. The river poses an impediment to economic development and social integrity between these two parts. There has long been desire to improve the transportation network and the energy transfer between these two parts of the country.
The Jamuna Multipurpose Bridge (JMB) within the length of 4.8 km has been constructed connecting the capital city, Dhaka with the North West part of the country. Jamuna Multipurpose Bridge replaced the Tangail-Sirajgong gas and electricity transmission; telecommunication has been made in this Bridge. The largest bridge of the country made direct road network with 17 districts of north-west region and International road network with India and Nepal through Lalmonirhat-Burimari-Ranigong. On the other hand, there was no rail way network to connect these two regions. Govt. of Bangladesh (GOB) made new rail network from Jaydebpur of Dhaka to Vill: Jhawal at Sirajgong.
Jamuna Bridge carries a two lane connecting roads on each side, 230 kv electric power line, telecommunication cable and gas pipe the construction of the main components of the project including the main bridge, river training work bridge connecting roads, bridge connecting rail network and some other facilities at the bridge end side involve massive construction activities which have both positive and negative impacts on the components of the environment.
The study was carried out with the objectives –
I. To identify the positive and negative impacts after the construction of the Jamuna Multipurpose Bridge (JMB) over the Jamuna;
II. To make recommendations for possible Mitigation of the negative impacts and enhance the positive impacts.
METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
2.1. Data Collection
Information concerning the EIA of the project is mainly based on the available secondary and primary data. The secondary data pertaining to the study were collected from different sources like Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB), Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh Agriculture Development Corporation (BADC), Department of Roads and Highway (RHD), Bangladesh Railway (BR), Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Department of Land Record Survey (DLRS), Petro Bangla, Local Chairmen and Members of the Union Parishads and Local elites of the project area.
To collect additional data and information questionnaire survey was conducted among the concerned officials of various organizations with respect to the following data
– Loss of farm land;
– Drainage congestion;
– Dislocation of human habitation;
– Restriction of fish movement;
– Social and cultural dislocation;
– Environment pollution;
– Disruption of irrigation;
– Disruption of navigation;
– Deterioration in surface water quality;
– Disruption of faunal diversity;
– Disruption of floral diversity;
– Erosion and siltation;
– Job opportunities;
– Forest and forest resources.
2.2. Data analysis and computation:
The environmental study of the project was carried out in conformity with the requirements of the Environment Protection Act (EPA) of the Government of Bangladesh. Compliance with the provision of this is the responsibility of the Department of Environment (DoE). There are various methodologies in the literature for a gross screening technique for impact assessment. They are checklist, matrices, networks, over lays, environmental evaluation system, cost benefits and simulation and modeling workshop. Because of highly visual nature of impact in matrices, the “Matrices Method” was used for a gross screening technique for impact identification purposes.
ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
3.1. Description of the project
3.1.1 Project Location: The whole project area is located in the North – Western part of Bangladesh (Figure 3.1). The project area comprises Bhuapur of Tangail district in the East bank of Jamuna river and Sirajganj on its West bank. The cities, namely Tangail and Sirajganj are located at the distance of 30 Km and 11 Km respectively from the Jamuna bridge.
3.1.2 Project Components: The Jamuna multipurpose bridge project includes the following components . The main bridge (Jamuna bridge),The bridge end facilities at the east and west bank of Jamuna. The approach road connecting the bridge with national highway as well as Asian highway. A dual gauge rail network established from Tongi station to the Jamuna bridge to connect trans Asian railway network. and The river training works.
The Jamuna multipurpose bridge is located over Jamuna river. The bridge is 4800m in length and 18.5m in width including road divider and the footway for pedestrians. The bridge has been designed to carry a dual two line carriageway, a dual gauge (board and meter ) railway, a high voltage (230 kv) electrical enter connector, telecommunication cables, 750 mm diameter high pressure natural gas pipeline. The carriageways are 6.315 m separator by a 0.57 m width central barrier. The rail truck is located alone the north side of the deck. On the main bridge electrical interconnected pylons are positioned on brackets cantilever from the north side of the deck telecommunication duct run through the box girder deck and the gas pipe line is located under the south cantilever of the box section. the bridge has been constructed by balance cantilever method having 49 spans 50 piers,121 piles.
