Human Rights, The West And Islam
2. Rights, the west and Islam
Human Rights in Islam
study the issue in its proper perspective and avoid some of the confusion which normally befogs such a discussion.
The people in the West have the habit of attributing every good thing to them and try to prove that it is because of them that the world got this blessing; otherwise the world was steeped in ignorance
and completely unaware of all these benefits. Now let us look at the question of human rights. It is very loudly and vociferously claimed that the world got the concept of basic human rights from the Magna Carta of Britain; though the Magna Carta itself came into existence six hundred years after the advent of Islam. But the truth of the matter is that until the seventeenth century no one even knew that the Magna Carta contained the principles of Trial by Jury; Habeas Corpus, and
the Control of Parliament on the Right of Taxation. If the people who had drafted the Magna Carta were living today they would have been greatly surprised if they were told that their document also contained all these ideals and principles. They had no such intention, nor were
they conscious of all these concepts which are now being attributed to
As far as my knowledge goes the Westerners had no concept of human rights and civil rights before the seventeenth century. Even after the seventeenth century the philosophers and the thinkers on
jurisprudence though presented these ideas, the practical proof and demonstration of these concepts can only be found at the end of the eighteenth century in the proclamations and constitutions of America
and France. After this there appeared a reference to the basic human rights in the constitutions of different countries. But more often the rights which were given on paper were not actually given to the people in real life.
In the middle of the present century, the United Nations, which can now be more aptly and truly described as the Divided Nations, made a Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and passed a
resolution against genocide and framed regulations to check it. But as you all know there is not a single resolution or regulation of the United Nations which can be enforced. They are just an expression of a pious hope. They have no sanctions behind them, no force, physical
or moral to enforce them. Despite all the high-sounding ambitious resolutions of the United Nations, human rights have been violated and trampled upon at different places, and the United Nations has
been a helpless spectator. She is not in a position to exercise an effective check on the violation of human rights. Even the heinous crime of genocide is being perpetrated despite all proclamations of the United Nations. Right in the neighbouring country of Pakistan, genocide of the Muslims has been taking place for the last twenty- eight years, but the United Nations does not have the power and
strength to take any steps against India. No action has even been taken against any country guilty of this most serious and revolting crime.
The second point which I would like to clarify at the very outset is that when we speak of human rights in Islam we really mean that these rights have been granted by God; they have not been granted by any king or by any legislative assembly. The rights granted by the kings or the legislative assemblies, can also be withdrawn in the same manner in which they are conferred. The same is the case with the rights accepted and recognized by the dictators. They can confer them when they please and withdraw them when they wish; and they can openly violate them when they like. But since in Islam human rights have been conferred by God, no legislative assembly in the world, or
any government on earth has the right or authority to make any amendment or change in the rights conferred by God. No one has the right to abrogate them or withdraw them. Nor are they the basic
human rights which are conferred on paper for the sake of show and exhibition and denied in actual life when the show is over. Nor are they like philosophical concepts which have no sanctions behind
The charter and the proclamations and the resolutions of the United Nations cannot be compared with the rights sanctioned by God; because the former is not applicable to anybody while the latter
is applicable to every believer. They are a part and parcel of the Islamic Faith. Every Muslim or administrators who claim themselves to be Muslims will have to accept, recognize and enforce them. If they fail to enforce them, and start denying the rights that have been guaranteed by God or make amendments and changes in them, or practically violate them while paying lip-service to them, the verdict of the Holy Quran for such governments is clear and unequivocal:
"Those who do not judge by what God has sent down are the disbelievers."
The following verse also proclaims: "They are the wrong-doers (zalimun)"(5:45),
while a third verse in the same chapter says: "They are the evil-livers (fasiqun)" (5:47).
In other words this means that if the temporal authorities regard their
own words and decisions to be right and those given by God as wrong
they are disbelievers. If on the other hand they regard God's commands
as right but wittingly reject them and enforce their own decisions
against God's, then they are the mischief-makers and the wrong-doers.
Fasiq, the law-breaker,is the one who disregards the bond of allegiance,
and zalim is he who works against the truth. Thus all those temporal
authorities who claim to be Muslims and yet violate the rights
sanctioned by God belong to one of these two categories, either they
are the disbelievers or are the wrong-doers and mischief-makers.
The rights which have been sanctioned by God are permanent,
perpetual and eternal. They are not subject to any
alterations or modifications, and there is no scope for any change or
The Western Approach:
The Islamic Approach:
The second point which I would like to clarify at the very outset is that when we speak of human rights in Islam we really mean that these rights have been granted by God; they have not been granted by any king or by any legislative assembly. The rights granted by the kings or the legislative assemblies, can also be withdrawn in the same manner in which they are conferred. The same is the case with the rights accepted and recognized by the dictators. They can confer them when they please and withdraw them when they wish; and they can openly violate them when they like. But since in Islam human rights have been conferred by God, no legislative assembly in the world, or any government on earth has the right or authority to make any amendment or change in the rights conferred by God. No one has the right to abrogate them or withdraw them. Nor are they the basic human rights which are conferred on paper for the sake of show and exhibition and denied in actual life when the show is over. Nor are they like philosophical concepts which have no sanctions behind them.
1"Those who do not judge by what God has sent down are the dis Believers (kafirun)." 5:44
The following verse also proclaims: 2"They are the wrong-doers (zalimun)" (5:45), while a third verse in the same chapter says: 3"They are the evil-livers (fasiqun)" (5:47). In other words this means that if the temporal authorities regard their own words and decisions to be right and those given by God as wrong they are disbelievers. If on the other hand they regard God's commands as right but wittingly reject them and enforce their own decisions against God's, then they are the mischief-makers and the wrong-doers. Fasiq, the law-breaker,is the one who disregards the bond of allegiance, and zalim is he who works against the truth. Thus all those temporal authorities who claim to be Muslims and yet violate the rights sanctioned by God belong to one of these two categories, either they are the disbelievers or are the wrong- doers and mischief-makers. The rights which have been sanctioned by God are permanent, perpetual and eternal. They are not subject to any alterations or modifications, and there is no scope for any change or abrogation.
