Human Resource Management Practices of Southeast Bank Limited
1.1 Background of the study
There is no doubt that the world of work is rapidly changing. As part of an organization then, HRM must be prepared to deal with the effects of the changing world of work. For them, this means understanding the implications of globalization, technology changes, workforce diversity, changing skill requirements, continuous improvement initiatives, contingent workforce, decentralized work sites and employee involvement. We should look how this change is affecting HRM goals and practices.
The current challenge of HRM is to integrate programs involving human resources with strategic organizational objectives. More and more, organizations are under tremendous competitive pressure worldwide. HR managers must find ways to develop effective programs to meet this challenge. Another important aspect of HRM is the need to ensure cost effectiveness of programs and policies through the optimal utilization of human resources.
1.2 Objective of the report
The broad objective of the report is to co-ordinate classroom knowledge with practical situation. Specific objectives of the report are:
- To fulfill the course requirement of MBA program;
- To acquire practical knowledge about HRM practices in banking sector’
- To have practical exposure in banking environment that will help a lot of to understand the future work life;
- To analyze HRM practices in Southeast Bank Limited with classroom (theoretical) knowledge;
- To recommend for improvement of existing HR policy of Southeast Bank Limited.
1.3 Methodology of the report
Methodology includes direct observation, face-to-face discussion with respective executive of the bank, study of files, circulars etc. and practical work. In preparing this report, only secondary data have been used. The required data have been collected from following sources-
- Employees service book of the bank;
- Annual report of the bank;
- Different publications regarding banking function;
- Reference books from library of Stamford University Bangladesh.
1.4 Scope of the report
This report covers only human resource practices is Southeast Bank Limited. It focuses on overview of the bank including a comparative study about standard theoretical aspect of HRM and the existing banking practices. The report also investigates the perceptions of employees of the bank toward employee benefits and development policy.
1.5 Limitation of the report
In spite of hearted cooperation from the bank officials, faced some limitation in preparation the report. The major limitations are as follows:
Learning of overall HRM practices in banking sector within just three months was really tough.
Another limitation of this report is bank bank’s policy of not disclosing some data and information for obvious reason, which could be very much useful.
An Overview of Southeast Bank Ltd.
2.1 Historical Background of Southeast Bank Ltd.
Southeast Bank Limited is a scheduled Bank under private sector established under the ambit of bank Company Act, 1991 and incorporated as a Public Limited Company under Companies Act, 1994 on March 12, 1995. The Bank started commercial banking operations effective from May 25, 1995. During this short span of time the Bank had been successful to position itself as a progressive and dynamic financial institution in the country. The Bank had been widely acclaimed by the business community, from small entrepreneur to large traders and industrial conglomerates, including the top rated corporate borrowers for forward-looking business outlook and innovative financing solutions. Thus within this very short period of time it has been able to create a image for itself and has earned significant reputation in the country’s banking sector as a Bank with vision.
It has been growing faster as one of the leaders of the new generation banks in the private sector in respect of business and profitability as it is evident from the financial statements for the last 4 years. The Company Philosophy – “A Bank with Vision” has been preciously the essence of the legend of bank’s success.
2.2 Special Features of the Bank
a) It has been performing conventional commercial banking activity and striving to introduce Islamic Banking functions.
b) It is the pioneer in introducing and launching different customer friendly deposit schemes to tap the savings of the people for channeling the same to the productive sectors of the economy.
c) For uplifting the standard of living of the limited income group of the population the Bank has introduced Consumer Credit Schemes by providing financial assistance in the form of loan to the consumers for procuring household durables, which have had encouraging responses.
d) The Bank is committed to continuous research and development so as to keep pace with modern banking.
e) The operations of the Bank are fully computerized so as to ensure quick, prompt flawless and services to the customers.
2.3 Board of Directors
In SEBL the board of directors has been conceived as the sources of all power headed by its chairman. It is legislative body of the bank board can delegate its power and authority to professionals, but can not delegate, relinquish or avoid their responsibilities. The board of directors of the bank consists of 13 members who are reputed business personalities and leading industrialists of the country.