The bridge end facilities : On the both sides of the bridge located on reclaimed land with in the existing Jamuna floodplain and contain the facilities for the proper operation and maintenance of the bridge and smooth traffic flow such as bus stations, parking areas, tool –boots, staff housing etc. The total length of the two bridge end facilities amounts to 6 Km.
In order to make the bridge end facilities flood free the ground level had to raised by approximate 5 meters. The dredged sand which was available during the river training work. Had been used for this purpose and discharged by the dredged directly into the area of the bridge end facility.
The approach road: The road have a length of 25 Km. In the East the approach is connected to the existing Tangail – Madhupur road near Elenga and in the West it intersects with the new Nalka bridge on the Hatikamrul-Sirajganj road.
The total length of the road between Elenga and Nalka bridge is 35 Km including the main bridge and the bridge end facilities. The crest of the road is above (16.8 m PWD) total width of the road is 15.0 m having flexible pavement and 3 m shoulder on both sides of the pavement. average height and side slope of the road are 2.5 m and 1: 2 respectively.
River training works: River training works had been provided to guide the river following under the bridge and to ensure a stable bank. To resist erosive forces of currents and waves the slopes protected by concrete block mattresses or dumped rock. The total area to be protected amount to approx. 1 million m².
To facilitate the construction of the RTW extensive dredging work had to carried out. The total quantity to dredged amounts to approx. 25 million m³. The dredged materials is fine sand which used to fill the embankments of the approach roads. The dredging works carried out by large suction-dredgers during the low-river stages, i.e. when the flood plains were “dry”
Picture: Jamuna bridge project location
3.2. Environmental Impacts After the construction of the Jamuna Bridge:
3.2.1 Disruption to navigation: An analysis had been made of the river channels that occurred during last 20 yrs. At the location of the bridge in order to decide on a sloping bridge profile from approach road level at the abutments up to the level required for navigation clearance.
After construction of bridge the following design criteria had been established:
-Standard High water Level (SHWL) at Bridge site : 12.90m+PWD
-Standard Low Water Level (SLWL) at the Bridge site 6.30m+PWD
The SHW and SLW levels were calculated as the average of the SHW/SLW levels which occurred during the period of record 26 yrs. SHW and SLW are defined by BIWTA (Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Authority ) as the water levels which are, on the average exceeded during 5% and 95% of the time per year respectively.
-Vertical navigation clearance: 45 ft =13.71 m between SHW and the soffit level of the bridge.
-Horizontal navigation clearance: 270 ft =82.31m.
-Navigation draft: 6ft =1.8m during river levels above SLW, applicable to “A”-class waterways in Bangladesh, which the Jamuna, as an international navigation route. This implies a depth of 2.4m.
-Minimum soffit level of Bridge: 2.5 m. above 1: 100 year flood level (clearance for floating debris), i.e.. +15.0 m + 2.5 m =+17.50 m.
-Assume soffit level at the bridge end piers: +17.8 m.
-Gradient of sloping bridge section: 0.5 percent.
-Soffit level at abutment to be related to 1: 100 year flood level, navigation clearance of 12.2 m. to be taken from level.
3.2.2. Road Traffic Related problem
220.127.116.11 General: Traffic density of vehicle crossing the bridge was 2898 vehicle/day (1998) and will be 12720 vehicle/day (2020). And several trains are crossing the bridge These activity caused different type of traffic related problem such as surface runoff, noise, air pollution and spill of hazardous materials.
18.104.22.168 Road Surface Runoff : To give an indication of quantities and type of contaminants in surface runoff some figures has been presented in this figures related to traffic densities and rainfall figures for the USA.
Because of the lower traffic density in Bangladesh, contamination much lower than the figure presented in table: 3.1
Table: 3.1. Water pollutant characteristics of surface runoff.
Source : Environment impact data book, jack golden and others Ann Arbor Science, 1980)
Surface water along the approaches contaminated by polluted runoff from the road surface. Organic matter decomposed, but heavy metal settle out with the sediments.
