Growth of Internet

Growth of Internet

•    Growth in host computers

•   72 million in 2000

•   162 million in 2002

•    Growth in users worldwide

•   567 million in 2002

•   780 million projected in 2003

A Quick Timeline

•    ARPANET developed in 1969

•   Designed to connect computers at four locations

•   Designed to be resistant to disruption

•    E-mail capability added in 1972

•    National Science Foundation connected its large network, NSFnet to ARPANET in 1986

•   Resulting network became known as the Internet

Key People

•    Tim Berners-Lee

•    Marc Andreessen

Tim Berners-Lee

•    Worked at CERN lab in Geneva

•   Thought his work would be easier if he could link to colleagues’ computers

•   Envisioned a network of computers much like a spider web

•   Used links to transfer data from one site to another location

•    CERN site considered the birthplace of the World Wide Web

Marc Andreessen

•    Developed the first graphical browser

•   Called Mosaic

•   Led to Netscape Navigator

Internet Links

•    A link on a Web site is easy to see

•   Either underlined and colored text or an icon

•   Clicking the link transfers data from that site to the user’s computer


•    Interface software used to explore the Internet

•   Early browsers were text-only

•   Mosaic was the first graphical browser

•    Graphical browsers combine ease of links with attractive graphical interface

Factors that had an impact on internet’s growth

•           The universal TCP/IP standard.

•           The web like ability to link from site to site.

•           The ease of use provided by browser’s graphical interface.

•           The growth of personal computers and their local area networks that would be connected to internet.

Getting Started

•    The technology

•    The Internet service provider and the browser

•    Browser functions and features

A Little About the Technology

•    A message sent over the Internet is divided into uniformly sized packets

•   Each packet labeled with its destination address

•    Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

•   TCP creates and reassembles packets

•   IP handles addressing

•  Ensures that packets are routed to their ultimate destination

The Internet Service Provider and the Browser

•    An Internet service provider (ISP) provides the server computer and software to connect to the Internet

•   Online service, such as America Online, includes Internet access, Internet service, and a browser

•    When you connect to the Internet, the browser displays a home page

Difference between ISP and online services :

•     An ISP provides the server computer and the software to connect the internet.

•     An online service , on the other hand, in addition to the services provides by ISP, provides members only information.

•     When to prefer On line service :

•     If someone is new to the internet.

•     If most of your friends and colleagues use the same online service.

•     If you want to have parental control.

•     If people having different skill level access your computer.

Browser Functions

•    Menus and buttons

•    Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

•    Plug-ins

•    Web page programs

•    Wireless Internet access

Menus and Buttons

•    Menu – a series of choices normally laid out across the top of the screen

•   Called pull-down menus

•   Each initial choice gives lower-level choices

•    Buttons can be used to invoke commands

•    Screen tip – a small text message that appears when you rest the cursor over a button

Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

•    The complete, unique address of a Web page

•   Web page URL begins with http

•   HyperText Transfer Protocol – allows communication by using links to transfer data between sites

•   Domain name – address of site’s host computer

•   Last part of domain name is called a top-level domain

•   Identifies country or purpose of organization

Uniform Resource locator (URL)

•     In the address window of the browser you will find the uniform resource locator.

•     A URL has a particular format which is the unique address of a web page.

•      A web page URL begins with the protocol http (this protocol is the means of communicating by using links). Next comes the domain name, which is the address of ISP, the last part of the domain called top- level domain and represents the purpose of the organization. In some cases, the end of the domain name stands for the country of origin. The last part of the URL contains direction and file name.


•    Software that increases browser functionality

•    Most downloaded from their own Web sites

•   Once downloaded and installed, the browser can handle the new features

•    Most enhance a site’s audio-video experience

•   Shockwave permits viewing sites that include quality animation

•   Adobe Acrobat Reader displays and prints documents created in Portable Document Format (PDF) form

•    A collection of related web pages is called a web site. Web sites are housed on web servers. Copying a page on to a server is called posting but it may also be referred to as publishing/uploading.

•    Hitting the web site- visit a web page,  downloading a page from the web server to a user’s computer for viewing is called hitting the page.

Web Page Programs

•    Small programs can be downloaded to run in your browser

•   Allow Web pages to perform many tasks

•   Allow dynamic interaction

•    Come in several forms

•   Scripting languages

•   Produce instructions to be interpreted and executed by your browser

•   JavaScript and VBScript are most common

•   Programs embedded in Web page

•   Java applets and ActiveX controls are most common

Wireless Internet Access

•    Use handheld devices such as pagers, PDAs, or pocket computers to access the Internet

•    Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) – convert Web pages into a format more compatible with limited capabilities of handheld devices

Searching the Internet

•     Search Engine – lets a user specify search terms

•    Search engine builds database of sites that match those terms

•    Uses spider software to build database

•    Metasearch – searches search engines and builds comprehensive list

•     Internet directory – database is developed by human researchers rather than spider

Non-Web Services of the Internet

•    Newsgroups

•    FTP

•    Telnet

•    E-mail


•    Usenet – an informal network of computers

•   Allows posting and reading of messages

•   Typically focuses on specific topics

•   Requires a newsreader

•    Some are moderated

•   Messages sent to a moderator, who determines whether the message is appropriate

•   Prevents users from attacking other members and prevents inappropriate material from being posted

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

•    A protocol for transferring files among computers

•    FTP servers maintain collections of downloadable files

•   Downloading can often be done anonymously, without logging in

•    Many FTP servers can be accessed through Web browser

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

•     FTP is the internet tool used to copy files from one computer to another.