Fig: Organogram of Head Office, Southeast Bank Limited
2.4 Management of the Bank
The management team headed by the CEO, Shah Md. Nurul Alam, the President and Managing Director has to take full loan of carrying out the guidelines, rules and regulations and directions given by the board from time to time and provide all the vital information to the BOD for their knowledge and effective decision making.
A graphical representation of the hierarchy of the bank is in point.
President and Managing Director (MD)
Figure: Management hierarchy of Southeast Bank Limited
2.5 Capital Structure of the Bank
The Authorized Capital of the Bank remains unchanged at Tk. 500.00 million. The Bank went public and floated shares of Tk. 150 million in December of the previous year which was fully subscribed, thereby raising the issued and paid-up Capital to Tk. 330 million. With the increase of paid up capital, the capital base of the Bank has become stronger.
2.6 Deposits Status of the Bank
The Bank mobilized a total deposit of Tk. 38,258.15 million as on December 31, 2005 as against Tk.27, 930.8 million as on December 31, 2004 showing an increase of 30%. The combination of competitive interest rates that offered sustained deposit raising efforts of the Bank and confidence reposed by customers in the Bank resulted in this growth of deposits. Steps are being taken to further increase the deposit base continuously at a Reduced average cost of funds.
2.7 Profit and operational results
The operating profit of the Bank increased to Tk. 665.16 million in 2003 compared to Tk. 492.56 million in 2002 recording an appreciable increase which was due to prudent lending and optimum management of funds. The Bank participated in the primary and secondary stock markets and made considerable capital gains during the year.
Notwithstanding the tough and cutting edge competitiveness prevailing in the market, the business of this Bank has expanded substantially compared to that of the previous year. This year the management team as well as the workforce is confidently poised to take on newer challenges with a view to reach the ambitious level of performance in respect of accomplishment of the total business activities including attainment of higher profitability of the Bank.
2.8 MISSION, VISION AND OBJECTIVES OF SEBL
The mission of the bank is To become a highly competitive modern and transparent institution comparable to any of this kind at home and abroad.
High quality financial services with state of the art technology.
Fast customer service.
Sustainable growth strategy.
Follow ethical standards in business.
Steady return on shareholders, equity.
Innovative banking at a competitive price.
Attract and retain quality human resource.
Commitment to Corporate Social Responsibility.
A Bank with Vision is the motto of Southeast Bank Limited. The vision is to be the most efficient financial intermediary in the country through reducing the investment and savings gap of the economy by savings mobilizations and encourage the pace of industrialization. The relentless journey to achieve that vision started in 1995, since the very inception of the Bank. The journey still continues and will never stop. SBL sets a high standard for itself and every achievement of the bank is a striving agent to reach a new height.
Whether in treasury, consumer, or corporate banking, SBL is committed to provide the best. Meeting the demand of discerning customers is not the sole objective. The Bank believes that to provide standard financial services is to deliver a quality that makes every transaction a pleasurable experience. The bank also believes that Customer is always right and in the core of everything. So providing them friendly and personalized service, tailor-made solutions for business needs, global reach in trade and commerce at the doorsteps and high yield on investments are the core objectives of the bank. But the bank also tries to do the best in conjunction with achieving the ultimate objective of a business organization – Wealth Maximization.
Understanding the HRM
3.1 General Concept of HRM
HRM deals with the design of formal system in an organization to ensure effective and efficiency use of human talents to accomplish organizational goals.
Human Resource Management (HRM) is to refer to the philosophy, policies, procedures and practices related to the management of people within an organization.
Hr management functions through which manager recruit, select, train and develop organization members.
HRM is the systematic planning, development and control of network of interrelated processes affecting and involving all members of an organization. These processes include-
- HR planning & forecasting
· Job & work design
- Staffing/ recruitment & selection
- Training & development
- Performance appraisal & review
- Compensation & reward
- Employee protection & representation
- Organization & improvement
3.2 Objectives of HRM
The objective of HRM can be described as follows-
· To hire the right person for the job
· To reduce employee turnover
· To motive people to perform at high effort levels.
· Not to waste time with useless interviews.
· To remove unfair labor practices.
· To maintain a high morale & better human relations inside the origination.
· To maintain organizational peace.