A rough estimation of quantities of heavy metals in sediment is given for the following condition:
1. Runoff equals 10% of US condition (traffic density estimated at 10% for Bangladesh situation).
2. Sedimentation takes place in areas with a width of 50 m ;
3. Sedimentation rate : 0.01 m/year;
4. Sediment density : 2000 kg/ m³
5. Heavy metals adsorbed on the particles for 70%
The runoff heavy metals amount 0.03 kg /km. day at both sides of the road. Given the fact that all the heavy metals can change a little of water or soil quality. So if can be conclude that a little bit of hazardous effect on the soil quality and bottom quantity caused by high way runoff.
22.214.171.124. Air Pollution : Combustion gases of cars, buses, trains and trucks increase the pollution of air villages near Jamuna bridge. Due to availability of gas and electricity and transportation system ( Road and Railway) a lot of new industry built in the near area of Jamuna bridge, the plum of these industry also pollute the air.
126.96.36.199. Noise: The village pollution near the approach roads was live in a practically traffic Environment having a rural character.
Because of the construction of the bridge and the approaches about 5000 inhabitants, living in direct neighborhood of the road expose to the noise of busses, cars, trucks and trains.
Based on traffic forecast, the day night average sound level can calculated as a function of distance from the sources. Calculated values are presented in table: 3.2.
Values have been calculated, based on a speed of 50 km/hr. and based on vehicles well –equipped with silencers. Traffic densities do not include local traffic serving the bridge end facilities, which negligible.
Table: 3.2 day –night average sound levels caused by traffic.
|year||Traffic density (average annual daily traffic)||Day night sound level||Maximum
|20 m||40 m||80 m||160 m|
Source: DOE (1999)
3.2.3 Spill of hazardous materials
Accidents on bridge and approaches in which trucks, transporting hazardous materials like gasoline, oil, and chemicals are involved can cause pollution of the environment. In cases of accidents and consequent spillage of hazardous materials, the impact area may not be limited to the direct neighborhood of the approaches and the bridge, but due to transportation by the water flow the impact area may extend to a large part of the downstream area of the Jamuna River.
Main products transported over the bridge are: fertilizer, petroleum, salt, wheat, iron, and steel, cement, vegetable oil, and other agricultural products like tobacco, tea, pulse.
In table: 3.3. The cargo crossing the Jamuna Bridge is presented for the bridge case for road and rail transport.
Table 3.3 Estimated North-West truck flows (1000 tons-/year)
|Petrol, Oil, Lubricants||20||25||30||60|
|Iron / Steel||85||130||180||410|
(*) = Paper, beverages, soap, cloths, hides, milk, furniture, pharmaceutical etc.
The figure in table 3.3 demonstrate that only 1 % of the total freight transport over the bridge consists of petrol, oil, and lubricants products which have to be considered hazardous in case of accidents.
The construction of Jamuna bridge made some ecological changes which adversely affected both migratory and non-migratory fishes and other aquatic bio-mass. The ecological changes are as follows
1. Changes in intra-specific biological differentiation of fishes and in egg lying sub-strata.
2. Some species may shift to new spawning and migration grounds.
3. Fluctuation of water level and imbalance of current velocity, particularly during the flood period.
4. Alteration of physio-chemical condition of spawning areas especially for the residential migrant species.
5. Changes in turbidity and silting pattern which may result in the spawning failure of minor carps, small foreign fishes, cat fishes, snake head fishes.
188.8.131.52. Wild Life
As mentioned before the Jamuna river flooding area is a food and breeding area for various species of wild life.
By the construction of the bridge end facilities and river training works there will be a loss of about 1000 hectares of land which was available as habitat for wildlife.
184.108.40.206. Natural Vegetation
The impact area was almost entirely used for agricultural purposes or human settlements. There was hardly any natural vegetation left and no precious nature resources exist in the impact area.
3.2.5. Impact of Project on Employment
As mentioned in socio economic survey that there were four ferries operating in Jamuna ferrighat. 150 people were involves with ferry service. There income ranges was from tk. 2500-6000 per month. About 150 hawker’s worked the ferries. The hawker’s income varies from taka 80-100 per day. About 120 temporary stalls were located at the both side of ferry Ghats. And about 250 persons were involved with these shops. Although they were unauthorized, the owners lost their business permanently. About 15 country bouts was involved in carrying additional ferry passenger. The workers lost their works with the construction of Jamuna Bridge. Even then they were interested about the bridge as this created more employment opportunities during construction phase as well as after its completion and improved their socio economic condition and their life standard.