Basic Human Rights
7. Equality of Human Beings
8. The Right to Co-Operate and Not To Co-Operate
- The Right to Life
4"Whosoever kills a human being without (any reason like) man slaughter, or corruption on earth, it is as though he had killed all mankind … (5:32)
As far as the question of taking life in retaliation for murder or the question of punishment for spreading corruption on this earth is con- cerned, it can be decided only by a proper and competent court of law. If there is any war with any nation or country, it can be decided only by a properly established government. In any case, no human being has any right by himself to take human life in retaliation or for causing mischief on this earth. Therefore it is incumbent on every human being that under no circumstances should he be guilty of taking a human life. If anyone has murdered a human being, it is as if he has slain the entire human race. These instructions have been repeated in the Holy Quran in another place saying:
5"Do not kill a soul which Allah has made sacred except through the due process of law … (6:151)
Here also homicide has been distinguished from destruction of life carried out in pursuit of justice. Only a proper and competent court will be able to decide whether or not an individual has forfeited his right to life by disregarding the right to life and peace of other human beings. The Prophet, may God's blessings be on him, has declared homicide as the greatest sin only next to polytheism. The Tradition of the Prophet reads: "The greatest sins are to associate something with God and to kill human beings." In all these verses of the Quran and the Traditions of the Prophet the word 'soul' (nafs) has been used in general terms without any distinction or particularization which might have lent itself to the elucidation that the persons belong- ing to one's nation, the citizens of one's country, the people of a particular race or religion should not be killed. The injunction applies to all human beings and the destruction of human life in itself has been prohibited.
'The Right to Life' has been given to man only by Islam. You will observe that the people who talk about human rights if they have ever mentioned them in their Constitutions or Declarations, then it is clearly implied in them that these rights are applicable only to their citizens or they have been framed for the white race alone. This can clearly be gleaned by the fact that human beings were hunted down like animals in Australia and the land was cleared of the aborigines for the white man. Similarly the aboriginal population of America was systematically destroyed and the Red Indians who somehow survived this genocide were confined to specified areas called Reservations. They also penetrated into Africa and hunted down human beings like wild animals. All these instances go to prove that they have no respect for human life as such and if they have, it is only on the basis of their nationality, colour or race. Contrary to this, Islam recognizes this right for all human beings. If a man belongs to a primitive or savage tribe, even then Islam regards him as a human being.
- The Right to the Safety of Life
- Respect for the Chastity of Women
- The Right to a Basic Standard of Life
9"And in their wealth there is acknowledged right for the needy and destitute." (51:19)
The words of this injunction show that it is a categorical and un- qualified order. Furthermore this injunction was given in Makkah where there was no Muslim society in existence and where generally the Muslims had to come in contact with the population of the disbelievers. Therefore the clear meaning of this verse is that anyone who asks for help and anyone who is suffering from deprivation has a right in the property and wealth of the Muslims; irrespective of the fact whether he belongs to this nation or to that nation, to this country or to that country, to this race or to that race. If you are in a position to help and a needy person asks you for help or if you come to know that he is in need, then it is your duty to help him. God has established his right over you, which you have to honour as a Muslim.
- Individual's Right to Freedom
The Slave Trade of Western Nations:
The Position of Slavery in Islam:
Thus the problem of the slaves of Arabia was solved in a short period of thirty or forty years. After this the only form of slavery which was left in Islamic society was the prisoners of war, who were captured on the battlefield. These prisoners of war were retained by the Muslim Government until their government agreed to receive them back in exchange for Muslim soldiers captured by them, or arranged the payment of ransom on their behalf. If the soldiers they captured were not exchanged with Muslim prisoners of war, or their people did not pay their ransom money to purchase their liberty, then the Muslim Government used to distribute them among the soldiers of the army which had captured them. This was a more humane and proper way of disposing of them than retaining them like cattle in concentration camps and taking forced labour from them and, if their women folk were also captured, setting them aside for prostitution. In place of such a cruel and outrageous way of disposing of the prisoners of war, Islam preferred to spread them in the population and thus brought them in contact with individual human beings. Over and above, their guardians were ordered to treat them well. The result of this humane policy was that most of the men who were captured on foreign battlefields and brought to the Muslim countries as slaves embraced Islam and their descendants produced great scholars, imams, jurists, commentators, statesmen and generals of the army. So much so that later on they became the rulers of the Muslim world. The solution of this problem which has been proposed in the present age is that after the cessation of hostilities the prisoners of war of the combatant countries should be exchanged. Whereas Muslims have been practicing it from the very beginning and whenever the adversary accepted the exchange of prisoners of war from both sides, it was implemented without the least hesitation or delay. In modern warfare we also find that if one government is completely routed leaving her in no position of bargaining for the prisoners of war and the winning party gets its prisoners easily, then experience has shown that the prisoners of war of the vanquished army are kept in conditions which are much worse than the conditions of slaves. Can anyone tell us what has been the fate of the thousands of prisoners of war captured by Russia from the defeated armies of Germany and Japan in the Second World War? No one has given their account so far. No one knows how many thousands of them are still alive and how many thousands of them have perished due to the hardship of the Russian concentration and labour camps. The forced labour which has been taken from them is much worse than the service one can exact from slaves. Even perhaps in the times of ancient Pharaohs of Egypt such harsh labour might not have been exacted from the slaves in building the pyramids of Egypt, as has been exacted from the prisoners of war in Russia in developing Siberia and other backward areas of Russia, or working in coal and other mines in below zero temperatures, ill-clad, ill-fed and brutally treated by their supervisors.
- The Right to Justice
- Equality of Human Beings
This has been exemplified by the Prophet in one of his sayings thus: "No Arab has any superiority over a non-Arab, nor does a non-Arab have any superiority over an Arab. Nor does a white man have any superiority over a black man, or the black man any superiority over the white man. 16 "You are all the children of Adam, and Adam was created from clay" (al-Bayhaqi and al-Bazzaz). In this manner Islam established equality for the entire human race and struck at the very root of all distinctions based on colour, race, language or nationality. According to Islam,God has given man this right of equality as a birthright. Therefore no man should be discriminated against on the ground of the colour of his skin, his place of birth, the race or the nation in which he was born. Malcolm X, the famous leader of African Negroes in America, who had launched a bitter struggle against the white people of America in order to win civil rights for his black compatriots, when he went to perform the pilgrimage, and saw how the Muslims of Asia, Africa, Europe, America and those of different races, languages and colours of skin, were wearing one dress and were hurrying towards God's House-the Ka'bah and offering prayers standing in one row and there was no distinction of any kind between them, then he realized that this was the solution to the problem of colour and race, and not what he had been trying to seek or achieve in America so far. Today, a number of non- Muslim thinkers, who are free from blind prejudice, openly admit that no other religion or way of life has solved this problem with the same degree of success with which Islam has done so.
- The Right to Co-operate and Not to Co-operate
2.The Protection Of honour
3.The Sanctity And Security Of Private Life
4. The Security Of Personal Freedom
5. The Right To Protest Against Tyranny
6.Freedom Of Expression
7. Freedom Of Association
8. Freedom Of Conscience And Conviction
9.Protection Of Religious Sentiments
10. Protection From Arbitrary Imprisonment
11. The Right To Basic Necessities Of Life
12.Equality Before Law
13.Rulers Not Above The Law
14. The Right To Avoid Sin
15. The Right To Participate In The Affairs Of State
We have discussed the human rights in general. Now we would like to take up the question of rights of the citizens in an Islamic State. As these rights are more extensive than the general human rights which have been described earlier, they need separate treatment.