· To attract competent people and retain them in the organization.
· To recognize and satisfy individual needs.
3.3 Basic Principles of HRM
· Treat people with respect and dignity;
· Treat people as adults;
· Deal with people as complete individuals.
· Treat all employees with justice.
· Provide people with justice.
· Provide people with opportunities for growth and development.
· Make people feel that they are most valuable asset for the organization.
· Rewards should be earned, not given.
· Not to underestimate the potentials of people.
· Provide people with all relevant information.
3.4 Approach of HRM
People are the strategic asset of an organization. People have core competency, the basis of competitive advantage.
Human resource approach
People are human beings with a lot of potentials and intellectual abilities.
People are commodity. They are viewed as a cog of a machine.
Anticipate challenge of problem before they arise. Preventive is better than curative.
3.5 Philosophy of HRM
(1) Labor is viewed as a technical factor of production. They are treated as a commodity and they can be bought and sold. They are hired and fired at will. It is consistent with theory X.
(2) Labor is viewed as human factor with a lot of positive potentials, so they must be treated with respect and dignity. This is consistent with theory Y of McGregor.
3.6 Standard Organ gram of HR Department in a large organization
In organizations large enough to have a HR or personnel department, the personal director and his or her staff will play a key role in the designing and monitoring of human resources system. Larger organizations are more likely to help design and implement HR system. A full-time specialist tends to emerge when organization have about one hundred employees. A standard structure of HR department in a large company of several thousand employees is shown below:
Fig: Structure of HR Department in a Large Organization
3.7 Responsibilities of HR Department in a large organization
|VP , HR||Executive committee, Organization planning, HR planning, Policy, Organization development|
|AVP, Recruitment & Employment||Recruiting, Interviewing, Testing, Placement & Termination|
|AVP, Compensation & Benefits||Job analysis and evaluation, Surveys, Performance appraisal, Compensation administration, Bonus, Profit sharing plans, Employee benefits.|
|AVP, Training & Development||Orientation, Training, Management development, Career planning & Development.|
|AVP, Employee Relation||EEO relations, Contract compliance, Staff assistance programs, Employee counseling.|
HR Planning & Forecasting
4.1 Concept of HR planning & forecasting
HR planning is the first step in the recruiting and selection process. “Human resource planning is the process of assessing the organization’s human resources needs in light of organizational goals and making plans to ensure that a competent stable workforce is employed.” – Wendell French.
“Personnel planning is the process of deciding what positions the firm will have to fill, and how to fill them. “—Gary Dessler.
In the words of Colman Bruce (1997) HRP is the process of determining manpower requirements and the means of meeting those requirements in order to carry out the integrated plan of the organization.
According to the above definitions, HRP consists of the following elements:
· Establishing and recognizing the future job requirement
· Identifying deficiency in terms of quantity
· Identifying deficiency in terms of quality& specification
· Identifying the sources of right type of man
· Developing the available manpower and
· Ensuring the effective utilization of workforce.
4.2 steps of HR planning
HR planning is a process involving few stages:
· Integrate HR planning with corporate planning
The first stage of HR planning is to integrate it with corporate planning. All manpower planning stems from business plans in relation to a corporate strategy.
- Forecasting internal & external environment
The second stage in HR planning is to forecast of assess the internal and external environmental factors include government influences economic, geographic and competitive condition.
- Assessment of internal HR capabilities
The next stage is the analysis of internal inventory of HR capabilities. Assessment of internal strengths and weakness as a part of HR planning requires the current job and employees capabilities are audited and organizational capabilities are inventoried.
- Predicting & Forecasting HR demand and supply
The information gathered from external environmental scanning and assessment of internal strengths and weaknesses is used to predict of forecast HR supply and demand in light of organizational objectives and strategies.
- To locate the required HR
Once the demand for HR has been forecasted, then their availability must be identified. The fourth stage of HR planning is to locate the sources from where personnel required will be available. The source may be internal and external.
- Allocation of HR
The final stage of HRP is concern with allocation of human resources within organization overtime.