3.2.6. Permanent changes of Jamuna river regime
Jamuna River is one of the largest river in the world. The Typical features of the braided river are –
A) An unstable river pattern showing two or more channels with a wide and relatively shallow bed containing numerous sand bars.
B) A wondering thalweg.
At the location of the bridge, the east bank of the river show an erosion of 600 m between the year 1999-2000 while at the west bank show an erosion of 200 m. also near the ferrighat at bhuapur considerable erosion occurs.
In order to protect the bridge and approaches against outflanking channels guide bunds each having a length of 2.5 km having has been constructed on the east and west bank of the bridge. Bridge guide bunds fixed the river banks in between the bridge abutments.
Some 8 km upstream, at the Sirajganj on the west bank, a fixed point formed by the existing town protection works and on the east bank of the ferrighat a second fixed has been created by the bank protection works.
In the feasibility report the following scour depth was envisaged.
River related scour
· General scour 1m
· Bend scour 19 m
· Confluence scour 24m
· Bed forms (.25=. 1)x h
Project related scour
· Construction scour 3 m
· Local scour at the bridge piers 4 m
3.2.7. Changes of agricultural pattern:
The agricultural and cropping pattern in Bangladesh are primarily dependent on the flood regime (kharif season) and the water availability in the dry season (Robi season).
Changes of the water regime, due to the bridge project, have an impact on agricultural practice on the inpact area. Significant changes occurred in the upper basin of Dhaleswari river, which coincides to a large extent with tangail district.
Table : 3.4, The land type distribution is as follows(Before construction) :-
|Land type||Average flood Depth(cm)||% of Net cultivatable Area|
Table 3.5, The land type distribution is as follows (After construction) :-
Table 3.6, Net Benefit after Changing the Cropping Pattern:-
|Crop||Increase/decrease of cropped area
|L. T. Aman||+2717||7340||+19,943|
NCA : 71,850 ha
Benefit per ha (NCA) : 1,420 Tk.
The middle dhaleswari basin is 20% of those in upper basin,
3.2.8. Land acquisition and Resettlement
The total area of land was acquired for the project was 2784 ha and included 1554 ha on the east bank and 1230 ha on the west bank as follows :-
Table: 3.7 Permanent land acquired for the project
|West bank||total||Land actual required|
|A) River training works||1179||916||2095||400|
|B ) Bridge End Facilities||157||140||297||183|
|C )Approach Road||218||174||392||323|
Table: 3.8 Temporary land acquired for the project
Table: 3.9 Cost of land acquisition (Temporary)
|Location||Temporary acquired land (ha)||Average unit rate (Mill. Tk)||Total cost (Mill. Tk)|
Table: 3.10 Cost of land acquisition (permanent)
|Location||Permanently acquired land||Average unit rate||Total cost (Mill. Tk)|
3.2.9 Households affected:-
To determine how many household and person affected by the land acquisition three groups were distinguished. They are as follows:-
Group 1:- People affected by land acquisition; total area of land acquisition was for the project 2800 ha.
Group 2:- People affected by the loss of land; total area to be occupied by permanent works 906 ha, mainly loss of agricultural land and rural settlement.
Group 3:- People affected by the loss of structure; removal of house and structures which are in the right of way of the project works (Forced displacement of person).
Based on the field survey, aerial photograph and the mouza map of the project area the following data has been derived
Ø The average holding of land in the project area is about 1.6 ha.
Ø The average number of housing compounds per village is 20.
Ø The average number of families per housing compounds is 3.
Ø The average family size is 6.
Ø About 80% of households affected was farmers
Ø About 90% of affected people staying in the area more than 30 years.