- The Security of Life and Property
Along with security of life, Islam has with equal clarity and definiteness conferred the right of security of ownership of property, as mentioned earlier with reference to the address of the Farewell Hajj. On the other hand, the Holy Quran goes so far as to declare that the taking of people's possessions or property is completely prohibited unless they are acquired by lawful means as permitted in the Laws of God. The Law of God categorically declares 20"Do not devour one another's wealth by false and illegal means" (2:188).
- The Protection of Honour
21"(a) You, who believe, do not let one (set of) people make fun of another set.
(b)Do not defame one another.
(c) Do not insult by using nicknames.
(d) And do not backbite or speak ill of one another" (49:11-12).
This is the law of Islam for the protection of honour which is indeed much superior to and better than the Western Law of Defama- tion. According to the Islamic Law if it is proved that someone has attacked the honour of another person, then irrespective of the fact whether or not the victim is able to prove himself a respectable and honourable person the culprit will in any case get his due punishment. But the interesting fact about the Western Law of Defamation is that the person who files suit for defamation has first to prove that he is a man of honour and public esteem and during the interrogation he is subjected to the scurrilous attacks, accusations and innuendoes of the defence council to such an extent that he earns more disgrace than the attack on his reputation against which he had knocked the door of the court of law. On top of it he has also to produce such witnesses as would testify in the court that due to the defamatory accusations of the culprit, the accused stands disgraced in their eyes. Good Gracious! what a subtle point of law, and what an adherence to the spirit of Law! How can this unfair and unjust law be compared to the Divine law? Islam declared blasphemy as a crime irrespective of the fact whether the accused is a man of honour or not, and whether the words used for blasphemy have actually disgraced the victim and harmed his reputation in the eyes of the public or not. According to the Islamic Law the mere proof of the fact that the accused said things which according to common sense could have damaged the reputation and honour of the plaintiff, is enough for the accused to be declared guilty of defamation.
- The Sanctity and Security of Private Life
This espionage on the life of the individual cannot be justified on moral grounds by the government saying that it is necessary to know the secrets of the dangerous persons. Though, to all intents and purposes, the basis of this policy is the fear and suspicion with which modern governments look at their citizens who are intelligent and dissatisfied with the official policies of the government. This is exactly what Islam has called as the root cause of mischief in politics. The injunction of the Prophet is: 24 "When the ruler begins to search for the causes of dissatisfaction amongst his people, he spoils them" (Abu Dawud). The Amir Mu'awiyah has said that he himself heard the Prophet saying: "If you try to find out the secrets of the people, then you will definitely spoil them or at least you will bring them to the verge of ruin." The meaning of the phrase 'spoil them' is that when spies (C.I.D. or F.B.I.agents) are spread all around the country to find out the affairs of men, then the people begin to look at one another with suspicion, so much so that people are afraid of talking freely in their houses lest some word should escape from the lips of their wives and children which may put them in embarrassing situations. In this manner it becomes difficult for a common citizen to speak freely, even in his own house and society begins to suffer from a state of general distrust and suspicion.
- The Security of Personal Freedom
The correct method of dealing with such cases in Islam is exemplified in the famous decision of the Prophet which took place before the conquest of Makkah. The Prophet was making preparations for the attack on Makkah, when one of his Companions, Hatib ibn Abi Balta'ah sent a letter through a woman to the authorities in Makkah informing them about the impending attack. The Prophet came to know of this through a Divine inspiration. He ordered 'Ali and Zubayr: "Go quickly on the route to Makkah, at such and such a place, you will find a woman carrying a letter. Recover the letter from her and bring it to me." So they went and found the woman exactly where the Prophet had said. They recovered the letter from her and brought it to the Prophet. This was indeed a clear case of treachery. To inform the enemy about a secret of an army and that too at the time of a war is a very serious offence tantamount to treachery. In fact one cannot think of a more serious crime during war than giving out a military secret to one's enemy. What could have been a more suitable case for a secret hearing; a military secret had been betrayed and common sense demanded that he should be tried in camera. But the Prophet summoned Hatib to the open court of the Mosque of the Prophet and in the presence of hundreds of people asked him to explain his position with regard to his letter addressed to the leaders of Quraysh which had been intercepted on its way. The accused said: "O God's Messenger (may God's blessings be on you) I have not revolted against Islam, nor have I done this with the intention of betraying a military secret. The truth of the matter is that my wife and children are living in Makkah and I do not have my tribe to protect them there. I had written this letter so that the leaders of Quraysh may be indebted to me and may protect my wife and children out of gratitude." 'Umar rose and respect- fully submitted: "O Prophet, please permit me to put this traitor to the sword." The Prophet replied: "He is one of those people who had participated in the Battle of Badr, and the explanation he has advanced in his defence would seem to be correct."
Let us look at this decision of the Prophet in perspective. It was a clear case of treachery and betrayal of military secrets. But the Prophet acquitted Hatib on two counts. Firstly, that his past records were very clean and showed that he could not have betrayed the cause of Islam, since on the occasion of the Battle of Badr when there were heavy odds against the Muslims, he had risked his life for them. Secondly, his family was in fact in danger at Makkah. Therefore, if he had shown some human weakness for his children and written this letter, then this punishment was quite sufficient for him that his secret offence was divulged in public and he had been disgraced and humiliated in the eyes of the believers. God has referred to this offence of Hatib in the Holy Quran but did not propose any punishment for him except rebuke and admonition.
The attitude and activities of the Kharijis in the days of the Caliph 'Ali are well-known to the students of Muslim history. They used to abuse the Caliph openly, and threaten him with murder. But whenever they were arrested for these offences, 'Ali would set them free and tell his officers "As long as they do not actually perpetrate offences against the State, the mere use of abusive language or the threat of use of force are not such offences for which they can be imprisoned." The imam Abu Hanifah has recorded the following saying of the Caliph 'Ali (A): "As long as they do not set out on armed rebellion, the Caliph of the Faithful will not interfere with them." On another occasion 'Ali was delivering a lecture in the mosque when the Kharijis raised their special slogan there. 'Ali said: "We will not deny you the right to come to the mosques to worship God, nor will we stop to give your share from the wealth of the State, as long as you are with us (and support us in our wars with the unbelievers) and we shall never take military action against you as long as you do not fight with us." One can visualize the opposition which 'Ali was facing; more violent and vituperative opposition cannot even be imagined in a present-day democratic State; but the freedom that he had allowed to the opposi- tion was such that no government has ever been able to give to its opposition. He did not arrest even those who threatened him with murder nor did he imprison them.