4.3 HR planning and the strategic planning process
HR planning should be an integral part of a firms strategic and HR planning process. The effective HR planning and strategic planning process is shown below:
Fig: HR Planning Process
4.4 Forecasting HR needs
When a firm makes a plan for employment requirements, the firm usually needs to forecast personnel needs, the supply of inside and outside candidates. Different techniques like trend analysis, ratio analysis, and scatter plot can be used to estimate staffing needs.
- Trend analysis
Trend analysis means studying variation in the firm’s employment levels over last five years.
- The scatter plot
A Scatter plot shows graphically how to variables; business activity and firms staffing levels are related. For example, a newly established bank, which has 20 branches, expects to expand to 50 branches over the next five years. The HR director wants to forecast the requirement of manpower. The director can analyses the relationship between size of another 5 well-reported banks (in terms of number of branches) and their existing manpower.
|Name of banks||Size ( number of br.)||Existing manpower|
If the bank carefully draws in a line to minimize the distances between the line and each one of the plotted points, the bank will be able to estimate the optimum number of staff needed for each bank size. Thus, for a 50 branches bank, the HR director would assume he needs nearly 1100 staffs.
- Ratio Analysis
A forecasting technique for determining future staff needs by using ratio between, for example, number of customers and employee needed.
4.5 Forecasting the Internal HR Supply
Once the demand for labor is predicted, it is necessary to forecast the supply of labor that the organization will already have available to meet the demand. The internal supply of labor consists of all the individuals currently employed by an organization. The internal supply of labor is discharged. To predict the future supply the organization needs to maintain amanagement inventory chart and Human Resource Information System (HRIS).
4.6 Forecasting the External HR Supply
The firms can’t always get all the empliyees they need from their current staff and some time they just don’t want to. So, forecasting the availability of outside supply is extremely important in human resource planning. Because of the need for continuous and adequate staffing, every enterprise depends on the quality and quantity of human resources external to it.
Recruiting & Selection
5.1 Concept of Recruiting & Selection
Recruiting is the process of discovering potential candidates for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies. It involves searching and sourcing for viable job candidates.
Recruitment is the process of finding qualified people and encouraging them to apply for work with the firm.
On the other hand, selection is the process of choosing among those who do apply.
Once an effective recruitment program has supplied enough applicants’ pool the organization faces the task of choosing the best ones for specific jobs.
5.2 The Recruiting and Selection Process
The recruitment process – putting the right people in the right positions at the right times- is one of the most critical tasks any organization faces. Throughout the recruitment process the organization attempts to “sell” itself to the more promising candidates – that is, to convince them that the organization is a good place to work. The standard recruitment process of a large organization is –
Fig: The Recruiting Process
Personnel selection is a process of measurement, decision-making and evaluation. The goal of personnel selection system is to bring into organization individuals who will perform well on the job. The standard selection process of large organization typically consist of eight steps :
Failed passed passed
Fig: The Selection Process
5.3 Job Analysis
A job analysis is a systematic exploration of the activities within a job. It is a technical procedure used to define the duties, responsibilities, and accountabilities of a job. This analysis involves the identification and description of what is happening on the jib – accurately and precisely identifying the required tasks, the knowledge, and the skills necessary for performing them, and the conditions under which they must be performed.
5.4 Job Analysis Methods
The basic methods that HR manager can use to determine job elements and the essential knowledge, skills, and abilities for successful performance include the following –
1) Observation Method
Observation method is a job analysis technique in which data are gathered by watching employees work.
2) Individual Interview Method
Using the individual interview method, a term of job incumbents is selected and extensively interviewed. The results of these interviews are combined into a single job analysis.
3) Group Interview Method
Meeting with a number of employees to collectively determine what their jobs entail.
4) Questionnaire Method
Under the questionnaire Method, workers are sent specifically designed questionnaire on which they check or rate items they perform on their job from a long list of possible task items.
5) Technical Conference Method
A job analysis technique involves extensive input from the employee’s supervisor.
6) Diary Method
The diary method requires job incumbents to record their daily activities.
5.5 Steps in job Analysis
The steps involved in conducting the job analysis include:
Fig: Steps in a job analysis
5.6 A Comparative Discussion between Job Analysis, Job Description, Job Specification, and Job Evaluations.
· Job Analysis
The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.