Table: 3.11 Summery of household affected
|group||impact||Area(ha)||No of households||farmers||Land owners|
|2||Loss of agricultural land||678||478||1156||424||300||724||724||680|
3.2.10 Changes land use and Economic development:
The economy generated by the construction of the project increased money supply in the area. The land price increased particularly the price of roadside land. With the change in land use the economic activity of the area has been changed. The bridge construction, followed later on by operation and maintenance, introduced skilled worker in the area. Many of worker employed during construction settled on the project area. Commercial and industrial growth has been occurred after the construction of the project and provide employment to many people. Other facilities such as education institution, health facilities, recreation facilities increased on the area.
With the construction of bridge, the land use pattern of the area near the approach road and BEF on east bank changed rapidly. Common to the most national highway near large towns in Bangladesh, a ribbon development of the industries and settlements can be expected in the near future along the road.
The short term significant social effect was transfer of land from small farmer to large farmers. The land value increased rapidly and this was a real threat to small land holders. Small land holder whose land was acquired join the rank of landless.
The long term effect uncontrolled urbanization, environment pollution from industries and innumerable places of access to the road leading to the traffic congestion and hazard. There are some 48 villages presently existing within one km of the approach on the east bank and 32 villages on the west bank. These villages experienced both growth and transformation as a direct result of the opening up of the area to a greater market and opportunities and demanded connection to the approach road. Some of the road has been connected to the approach road.
The long term settlement pattern depended on more factors than just the construction of bridge. But the initial impact of the project area was more predictable.
The existing townships of Bhuapur at Tangail in the east and Sirajgonj at hatikamrul at the west experienced the rapid growth. First the high land of the towns taken over for urban development including industrial land use and then their adjoining land slow transformed agricultural land to urban use. The area around the railway station also experienced similar development.
3.2.11 Effects on land and water resources:
The urbanization and industrial area in the bridge area have an impact on land and water resources, both in terms of quality and quantity. In addition to the land lost for the project works more lands is required for future urbanization and settlement. Before construction the population growth rate was 2.5 percent while after construction it is 4.6 percent.
For industrial activities the use of surface water and ground water increased. The impact on the available resources entirely depended on the type of industrial development envisaged. The urbanization and industrialization of the impact area have a pollutive effect on the floodplain and river. Discharge of untreated waste water is making the water quality poor. Bio degradable non-toxic waste water is allowed to discharged to the jamuna river because of the dilution effect and a sufficient self purifying capacity of the river. The discharge of toxic and non bio degradable industrial waste water is not allowed in the jamuna river.
3.3 Environment before construction
3.3.1 Physical resources
The project area was located in the alluvial floodplain in the north west part of the Bangladesh formed by the mighty jamuna river. The project area was not flood free. During the flood in 1988 its 30-34% area downed. It comprises mainly medium high and low agricultural land. Topography of the area was almost flat and the average land elevation at tangail and sirajgonj about 13.5 m PWD and 11.5 m PWD respectively.
The are many rivers in our country but no river is as mighty as the three major rivers of Padma, Meghna and Jamuna. Jamuna river didided the project area into eastern and western part. The hydrological data of Jamuna river are as following
Ø Highest water level =16.00 PWD (October-1985)
Ø Lower water level = 5.58 PWD (May-1987)
Ø Maximum discharge =130000 m3 /sec
Ø Minimum discharge = 45000 m3 /sec
Ø Average maximum discharge =38000 m3 /sec (October-1985)
Ø Average minimum discharge =9000 m3 /sec (May-1987)
Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB) is maintaining a hydrological gauge station (No-90) which is located nearby Sirajgonj. Water level discharge and sediment are measure regularly by this gauge station.
3.3.3 Ground water
Ground water is generally a stable source of water for both domestic use and irrigation purposes. In the project area of Tangail and Sirajgonj ground water mainly has been developed for domestic use. No data was available about the quantity of ground water in project area. However it reported that in the project area the arsenic level in ground water exceed the permissible limit of 0.05 mg/l causing health hazards to its consumers.