- The Right to Protest Against Tyranny
- Freedom of Expression
The Holy Quran has described this quality of the Faithful in the following words: 27"They enjoin what is proper and forbid what is improper" (9:71). In contrast, describing the qualities of a hypocrite, the Quran mentions: 28"They bid what is improper and forbid what is proper" (9:67). The main purpose of an Islamic Government has been defined by God in the Quran as follows: 29"If we give authority to these men on earth they will keep up prayers, and offer poor-due, bid what is proper and forbid what is improper" (22:41). The Prophet has said: 30"If any one of you comes across an evil, he should try to stop it with his hand (using force), if he is not in a position to stop it with his hand then he should try to stop it by means of his tongue (meaning he should speak against it). If he is not even able to use his tongue then he should at least condemn it in his heart. This is the weakest degree of faith" (Muslim). This obligation of inviting people to righteousness and forbidding them to adopt the paths of evil is incumbent on all true Muslims. If any government deprives its citizens of this right, and prevents them from performing this duty, then it is in direct conflict with the injunction of God. The government is not in conflict with its people, but is in conflict with God. In this way it is at war with God and is trying to usurp that right of its people which God has conferred not only as a right but as an obligation. As far as the government which itself propagates evil, wickedness and obscenity and interferes with those who are inviting people to virtue and righteousness is concerned, according to the Holy Quran it is the government of the hypocrites.
- Freedom of Association
31"You are the best community which has been brought forth for mankind. You command what is proper and forbid what is improper and you believe in God … (3:110)
This means that it is the obligation and duty of the entire Muslim community that it should invite and enjoin people to righteousness and virtue and forbid them from doing evil. If the entire Muslim community is not able to perform this duty then 32"let there be a community among you who will invite (people) to (do) good, command what is proper and forbid what is improper, those will be prosperous" (3:104). This clearly indicates that if the entire Muslim nation collectively begins to neglect its obligation to invite people to goodness and forbid them from doing evil then it is absolutely essential that it should contain at least a group of people which may perform this obligation. As has been said before this is not only a right but an obligation and on the fulfilment of which depends success and prosperity here as well as in the Hereafter. It is an irony with the religion of God that in a Muslim country the assembly and association that is formed for the purposes of spreading evil and mischief should have the right to rule over the country and the association and party which has been formed for propagating righteous- ness and virtue should live in perpetual fear of harassment and of being declared illegal. Conditions here are just the reverse of what has been prescribed by God. The claim is that we are Muslims and this is an Islamic State5 but the work that is being done is directed to spreading evil, to corrupt and morally degrade and debase the people while there is an active and effective check on the work being carried out for reforming society and inviting people to righteousness. Moreover the life of those who are engaged in spreading righteousness and checking the spread of evil and wickedness is made intolerable and hard to bear.
- Freedom of Conscience and Conviction
- Protection of Religious Sentiments
- Protection from Arbitrary Imprisonment
- The Right to Basic Necessities of Life
- Equality Before Law
This religious brotherhood and the uniformity of their rights and obligations is the foundation of equality in Islamic society, in which the rights and obligations of any person are neither greater nor lesser in any way than the rights and obligations of other people. As far as the non- Muslim citizens of the Islamic State are concerned, the rule of Islamic Shari'ah (law) about them has been very well expressed by the Caliph 'Ali in these words: 45"They have accepted our protection only because their lives may be like our lives and their properties like our properties" (Abu Dawud). In other words, their (of the dhimmis) lives and properties are as sacred as the lives and properties of the Muslims. Discrimination of people into different classes was one of the greatest crimes that, according to the Quran, Pharaoh used to indulge in: 46"He had divided his people into different classes," … "And he suppressed one group of them (at the cost of others)" (28:4).
- Rulers Not Above the Law
A woman belonging to a high and noble family was arrested in connection with a theft. The case was brought to the Prophet, and it was recommended that she may be spared the punishment of theft. The Prophet replied: "The nations that lived before you were destroyed by God because they punished the common men for their offences and let their dignitaries go unpunished for their crimes; I swear by Him (God) who holds my life in His hand that even if Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad, has committed this crime then I would have amputated her hand." During the caliphate of 'Umar, Muhammad the son of 'Amr ibn al-'As the Governor of Egypt, whipped an Egyptian. The Egyptian went to Medina and lodged his complaint with the Righteous Caliph, who immediately summoned the Governor and his son to Medina. When they appeared before him in Medina, the Caliph handed a whip to the Egyptian complainant and asked him to whip the son of the Governor in his presence. After taking his revenge when the Egyptian was about to hand over the whip to 'Umar, he said to the Egyptian: "Give one stroke of the whip to the Honourable Governor as well. His son would certainly have not beaten you were it not for the false pride that he had in his father's high office." The plaintiff submitted: "The person who had beaten me, I have already avenged myself on him." 'Umar said: "By God, if you had beaten him (the Governor) I would not have checked you from doing so. You have spared him of your own free will." Then he ('Umar) angrily turned to 'Amr ibn al-'As and said: "O 'Amr, when did you start to enslave the people, though they were born free of their mothers?" When the Islamic State was flourishing in its pristine glory and splendour, the common people could equally lodge complaints against the caliph of the time in the court and the caliph had to appear before the qadi to answer the charges. And if the caliph had any complaint against any citizen, he could not use his administrative powers and authority to set the matter right, but had to refer the case to the court of law for proper adjudication.
- The Right to Avoid Sin
- The Right to Participate in the Affairs of State
(1) The executive head of the government and the members of the assembly should be elected by free and independent choice of the people.
(2) The people and their representatives should have the right to criticize and freely express their opinions.
(3) The real conditions of the country should be brought before the people without suppressing any fact so that they may be able to form their opinion about whether the government is working properly or not.
(4) There should be adequate guarantee that only those people who have the support of the masses should rule over the country and those who fail to win this support should be removed from their position of authority.