· Job Description
A job description is a written statement of what the jobholder does, how it is done, under what condition it is done and why it is done. It is a list of job duties, responsibilities- one product of a job analysis.
· Job Specification
The job specification states the minimum acceptable qualifications that the incumbents must possess to perform the job successfully.
· Job Evaluations
Job evaluation specifies the relative value of each job in the organization.
5.7 Sources of equipment
There are two sources of requirement: internal and external. Deciding whether the position is to be filled internally or externally is often as early task in recruitment planning for a specific vacancy. Entry-level jobs must be filled externally, but for other positions, internal sources are used.
Internal sources are as –
§ Hiring relative and dependents of the existing employee;
§ By promotion and transfer of existing employees;
§ From employees on leave, long course deputation of loan from similar other organization.
External sources are as –
§ New entrants as fresher from school and colleges;
§ Educated unemployed due to lack of opportunities elsewhere;
§ Retired hands with experiences;
§ Head hunting.
5.8 Methods of recruitment
There are two methods of recruitment this are –
· Method for internal recruitment
· Job position
Job position involves announcing job openings to all current employees. The announcement carry information about the nature of the position and the qualifications needs and any employee who is interested may did no the job.
· Employee Referrals
Another way to find applicants is through employee referrals by other departments. Informal communications among managers can lead to the discovery that the best candidate for a job is already working in a different section of the firm.
· Skills Inventories
Information about every employee’s skills, education, work history and other important factors is stored in a data base, which can then be used to identify employees with the attributes needed for a particular job.
· Method for external recruitment
Finding qualified applicants from outside the organization is most difficult part of recruitment. Typically, the external recruitment process uses different methods:
Advertising is one of the most popular methods. The most useful advertisement is one that specifies the exact nature of the job, the qualifications required and the salary range. The advertising medium should be selected carefully, with the target audience in mind.
· Employment Agencies
There are three types of employment agencies:
a) Public agencies;
b) Private employment agencies;
c) Management consulting firm.
Educational institutions generally have placement offices to assist their graduates in finding work. Unfortunately, these kinds of agencies are not popular in our country.
· Campus recruitment
Sending an employer’s representatives to college campuses to screen potential applicants and create an applicant pool from the recent graduate is called campus recruiting. It is an important source of management trainees, promotable candidates and professional and technical employees.
Many college students get their jobs through college internship. Internship is important manpower source for the organization. Internship can be win-win situation for both students and employers.
· Professional Organization
Many professional organizations operate placement services for the benefit of their members. These organizations publish of job vacancies and distribute these lists to members.
· Employee leasing
Individuals who are hired by one firm and sent to work for a specific duration of time are called leased employees. When an organization has a need for specific employee skills, it contracts with the leasing firm to provide a certain number of trained employees.
· Personal contact
Another means of recruiting is the personal contact. Some times personal and good communication can provide an opportunity to get experience manpower as well as better job offer.
5.9 Advantages & disadvantages of internal recruitment
When internal recruiting is used, the vacancy is filled by a person of known ability. There are some benefits of internal recruitment:
· Improve goodwill of the organization;
· Improve morale and motivation of employees;
· Improve probability of better selection since the candidate is better known to the organization;
· Less costly.
In the case of internal recruitment, the firm also faces some difficulties
· In breeding prevents injection at new blood in the organization.
· Option in limited in locating right talents.
· Inhibits innovation and creativity.
· Encourage seniority mire then merit.
· Higher probability of likes or dislikes.
5.10 Advantage & Disadvantage of external recruiting
External recruiting can bring in new ideas and viewpoints. Another advantage are –
· Injection of new blood with new knowledge and creativity.
· Economic in the long run.
There are some disadvantages of external recruiting –
· External recruiting is the costly;
· Cause brain drain due to fear of lack of growth potential;
· Hanger probabilities of employee turn over;
· Demoralize existing employee.
5.11 Practices in the Bank
Recruitment Objectives of the Bank:
· To build a jubilant worthy cadre of officers.
· To provide the bank with an efficient and cost effective human resource setup.
· To keep bank free from unhealthy practice of Trade Union.