The area has a tropical monsoon climate with dry and moderately hot weather from March to May (the pre monsoon season), a rainy season from June to October (the wet season), and dry and cool winter from November to February (the winter season). During the pre monsoon season temperature was highest and the rainfall was about 12% of the annual total. During the monsoon period temperature decreased and humidity increased. The wind velocity was high and sunshine duration was low. The mean annual rainfall of the project area was about 1700 mm of which 82% falls in the wet season with only 6% in dry season. The mean annual temperature was around 26° C with peak of over 42° C in April to June while in the winter the temperature did not go below 12° C in January. Generally, the climate was favorable for agriculture throughout the year.
3.3.5 Surface water
Surface water was abundundant during monsoon and scarce during dry season. Surface water was used for irrigation at the both side of the river. The water of Jamuna was suitable for irrigation but high turbidity during flood. Water sample taken from Jamuna river and were analyzed in the laboratory for water quality test and the water was found suitable for irrigation purpose.
Table: 3.12 Analysis of water sample from Jamuna river
|SS 500||mg/l||< 1.0|
|T.O.N as N||mg/l||< 0.2|
|Nitrite as N||mg/l||< 0.005|
|Chloride as Cl||mg/l||< 5.0|
|Sulphate as SO4||mg/l||12.0|
|Phosphorous P||mg/l||< 0.10|
|Alkalinity as CaCO3||mg/l||40.0|
|Calcium as C||mg/l||23.0|
|Sodium as Na||mg/l||2.7|
|Potassium as K||mg/l||2.7|
|Arsenic as As||Ug/l||< 5.0|
|Nickel as Ni||Ug/l||< 10.0|
*Sample collected on 27.11.1987
*Sample analyzed March, 1988
As mentioned earlier, the project area was located in the alluvial flood plain formed by Jamuna river. Generally the land was very fertile and suitable for agriculture. As a result most of the agricultural lands are three cropped. Two cropped and single cropped lands are also available in the project area. From the agricultural view, soil are classified as follows
§ Top layer of contains loamy and neutral in reaction with medium organic contents
§ Middle layer contains high plastic clay and slight alkaline in reaction with low organic contents.
§ Bottom layer contains sandy loam and slight alkaline in reaction with low organic contents from the geotechnical view, soil type in the project area is usually clayey sandy silt. These soil was favorable for agricultural crops.
Agriculture in Bangladesh is a private enterprise. Land was privately owned and the farm size was very small. According to the BBS, the average size of holding in Bangladesh is 1.9 acres in while the average farm size in Tangail and Sirajgonj was 1.5 acres before the construction of Jamuna Bridge.
Agriculture in Bangladesh is relatively intensive. The national average of cropping intensity was 152% whereas the intensity in the project area was 172% in 1992.
Bangladesh farms are complex mixed farms in nature and almost all farms grow multiple crops in one season. Type, number and area of crops grown are determined by the need of individual farmers, price factor, land types, and availability of inputs, especially irrigation water. Agricultural land of project area was classified into several physiographic units which have been shown in the table below. It shows that lands there belongs to active flood plain and young Brahmaputra- Jamuna floodplain constitute about 56% of the total agricultural land in Tangail. Most lands are in the category of medium high and low.
The existing cropping pattern of the different physiographic units were shown in table also. Agricultural land classification according to physiographic unit of sirajgonj has been presented in table. Though the name of physiographic unit differ, the characteristics of the land was similar to that of Tangail area. The Char area on Sirajgonj side has higher proportion of land compared to Tangail area.
Table: 3.13 Classification of Agricultural land of Tangail
Table: 3.14 Classification of Agricultural land of Sirajgonj
Table: 3.15 Major crop pattern and value of crops in Tangail
Table: 3.16 Major crop pattern and value of crops in Sirajgonj
Scattered and unclaimed settlement were very common in the project area. Owners of the houses in the project area were farmers, service holder, businessmen and laborers. Types of the house was hut, tin shed, (four roofs, two roofs, single roof) with bamboo wall, semi pucca and pucca building.
The project area has different type of small industries such as rice processing mills, saw mills. All of these industries belong to private ownership.
The national highway, rural road, railway line and station, power station, health complex, schools, union parishad office, seed go downs are the major infrastructure in the project area.