1. Torture With Fire
2. Protection Of The Wounded
3. The Prisoner Of War Should Not Be Slain
4. No One Should Be Tied To Be Killed
5. No Looting And Destruction In The Enemy's Country
6. Sanctity Of Property
7. Sanctity Of A Dead Body
8. Return Of Corpses Of The Enemy
9. Prohibition Of Breach Of Treaties
10. Rules A Bout Declaration Of War
After dealing with the rights of the citizens of an Islamic State, I would like to briefly discuss the rights which Islam has conferred on its enemies. In the days when Islam came into focus the world was completely unaware of the concept of humane and decent rules of war. The West became conscious of this concept for the first time through the works of the seventeenth century thinker, Grotius. But the actual codification of the 'international law' in war began in the middle of the nineteenth century. Prior to this no concept of civilized behaviour in war was found in the West. All forms of barbarity and savagery were perpetrated in war, and the rights of those at war were not even recognized, let alone respected. The laws which were framed in this field during the nineteenth century or over the following period up to the present day, cannot be called 'laws' in the real sense of the word. They are only in the nature of conventions and agreements and calling them 'international law' is actually a kind of misnomer, because no nation regards them binding when they are at war, unless, of course, when the adversaries also agree to abide by them. In other words, these civilized laws imply that if our enemies respect them then we shall also abide by them, and if they ignore these human conventions and take recourse to barbaric and cruel ways of waging war, then we shall also adopt the same or similar techniques. It is obvious that such a course which depends on mutual acceptance and agreement cannot be called 'law'. And this is the reason why the provisions of this so-called 'inter- national law' have been flouted and ignored in every way, and every time they have been revised, additions or deletions have been made in them.
Law of War and Peace in Islam:
The rules which have been framed by Islam to make war civilized and humane, are in the nature of law, because they are the injunctions of God and His Prophet which are followed by Muslims in all circum- stances, irrespective of the behaviour of the enemy. It is now for the scholars to find out how far the West has availed of the laws of war given by Islam thirteen hundred years ago; and even after the adapta- tion of some of the laws of Islam how far the West attained those heights of civilized and humane methods of warfare which Muslims reached through the blessings of Islam. Western writers have often asserted that the Prophet had borrowed everything in his teachings from the Jews and the Christians. Instead of saying anything in its refutation I will only recommend the reader to refer to the Bible6 so that he can see which methods of war are recommended by the sacred Book of these Western claimants to civilization and culture.
The Rights of the Non-Combatants:
During a war, the Prophet saw the corpse of a woman lying on the ground and observed: "She was not fighting. How then she came to be killed?" From this statement of the Prophet the exegetists and jurists have drawn the principle that those who are non-combatants should not be killed during or after the war.
The Rights of the Combatants:
Torture with Fire
In the hadith there is a saying of the Prophet that: 52"Punishment by fire does not behove anyone except the Master of the Fire" (Abu Dawud). The injunction deduced from this saying is that the adversary should not be burnt alive.
Protection of the Wounded
"Do not attack a wounded person"-thus said the Prophet. This means that the wounded soldiers who are not fit to fight, nor actually fighting, should not be attacked.
The Prisoner of War Should not be Slain
"No prisoner should be put to the sword"-a very clear and unequivocal instruction given by the Prophet (S).
No one Should be Tied to be Killed
"The Prophet has prohibited the killing of anyone who is tied or is in captivity."
No Looting and Destruction in the Enemy's Country
Muslims have also been instructed by the Prophet that if they should enter the enemy's territory, they should not indulge in pillage or plunder nor destroy the residential areas, nor touch the property of anyone except those who are fighting with them. It has been narrated in the hadith: 53"The Prophet has prohibited the believers from loot and plunder" (al-Bukhari; Abu Dawud). His injunction is: 54"The loot is no more lawful than the carrion" (Abu Dawud). Abu Bakr al-Siddiq used to instruct the soldiers while sending them to war, "Do not destroy the villages and towns, do not spoil the cultivated fields and gardens, and do not slaughter the cattle." The booty of war which is acquired from the battleground is altogether different from this. It consists of the wealth, provisions and equipment captured only from the camps and military headquarters of the combatant armies.
Sanctity of Property
The Muslims have also been prohibited from taking anything from the general public of a conquered country without paying for it. If in a war the Muslim army occupies an area of the enemy country, and is encamped there, it does not have the right to use the things belonging to the people without their consent. If they need anything, they should purchase it from the local population or should obtain permission from the owners. Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, while instructing the Muslim armies being dispatched to the battlefront would go to the extent of saying that Muslim soldiers should not even use the milk of the milch cattle without the permission of their owners.
Sanctity of a Dead Body
Islam has categorically prohibited its followers from disgracing or mutilating the corpses of their enemies as was practised in Arabia before the advent of Islam. It has been said in the hadith: 55"The Prophet has prohibited us from mutilating the corpses of the enemies" (al- Bukhari; Abu Dawud). The occasion on which this order was given is highly instructive. In the Battle of Uhud the disbelievers mutilated the bodies of the Muslims, who had fallen on the battlefield and sacrificed their lives for the sake of Islam, by cutting off their ears and noses, and threading them together to put round their necks as trophies of war. The abdomen of Hamzah, the uncle of the Prophet, was ripped open by Quraysh, his liver was taken out and chewed by Hind, the wife of Abu Sufyan, the leader of the Meccan army. The Muslims were naturally enraged by this horrible sight. But the Prophet asked his followers not to mete out similar treatment to the dead bodies of the enemies. This great example of forbearance and restraint is sufficient to convince any reasonable man who is not blinded by prejudice or bias, that Islam is really the religion sent down by the Creator of the universe, and that if human emotions had any admission in Islam, then this horrible sight on the battlefield of Uhud would have provoked the Prophet to order his followers to mutilate the bodies of their enemy in the same manner.
Return of Corpses of the Enemy
In the Battle of Ahzab a very renowned and redoubtable warrior of the enemy was killed and his body fell down in the trench which the Muslims had dug for the defence of Medina. The unbelievers presented ten thousand dinars to the Prophet and requested that the dead body of their fallen warrior may be handed over to them. The Prophet replied "I do not sell dead bodies. You can take away the corpse of your fallen comrade."
Prohibition of Breach of Treaties
Islam has strictly prohibited treachery. One of the instructions that the Prophet used to give to the Muslim warriors while sending them to the battlefront was: "Do not be guilty of breach of faith." This order has been repeated in the Holy Quran and the hadith again and again, that if the enemy acts treacherously let him do so, you should never go back on your promise. There is a famous incident in the peace treaty of Hudaybiyyah, when after the settlement of the terms of the treaty, Abu Jandal, the son of the emissary of the unbelievers who had negotiated this treaty with the Muslims, came, fettered and blood-stained, rushing to the Muslim camp and crying for help. The Prophet told him "Since the terms of the treaty have been settled, we are not in a position to help you out. You should go back with your father. God will provide you with some other opportunity to escape this persecution." The entire Muslim army was deeply touched and grieved at the sad plight of Abu Jandal and many of them were moved to tears. But when the Prophet declared that "We cannot break the agreement", not even a single person came forward to help the unfortunate prisoner, so the unbelievers forcibly dragged him back to Makkah. This is an unparalleled example of the observance of the terms of agreement by the Muslims, and Islamic history can show many examples of a similar nature.