The bank strictly follows all steps of recruiting and selection process to achieve above-mentioned objectives. The bank recruits from both internal and external sources. The bank makes its applicants pool only by newspaper advertising. Some times they recruit from internship student, where foreign banks i.e. HSBC and Standard Chartered bank, recruit major of their fresh executives from internship students pool. But the bank normally does not go for campus recruitment as well as other methods.
Training & Development
6.1 Concept of Training & Development
Training is a planned effort by an organization to facilitate employee’s learning of job related knowledge and skills for the purpose of improving performance.
Training is the process of teaching new employees the vasic skills they need to perform their job.
Training is a learning experience that seeks a relatively permanent change in individuals that will improve their ability to perform on the job.
The training function, now popularly called HR development. Employee development, by design is more future oriented and more concentrated with education than employee job – specific training. Development therefore, focuses more on the employee’s personal growth.
6.2 Need and important of training
Training is mainly job-oriented; it aims at maintaining and improving current job performance. The need for the training program may arise due to the following:
· Entry of new recruits
· To increase productivity
· To improve quality
· To met organizational objective
· To prevent accident
· To support personal growth and development
6.3 Objectives of Training
1. Establish a comprehensive understanding of the target audience community in Partner regions,
2. Identify and agree the target group(s) for the training needs analysis (TNA) within partner regions,
3. Design and implement an analysis of training needs questionnaire,
4. Analysis and document perceived training needs
6.4 Guidelines and Framework to Design a Training and Development Plan
1. Education for Social Change (Popular and Folk Education)
2. Free Online Lesson Plans, Lecture Notes, etc.
3. Online Resources (each having lists of resources) About Training and Development
4. Online Educational Directories, Learning Portals, etc. About T&D
6.5 Training method
Training methods consider the choice of method for employee training. With training objectives defined and learning principles in mind. Methods of training are basically tow types-
· On the job training
The initial stages in the planning and design of an on the job training are:
a) Refer to the agreed objectives for the training as produced in the TNA or the initial planning stages.
b) Consider the identified target learning population and how they might affect the training design.
c) List the ways in which each objective might best be met.
d) Decide whether the learning might be best achieved by an on the job or off the job training.
· Off the job training
Off the job training:- Off the job training is conducted in a location specifically designated for training. It may be near the work place or away form work, at a special training center or a resort. Conducting the training away from the work place minimizes distractions and allows trainees to devote their full attention to the material being thought.
Compensation & Employee Benefits
7.1 Concept of Compensation & Employee Benefits
Once employees have done their jobs and been appraised, they expect to be paid. Employee compensation refers to all forms of pay or rewards going to employees and arising from their employment. It has two main components: (1) Direct financial payments (wages, salaries, incentives, commissions and bonuses), and (2) Indirect payments (financial benefits like employer-paid insurance and vacations, child care facilities).
In addition to compensation in the form of wages and salaries, HRM provides workers with various services and programs known as employee benefits.
7.2 Components of the compensation system
Fig:-Components of the compensation system
7.3 Wages vs. Salary
The words wage and salary are sometimes considered synonymous, but they have slightly different meanings. Wage refers to an hourly rate of pay and is the pay basis used most frequently for production and maintenance employees. Salary refers to a weekly, monthly or yearly rate of pay. Clerical, professional, sales and management employees are usually salaried.
7.4 Establishing Pay rates
The process of establishing pay rates while ensuring external, internal and procedural equity consists of five steps:
1) Conduct a Salary Survey
The first step of establishing pay rates is to conducting a salary survey of what other employers are paying for comparable jobs. A survey aimed at determining prevailing wages rates. A good salary survey provides specific wage rates for specific jobs.
2) Job Evaluation
Job evaluation is a systematic comparison done in order to determine the worth of one job relative to another. It is a formal and systematic comparison of jobs to determine the worth of one job relative to another and eventually results on a wage or salary hierarchy.
3) Group Similar Jobs into Pay Grades
Once has used job evaluation to determine the relative worth of each job, the committee can turn to the task of assigning pay rates to each job; however, it will usually want to first group jobs into pay grades. It could, of course, just assign pay rates to each individual job. A pay grade is comprised of jobs of approximately equal difficulty or importance as established by job evaluation.