3.3.11 Population and socio economic
The Jamuna bridge has been connected two district as well as two division. The bridge used to carry traffic from different region of the country through the jamuna bridge. So bridge enhance socio economic improvement in the country. The population of the project area was much higher than the average population density of the country. Population density of sirajgonj is higher than the population of Tangail. Due to commercial and communication facilities population of road side is higher than other area. The average family size in the project area was 7 while national average size was 6.2. The literacy rate of study area was 31% which is much higher than 28%. The land of both east and west was suitable for three crops. Agriculture is the primary profession of the people of the area. Business activity was very limited in the Sirajgonj district. On the other hand business activity along with agriculture was predominant in the Tangail district because there was a direct road network from capital city Dhaka to Tangail. A large number of rice processing mills on the both side of the bridge, where approximately 30-45 people were on job per mill with daily income range from tk 120-150. There was eight ferries to operate in Bhuapur- Sirajgonj ferry ghat. About 200 people worked with ferry service and their income range from tk 2500-6000 per month. In addition 120 hawker worked in these ferries and each of them earned tk 50-80 per day. There were about 120 unauthorized shops located on the ferry ghat and about 250 person worked in these shops. About 90 boatmen worked and there daily income was 50 -120 tk per day and 300 fishermen was used to catch fishes on Jamuna and their daily income tk 200-300 per day.
3.3.12 Population growth
There are 5 upazilas in the project area. Raiganj, Khamarkanda, Sirajgonj, Bhuapur, Khalihati. The population of these 5 upazila are as following
Table: 3.17 Total Population of project area
*Source : District Statistics, BBS 1983, the 1961 population of Bhuapur was not available.
Table: 13.18 The population growth rate of the project area was as follows
The growth rate was higher for old Tangail and Sirajgonj district compare to the groth rate of national average 2.32%
3.3.13 History and Archeology
There was no historical and archeological places in the project area. As such the project has no impact on these issue.
3.3.14 Ecological resources
Forestry: Bangladesh has a wide range of vegetation which includes hill forest, plain land forest, mangrove forest, road side plantation forest and homestead plantation. Only homestead and road side plantation are located in the project area. The area has comparatively high density trees. Homestead tree play an Important role in meeting the requirement of forest produce in Bangladesh. About 70% of timber and 85% of fuel wood requirements are met from village tree resources. Homestead and road side plantation comprise numerous tree species. About 60 garden 35 bamboo bushes and 700 trees were affected during the construction of bridge.
Table: 3.19 Ecological resources (Forestry)
|English name||Local name||Main use|
|Black berry||Jam||Fruit, Timber|
|Shil koroi||Sill koroi||Fuel, Timber|
|shimul||Silk cotton||Fuel, Pillow|
Bangladesh has an extensive inland fishery. Fish grow in rivers, inundated fields, ox-bow lakes, natural depressions and closed water bodies.these water bodies cover a total area of 922000 ha.
Fish is an important sources of proteins in Bangladesh and fishing is a significant economic activity of the rural population. This sector contributed about 5% of GDP, 14% of national export earning and 80% of the country’s animal protein. Fishery rank was next to the agriculture as an income activity supporting directly or indirectly about 8 million people. Per capita fish consumption was about 21 gm/day which was low by the national nutrition standard, but higher than the meat consumption.
No big water bodies except the jamuna river are located in the project area. Some other small water bodies are also located in the project area. A few years ago the Jamuna river was very famous for the Hilsha fish. Beside the Hilsha there were other varieties of fishes like pan gash, Boal, Rui, Prawn Shrimp etc but there availability was less. Like in other part of the country, the open water fisheries in the abrupt reduction in the open water fisheries ice the river and the flood plain awry due to
- Extensive flood protection embankment along the rivers that disrupt their breeding ground of the fisheries.
- Use of chemical fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides increased the pollution level in the water bodies which were the responsible to damage the fish eggs.
- An increase in population has caused unusual and unplanned abstract of natural resources and has a sharp pressure on fish resources.
Table: 3.20 Production of fish in jamuna river system
|Area (ha )||Total estimated hervest(MT)||Estimated yield(kg/ha/yr)|
Table: 3.21 Production record of major carp spawn areas
Table: 3.22 Prices of some important fish species
|Fish species||Price(U$ /MT)|