Rules About Declaration of War
It has been laid down in the Holy Quran: 56"If you apprehend breach of treaty from a people, then openly throw the treaty at their faces" (8:58). In this verse, Muslims have been prohibited from opening hostilities against their enemies without properly declaring war against them, unless of course, the adversary has already started aggression against them. Otherwise the Quran has clearly given the injunction to Muslims that they should intimate to their enemies that no treaty exists between them, and they are at war with them. The present day 'inter- national law' has also laid down that hostilities should not be started without declaration of war, but since it is a man-made rule, they are free to violate it whenever it is convenient. On the other hand, the laws for Muslims have been framed by God, hence they cannot be violated.
Redeeming the Dignity of the Indigenous Peoples:
A Human Rights Response
1 Indigenous People and their rights
By- G.M. Quader
THE terms "indigenous people," "indigenous ethnic minorities," and "tribal groups" are used to describe social groups that share similar characteristics, namely a social and cultural identity that is distinct from dominant groups in society. United Nations human rights bodies, ILO, the World Bank and international law apply four criteria to distinguish indigenous people:
- Indigenous peoples usually live within (or maintain attachments to) geographically distinct ancestral territories.
- They tend to maintain distinct social, economic, and political institutions within their territories.
- They typically aspire to remain distinct culturally, geographically and institutionally, rather than assimilate fully into a national society.
- They self-identify as indigenous or tribal.
The situation of the indigenous people in the world is not encouraging. According to an estimate, there are about 370 million indigenous people spread across 70 countries. Individual groups practice their uniqueness, different from those of the dominant communities they live in. They are the descendents of who originally took up habitation in a geographical location. Other settlers, who came through conquest, occupation, encroachment, or other means, gradually joined them.
Ultimately, when and where these intruders and occupiers became more dominant than the original population, the indigenous people were displaced and driven away from their ancestral homelands. Today, these indigenous populations throughout the globe, including Bangladesh, are facing similar problems and are fighting for their land and way of life.
Bangladesh has quite a few varieties of indigenous communities living in various parts of the country. Though the total indigenous population is about two million, or less than 1.08% of the total population, it consists of 45 indigenous communities using about 26 different languages. Most indigenous people live in the rural settings of Chittagong Hills and in the regions of Mymensingh, Sylhet and Rajshahi. Most of the tribal people are of Sino-Tibetan descent, and have distinctive Mongolian features. These indigenous people differ in their social organization, marriage customs, birth and death rites, food, and other social customs, from the people of the rest of the country. In the mid-1980s, the Percentage distribution of tribal population by religion was Buddhist 44, Hindu 24, Christian 13, and others 19.
Each indigenous community, however small it may be, has a distinctive culture and heritage. The leaders from those communities express concern that those are fading away due to lack of government patronization and aggressive activities by sections of local people. They complain that their rights are often violated both by the government and by Bengalis. These can be protected only if the government shows more awareness and sensitivity to indigenous causes and comes forward and take steps.
How the indigenous people were forced to lose their dominance in their own locality is shown in the table as a progressive decline of indigenous population in context of the total population in Chittagong Hill Tracts over a period of time (see table).
Problems faced by the indigenous population of Bangladesh may be categorized as follows:
In addition to facing discrimination due to their ethnicity, members of indigenous communities face hardship in education, employment, and everyday life.
Lands of the indigenous peoples have been encroached upon and settled by newcomers. With little legal protection, indigenous peoples can rarely recover the lands they traditionally occupied. Sometimes government agencies in the name of development work take over lands belonging to the indigenous people.
All over the north of Bangladesh, indigenous people say they are concerned about what they call encroachment onto their traditional homelands by Bengali settlers.
Indigenous communities are mostly situated in remote, rural areas, where they lack infrastructure and access to larger markets.
Indigenous communities have also played a historically important role in environmental protection. Traditional livelihoods in indigenous communities may depend upon agriculture and raising animals. Environmental damage, therefore, is having a severe impact on their economies. Land reform and property laws have restricted some indigenous groups like Khasis at Moulvibazar or Garos at Modhupur, making their traditional occupations untenable. As they are mostly marginalized, indigenous and tribal peoples lack clout in national and even in most local governments, with the limited exception of local governments of Chittagong Hill Districts. Their interests and needs are often ignored by decision-makers. Inaugurating the rally, eminent theatre personel Mamunur Rashid blasted the mainstream Bengalees for their repressive attitude towards the Adivasis. Rebeka Soren, sister of slain Santal leader of Naogaon Alfred Soren, Rambhajan Koiry, the leader of the Tea leaves plucking community, Meruna long Song from Jaflong, Rebeka Moorang from Bandarban addressed the rally with an urge to keep unity among all indigenous people. Among other political leaders and intellectuals, Shuvrangshu Chakravarty of BSD (Khalekuzzaman), Pankaj Bhattachariya of Gonoforum, Bimal Biswas of Worker's Party, Sultana Kamal of Ain O Shalish Ksndro, Dalem C Burman and HKS Arefin of DU were present.
2 Human rights in constitution
Human rights and freedom of expression in the constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh ensured freedom of speech and expression. In the article 39 (1, 2) of chapter-3 of this constitution these have been stated:
Freedom of thought and conscience is guaranteed. Freedom of thought and conscience, and of speech
Subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interests of the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign states, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offense –
a) The right of every citizen of freedom of speech and expression;
b) Freedom of the press, are guaranteed. Some reasonable restrictions found in these articles are as follows-
(a) Against the interest of security of the State
b) Against the friendly relation with foreign state
c) Violation of public order
(d) Violation of decency or morality
(e) Anything related to contempt of court
(f} Defamation or incitement to any offense
Compilation: Mir Mansur Zaman & Riaz Uddin Khan
[Source: Mass-line Media Centre (MMC)]
3 Justice -peace and integrity of creation:
Garo and Khasi indigenous peoples face eviction,
By-Sanjeeb Drong, Bangladesh
Sanjeeb Drong is a layman and a close collaborator of the Oblates working with these: indigenous people in Bangladesh.
The Garo and Khasi indigenous communities live in the north and northeastern part of Bangladesh close to the Indian border. The majority of the Garos and Khasis live in Meghalaya, India. Some of them live in Tripura, Koch Bihar, Assam and Mizoram. Their total population in Bangladesh is about 120,000. The Garos and Khasis belong to a matrilineal society and most of them have become Christians through the years.
For centuries, the indigenous peoples in Bangladesh have been facing the severe effects of government policies like land grabbing, forceful migration, and human rights; violation including the colonial policy of divide and rule.
Since 1947, after the British rule, the then government of Pakistan organized a population transfer program to the Garo region; thousands of Bengali Muslims settled on indigenous land. Now the indigenous peoples have become a minority in their own homeland.