4) Price Each Pay Grade – Wage Curves
The next step is to assign pay rates to the firms pay grades. The firm can use a wage curve to help assign pay rates to each pay grade. The wage curve shows the relationship between the value of the job and the average wage paid for this job.
5) Five – Tune Pay Rates
Five – tuning involves developing pay range and correcting out of line rates. Pay ranges is a series or levels within a pay grade, usually based upon years of service.
7.5 Importance of Job Evaluation
Job evaluation is aimed at determining a job’s relative worth. It compares jobs to one another based on their content, which is usually defined in term of compensable factors like skills, effort, responsibility, and working conditions.
7.6 Types of Employee Benefits
a) Mandatory Benefits
Organizations are required to pay these benefits to the employees by law, rules, acts or ordinance. Example: Salary, Bonus.
b) Non-mandatory benefits
Optional programs and services such as tuition refunds, variety of discount programs, day care facilities for children, credit program etc.
7.7 Employees Benefit Programs initiated by HRM
There are many benefits and various ways to classify them. We can classify them as
I. Pay for time not worked
II. Insurance benefits
III. Retirement benefits
IV. Service benefits
7.7.1 Pay for Time Not Worked
Pay for time not worked – also called supplemental pay benefits- is one of an employer’s most costly benefits, because of the large amount of time off that many employees receive. Common time off with pay periods include holidays, vacations, jury duty, funeral leave, personal days, sick leave, sabbatical leave, maternity leave and unemployment leave insurance payment for laid off or terminated employees. The following figure illustrates a wide rage of such benefits:
Fig:- Payment for time not worked.
7.7.2 Insurance Benefits
Most employers also provide a number of voluntary insurance benefits. Medical or health insurance is a major optional protections benefit offered by employers. Insurance benefits include worker’s compensation, group hospitalization, accident, disability insurance and group life insurance.
- Worker’s Compensation
Worker’s compensation provides promote income and medical benefits to work related accident victims or their dependents regardless of fault. Worker’s compensation benefits can be monetary or medical. In the event of a worker’s death or disablement, the person’s dependents are paid a cash benefit based on prior earnings.
- Health and Disability Insurance
Health and disability insurance helps protect against hospitalization costs and the loss of income arising form off-the-job accidents or illness. Many employers purchase the insurance from life insurance companies. Most health insurance plans provide at least basic hospitalization and surgical and medical insurance for all eligible employees at group rate.
- Life Insurance
Group life insurance provides cower rate for the employer of employee and includes all employees, including new employees, regardless of health or physical condition. In addition to hospitalization and medical benefits, most employers provide group life insurance plans. In many cases, the employer pays 100% or 50% of the basic premium, which usually provides life insurance.
7.7.3 Retirement Benefits
A very important benefit to most employees is a retirement plans. The major retirement benefits are the social security program and pension plans.
- Social Security
Most people assume that social security provides income only when they are over 60, but it actually provides three types of benefits: The familiar retirement benefits- provide an income if the employee retire at 60; survivor’s or death benefits payable to the employee’s dependents regardless of age at the time of death; and disability benefits payable to disabled employees and their dependents. These benefits are payable only if the employee is insured under the social security Act.
- Pension Plans
Pension plans provide a fixed sum when employees reach a predetermined retirement age or when they can no longer work due to disability. There are many kinds of pension plan:
· Contributory VS. Noncontributory
Under contributory plans, both employees and employers are required to contribute to the pension fund, while under noncontributory plan; pension funding is the sole responsibility of the employer. In noncontributory plans where contributions are based on company profits (deferred profit sharing plans), accumulated funds are usually allocated on the basis of salary.
· Defined benefit VS. Defined contribution plan
With defined benefit plans, the employee knows ahead of time the pension benefits he/she will receive. The defined pension benefits itself is usually set by a formula that ties the person’s retirement pension to an amount.
Defined contribution plans specify what contribution the employee and employer will make to the employee’s retirement or savings fund. Here, in other words, the contribution is defined, not the pension. With a defined benefit plan the employee knows what his/her retirement benefits will be upon retirement. With a defined contribution plan, the person’s pension will depend on the amounts contributed to the fund and on the retirement fund’s investment earning.