•     Public FTP archives permit anyone to make copies of their files. These FTP sites are housed on FTP servers.

•     To access these sites FTP client software can be used.

•     Because this public archives usually requires visitors to use  ‘anonymous’ as an account name, they are known as anonymous FTP archives.

•     It is hard to find a file using FTP. One way to find files is to use Archie, the searchable index of FTP archives maintained by McGill  University in Montreal. The main Archie server gather copies of the directories from more than 1000 other public FTP archives every month.


•    A protocol that allows remote users to log onto a host computer

•   Users use their own PCs

•   Users log in over the Internet

•   Users’ experience is the same as if they were sitting at the host computer’s local terminal

•    Remote user typically has to have a user ID and password


•    The most commonly used feature of the Internet

•    Network provides mail server

•    E-mail client software on your computer

Mail Server

•    Collects and stores messages in mailbox

•    E-mail address consists of user name, followed by @ symbol, then domain name of mail server

E-Mail Client Software

•    Allows you to manage your e-mail messages

•    Features

•   Address books

•   The ability to attach files

•   Some e-mail servers block all attached files

•   Filters

•   Direct incoming e-mail to specific folders

•   Block spam

The World of E-Commerce

•    Electronic commerce – buying and selling over the Internet

•    Three forms

•   Business-to-consumer (B2C)

•   Business-to-business (B2B)

•   Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)


•    Businesses selling goods to consumers

•   Has received the most media attention

•   Estimates of U.S. online sales

•   $48 billion in 2002

•   Projected $130 billion by 2006

•    Several models

•   Pure-play

•   Bricks-and-clicks

•   Flips-and-clicks

Pure-Play Model

•    Companies operate exclusively over the Internet

•   Some have their own warehouses

•   Others relay orders to manufacturer or wholesaler

•    Examples include and

Bricks-and-Clicks Model

•    Traditional retail outlets that have established a Web site

•   Name is a play on “bricks and mortar”

•    Examples include J.C. Penney and Macys

•   Well-known brand names

•   Loyal customer base

Flips-and-Clicks Model

•     Traditional mail-order retailers that have established Web sites

•    Catalogs placed on Web sites

•    Allow customers to replace flipping pages with clicking links and icons

•     Examples include L.L. Bean and Land’s End

•    Allows retailer to reach many more customers


•    Businesses selling to other businesses

•   Has not received much media attention

•   Estimates of worldwide sales

•  $1.9 trillion in 2002

•  Projected $8.5 trillion by 2005

•    Internet exchanges are being developed to provide electronic marketplaces

Internet Exchanges

•     Create a marketplace

•    Bring together many buyers and sellers

•     Advantages

•    Reduced costs of procurement (purchasing)

•    The ability to consider many suppliers

•     Potential concerns

•    Security

•    Antitrust concerns (possible price-fixing)


•    Takes place on online auction sites

•    Make buying and selling unique items easy

•   Your item is visible to anyone in the world with an Internet connection

Payments and Taxes

•    E-commerce payments

•   Some people are leery of submitting credit card information online

•   Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol provides a secure way to make online payments

•    E-commerce taxes

•   Internet Tax Freedom Act provides tax relief on Internet commerce

•   Commission studies the effects of taxation of Internet commerce

•   Act set to expire in 2005

Internet Portals

•     Your first stop on the Internet

•    Provide personalization to users

•   Site is customized based on information you provide

•   Encourages you to visit the site often

•    Provide referrals to other businesses

•   Site contains links to affiliate sites

•   If you click on an affiliate site and make a purchase, the portal receives a percentage of the sale

Internet Advertising

•     Many advertisements on Web sites are banner ads

•    Originally in the shape of a long rectangle

•    Require the user to leave the current site

•     Other ad types

•    Pop-over ads open a new window on top of your current window

•    Pop-under ads open a new window underneath your current window


•    A private Internet-like network

•   Internal to a certain company

•  Extranets allow selected customers and suppliers to have access to a company’s intranet

•   Easy to set up

•   Offer many potential uses

•   Can be linked to the Internet

Setting up an Intranet

•    Easy to set up

•   Most organizations already have a local area network

•    Hardware requirements

•    Software requirements

Hardware Requirements

•    Server computer handles requests

•    Computer for storing databases and other documents

•    Client computers needed for access to the Intranet

•    TCP/IP protocols must be in place

Software Requirements

•    Server must be able to process requests from other computers

•    Server must be able to retrieve data from computers that store it

•    Each access computer needs a browser

Uses of Intranets

•    Users can

•   Retrieve information such as benefits information and job openings

•   Submit vacation requests, applications for open positions, etc.

•    Employers can post employee handbooks, corporate policies, and other information in a central location

Virtual Private Network

•    Technology that uses the Internet as a channel for private data communication

•    Uses tunneling technology

•    Offers many benefits over a private network

•   Much cheaper than dedicated lines

•   Data is secure

•   Turns remote network administration over to ISP


•    Also called encapsulation

•    Transfers data between two similar networks over an intermediate network

•   Data packets follow Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)

•   Data embedded in TCP/IP packets carried by the Internet

•    Data packets are encoded before encapsulation

•   When received, they are separated and returned to their original format

•   Provides security for data packets