Hundreds of Garo and Khasi villages completely disappeared. Land was the source of life and livelihood for them. But lands were taken by outsiders from the indigenous peoples. After the loss of land, many of these indigenous people migrated to the towns, and cities for jobs.
The Bangladesh Government does not have any policy for the development of indigenous populations. Many times these people have faced forceful eviction from their homeland in the name of development projects like dams, national parks, Eco-parks, protected areas, reserve forests and even military bases thus; indigenous peoples have become the most marginalized and vulnerable group in the country. Bangladesh, in its thirty five years of independence, has never recognized these indigenous peoples
in the constitution.
5 Indigenous people deserve equal rights:
The International Day of Indigenous People was observed on August 9 as of every year in pursuance of a resolution adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 23 December 1994. This year's slogan was the economic and social rights of the indigenous people.' Human rights activists, leaders of indigenous people and speakers at different functions organized in observance of the day that stressed the need for upholding the ethnic identity of the indigenous people and ensuring their fundamental, social, cultural and economic rights. Observing that the indigenous people in the country have been neglected and deprived of their rights all along and their lands are still been grabbed by the influential people, the speakers further said the aborigines should join [the non-communal, democratic and progressive movement to realize. their rights. It may be, pointed out here, Indigenous societies range from those who have been significantly exposed to the colonizing or expansionary activities of other societies to those who as yet remain in comparative isolation, negligence and deprivation. Precise estimates for the total population of the world's indigenous peoples are very difficult to compile, however, recent estimates range from 300 million to 350 million as of the start of the 21st century. This would equate to just under 6% of the total.. This includes at least \5000 distinct peoples in over 72 countries. In Bangladesh also there are a good number of indigenous people belonging to different ethnic groups mainly living in Chittagong Hill districts, Mymensingh and Sylhet. While the day was observed in the country with a vow to safeguard the rights of the indigenous people allegations came to the fore on the occasion that ethnic minority groups are being subjected to injustice, deprivation, discrimination and eviction from their own lands. Even the Law Adviser Hasan Arif admitted that "lands of ethnic people were grabbed in the absence of adequate legal measures. One of the basic principles of our statehood is that all are equal citizens in this land whether they belong to the mainstream majority or the ethnic minority and whether they live in the plain lands or in the hilly areas." It is the inalienable birth right of the indigenous people to get equal facilities and protection with other citizens.
6 Bangladesh tribes protest against settlers
By Alastair Lawson. BBC correspondent in Dhaka
Members of Bangladesh's indigenous community are holding a demonstration in Dhaka on Saturday, Omilia Nicola: angry about disruption to indigenous life they are protesting at what they describe as ongoing encroachment by Bengali settlers into their ancestral homelands. Representatives from most of Bangladesh's 45 indigenous groups will take part in the demonstration, staged to coincide with Indigenous Peoples' Day. The protestors are especially angry over government plans to build a giant wall in the ancestral homelands of the Garo community in the north of the country. Under threat 75-year old Krishna Nicola and his wife Omilla have cut wood in the forest of the Madhupur National park in northern Bangladesh for more than 50 years. They are members of the Garo indigenous community and speak their own language and maintain their own cultural traditions.
In contrast to the rest of predominantly Muslim Bangladesh they are mostly Christian and inherit property through the female line. But now they feel that a way of life which has remained mostly undisturbed for centuries could be seriously disrupted. The government says the wall is needed to protect the forest The Bangladesh government has begun work on a nine-foot wall in the National Park which ministers say is necessary to stop poaching and illegal logging. It will span an area of more than 3,000 acres and separates Garo villages from their farmland and hunting grounds in the forest. This wall will make it a lot harder for us to go out and come into an area of the forest that is our ancestral homeland," Krishna Nicola says. 'We have been hunting and growing small plantations on this land for centuries. Now we are being obstructed. "I cannot see why there is any need for this wall." Omilla, is equally indignant. She says' that once the wall is completed, all the main roads going through the forest will be blocked, forcing them to pay a toll every time they want to sell agricultural produce In the nearby town of Mymensingh. "It will disturb us enormously.
"All the indigenous people of this area feel angry that their homeland in the forest is either being cut down or made into a holiday destination for outsiders."
7 Bangladesh 'tribes' seek support:
By Alastair Lawson BBC correspondent in Dhaka
A two-day meeting between Bangladesh and its international donors has concluded in the capital Dhaka. The meeting concentrated on economic progress and the concerns of the international Monetary Fund and World Bank that not enough is being done to improve law and order or redress corruption. Bangladesh is highly dependent on foreign aid but other important issues rumble beneath the surface – including a series of complaints put forward on behalf of the country's 45 indigenous groups. A petition put forward on behalf of one million people in Bangladesh, who the government describes as 'tribes is deeply critical of their treatment. It says that the indigenous communities -unlike majority Bengalis – receive no aid from the government, even though they are among. The poorest and most downtrodden people in the country.
It says that per capita income is among the lowest in the world while literacy rates and access to health care are low. Deaths from malaria and dysentery are commonplace and access to social services is limited. The petition says the government has no formal policy to help the indigenous community. Many live in rural areas but they have been made landless and are often persecuted by forestry officials. The petition says that the government has not even included indigenous people in a poverty reduction programmed submitted to the donors for approval. The document urges the development partners of Bangladesh to put pressure on the government to improve their plight. There has been no formal response from the government to the petition, although ministers point out that measures have been taken to improve conditions for indigenous people including the decision to give them more autonomy in the Chittagong Hill tracts in the south-east of the country.
Indigenous people of Bangladesh
Indigenous peoples of Bangladesh can be regarded as one of the largest vulnerable I segments of society/While differing significantly in terms of culture, identity, economic systems, and social institutions, indigenous peoples are a whole most often reflect specific disadvantage in terms of social indicators economic status and quality of life. Indigenous peoples often are not able to participate equally in development processes and share in the benefits of development and often are not adequately represented in national social economic and political processes that direct development
Bangladesh is noted for the ethnic homogeneity of its population. Over 98 percent of the people are Bengalis, predominantly Bangle-speaking peoples. People speaking Arabic, Persian, and Turkic languages also have contributed to the ethnic characteristics of the region. Bangladesh's indigenous population consisted of about 2000000(2 Million) persons, just over 1.08% percent of the total population, at the time of the 2001 census. They lived primarily in the Chittagong Hills and in the regions of Mymensingh, Sylhet, and Rajshahi. The majority of the tribal population lived in rural settings, where any practiced shifting cultivation. Most tribal people were of Sino Tibetan descent and had distinctive Mongoloid features. They differed in their social organization, marriage customs, birth and death rites, food, and other social customs from the people of the rest of the country. They spoke Tibeto-Burman languages. In the mid-1980s, the percentage distribution of tribal population by religion was Hindu 24, Buddhist 44, Christian13, and others19.