7.8.4 Employee Services
In addition to the benefits describe above, organization’s offer a wealth of services employees may find desirable. These services can be provided to the employee at no cost or at a significant reduction from what might have been paid without the organization’s support. Services provided to employees may be-
- Wellness Program
In an effort to stimulate wellness, many employee can provide recreational facilities for employees or reimburse employees for health club memberships. Other companies provide incentives for employees to participate in exercise programs, ‘quit smoking, lower blood pressure or cholesterol or to take similar steps toward good health.
- Educational Assistance
Another important benefit is educational assistance. Some times companies offer monthly stipends for students. Typically, employees are reimbursed for tuition and possibly for books or other associated costs.
- Child-care Assistances
It is likely that every major company will soon consider offering child-care assistance as an employee benefit. In most recent year this benefit is being popular in our country because of the number of women in the labor market has increased dramatically.
- Another Services are
Another important services, that can be provided by the company are: Social and recreational events, employee assistance programs, credit unions, housing, tuition reimbursement, company paid transportation, free coffee, baby-sitting services or referrals.
7.9 Incentive Plans
Manager may offer group and individual incentive plan those ties pay to some measure of he firm’s overall profitability. Several incentive plans are:
- Piecework Plans
A system of pay based on the number of items processed by each individual worker in a unit of time, such as items per hour or items per day.
- Merit Pay as an Incentive
Merit pay or a merit raise is any salary increase the firm awards to an individual employee based on his or her individual performance.
- Profit Sharing Plans
Profit sharing plan is a plan whereby employees share in the company’s profits. There are several types of profit sharing plans:
· In cash plans
In cash plans, the firm simply distributes a percentage of profit as profit shares to employees.
· Deferred profit sharing plans
The firm places a predetermined portion of profit in each employee’s account under a trustee’s supervision.
- Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOP)
ESOPs are company wide plans in which a corporation contributes shares of its own stock or cash to be used to purchase such stock of the firm’s stock tor employees.
8.1 The Meaning of Ethics
Ethics refers to “the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group” and specifically to the standards individual use to decide what he/she conduct should be.
8.2 Organizational culture
Organizational culture is the characteristic values, traditions and behaviors a company’s employees share. A value is a basic belief about what is right or wrong, or about what should or should not do.
8.3 Employee Discipline and Privacy
The purpose of discipline is to encourage employees to behave sensibly at work (where sensible is defined as adhering to rules and regulations). In an organization, rules and regulations serve about the same purpose that laws do in society; discipline is called for when one of these rules or regulations are violated.
A fair and just discipline process is based on three prerequisite: rules and regulations, a system of progressive penalties and an appeals process.
The four main types of employee privacy violations upheld by courts are intrusion, publication of private matters and disclosure of medical records and appropriation of an employee’s name or likeness for commercial purposes.
8.4 Types of Disciplinary Actions
- Minor Penalties
· Reprimand / censure;
· Withholding for a specified period or stoppage of increment, confirmation or promotion;
· Stoppage for a specified period at an efficiency bar in the time scale;
· Any other minor punishment.
- Major Penalties
· Recovery from salary of the whole or part of any pecuniary loss caused to the band by the employee;
· Degradation to any lower post;
· Compulsory retirement from service with or without retirement benefits;
· Removal from service;
· Dismissal from service.
8.5 Disciplinary Proceeding
- Before imposing any penalty as above, the employee concerned shall be informed in writing about the charges and also be given an opportunity to answer to the charges in writing.
- An inquiry into charges may be held before taking final action in this regard and the competent authority may appoint an inquiry officer senior in rank to the accused to inquire into the charges and to submit his findings before passing final order in the case.
- An employee, against whom disciplinary action is proposed to be taken, may be placed under suspension, or the competent authority may order him to proceed on leave.
- The period of suspension will not exceed 90 days. If an employee, put under suspension, is not found guilty, he shall be entitled to full salary for the period of his suspension.
- If an employee put under suspension, is awarded any penalty in case of compulsory retirement or dismissal from service, the effect shall be from the date of suspension and in the case of any other pena