The four largest tribes were the Chakmas, Marmas (or Maghs), Tipperas (or Tipras), and Mros (or Moorangs). The tribes tended to intermingle and could be distinguished from one another more by differences in their dialect, dress, and customs than by tribal cohesion. Only the Chakmas and Marmas displayed formal tribal organization, although all groups contained distinct clans. By far the largest tribe, the Chakmas were of mixed origin but reflected more Bengali influence than any other tribe. Unlike the other tribes, the Chakmas and Marmas generally lived in the highland valleys. Most Chakmas were Buddhists, but some practiced Hinduism or animism. Of Burmese ancestry, the Marmas regarded Burma as the center of their cultural life.
Members of the Marma tribe disliked the more widely used term Maghs, which had come to mean pirates. Although several religions, including Islam, were represented among the Marmas, nearly all of the Marmas were Buddhists.
The Ttpperas were nearly all Hindus and accounted for virtually the entire Hindu population of the Chittagong Hills. They had migrated gradually from the northern Chittagong Hills. The northern Tipperas were influenced by Bengali culture. A small southern section known as the Mrungs showed considerably less Bengali influence.
The Mros, considered the original inhabitants of the Chittagong Hills, lived on hilltops and, often fortified their villages. They had no written language of their own, but some could read the Burmese and Bangla scripts. Most of them claimed to be Buddhists, but their religious practices were largely animistic.
Tribal groups in other parts of the country included Santals in Rajshahi and Dinajpur, and Khasis, Garos, and Khajons in Mymensingh and Sylhet regions. Primarily poor peasants, these people all belonged to groups in the adjoining tribal areas of India.
Human rights violation now days are a burning problem in our country as well as the whole world. Not only the Garo people but also native people are sometimes violated and lose their human rights. To support the rationality of the study the following points are enlisted:
- To find out the cause of Indigenous people's activities in Bangladesh.
- In recent times the most debated issue in Bangladesh is terrorism. So to discuss about the terrorists activities this kind of research is very important.
- As it is a very current issue, we have very little research in this subject. So as a student of peace and conflict studies, it is a catchy topic to research in this hot issue.
- Bangladesh has thousand of problems. Any of these can be the cause of uprising terrorism in Bangladesh. This kind of research can find out the particular cause of terrorism in Bangladesh.
- Some western countries are trying to establish Bangladesh as failure state. This kind of study can take stand against international campaign.
- The word "indigenous" is a very sophisticated issue in Bangladesh where several mainstream political parties are concerned directly or indirectly. There is no updated study on this issue so far. In order to provide an updated report on the whole scenario of indigenous people's activities in Bangladesh, this research is very~m0ch important.
The specific objectives of this study are as follows 🙂
- To evaluate the Indigenous people's rights in Bangladesh and the persecutions of people about their fundamental human rights.
- To examine the real causes of human rights violation of Garo indigenous people in Bangladesh.
- To observe the impacts of indigenous people in political, socio- economical, cultural structures of Bangladesh.
- To find out an analytical set of causes of indigenous people's activities as terrorist activities in our country.
- To review the consequence of indigenous people's activities in Bangladesh and its threats to its own internal security.
- To find out some solution of this problem.
The scope of the study is to find out the causes of being under covered group situation and see what people perceive about them who are mostly involved in anti-cooperation in their panorama. The aim of this study is to examine the analytical and diagnostic causes of indigenous people and their activities, sources and funding system for maintaining their communicable activities, how the impacts of indigenous people in political, social, economical and cultural structures of Bangladesh and to judge the consequence of indigenous peoples in Bangladesh and their threats to its own internal security.
Following constraints could be found of the study.
- Time is not enough to do this huge research.
- In these days, the problem of indigenous people is a crucial issue. The respondents of the questionnaire were not as eager as expected. In case of previous literature reviews I haven't found sufficient substantial materials on these issues. Only daily newspapers were the source of secondary data of the study.
- It includes the limitations and scope of this study. Though the situation of the indigenous people is a multi-disciplinary issue but it will be wise to analyze them. in a narrow view. Otherwise it is quite impossible to have a particular conclusion.
- Provided no economic support to culminate the field survey.
The Holy Quran
Mansand of ibn hanbal
Human Right, the West and Islam: Allamah Al-'A'la Mawdudi
Al Tawhid Journal,Vol.Iv No.3 Rajab-Ramadhan 1407
1 The Holy Quran (5:44)
2 The Holy Quran (5:45)
3 The Holy Quran (5:47)
4 The Holy Quran (5:32)
5 The Holy Quran (6:151)
6 The Holy Quran (5:32)
7 The Holy Quran (3:75)
8 The Holy Quran (17:32)
9 The Holy Quran (51:19)
10Al-Bukhari & Ibn Majjah
11 The Holy Quran (5:2)
12 The Holy Quran (5:8)
13 The Holy Quran (4:135)
14 The Holy Quran (49:13)
15 The Holy Quran (49:13)
16 Al-Bayhaqi & Al-Bazzaz
17 The Holy Quran (5:2)
18 The Holy Quran (4:93)
19 Al-Bukhari & Abu Dawud
20 The Holy Quran (2:188)
21 The Holy Quran (49:11-12)
22 The Holy Quran (49:2)
23 The Holy Quran (24:27)
24 Abu Dawud
25 The Holy Quran (4:58)
26 The Holy Quran (4:148)
27 The Holy Quran (9:71)
28 The Holy Quran (9:67)
29 The Holy Quran (22:41)
30 The Muslim
31 The Holy Quran (3:110)
32 The Holy Quran (3:104)
33 The Holy Quran (2:256)
34 The Holy Quran (6:108)
35 The Holy Quran (29:46)
36 The Holy Quran (6:164)
37 The Holy Quran (51:19)
38 Al-Bukhari & Muslim
39 Abu Dawud & Al- Tirmidhi
40 The Holy Quran (49:10)
41 The Holy Quran (9:11)
42 Abu Dawud; Ibn Majjah
43 Al-Bukhari, Muslim & Abu Dawud
44 Al-Bukhari & Al-Nisa'i
45 Abu Dawud
46 The Holy Quran (28:4)
47 Masnad of ibn hanbal
48 The Holy Quran (24:55)
49 The Holy Quran (42:38)
50 Abu Dawud
51 Masnad of ibn hanbal
52 Abu Dawud
53 Al-Bukhari & Abu Dawud
54 Abu Dawud
55 Al-Bukhari & Abu Dawud
56 The Holy Quran (8:58)