Importance Of Production Techniques On Apparel Industry

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Production Techniques is very important of Apparel Industry. It can be spun in to yarn or processed in textile such as fabric, knit, non-woven etc by means of yarn an appropriate interacting method. It should have sufficient length, fineness strength, elasticity and softness. The availability and price are also important for a fabric to be used as textile.

The apparel industry traditionally has consisted mostly of production workers who performed the cutting and sewing functions in an assembly line. This industry remains a labor-intensive one, despite advances in technology and workplace practices. Although many workers still perform this work in the United States, the industry is increasingly opening factories in other countries or contracting out its production work to foreign suppliers to take advantage of other countries’ lower labor costs.

In its place, a growing number of apparel manufacturers are performing only the entrepreneurial functions involved in apparel manufacturing.

These include buying raw materials, designing clothes and accessories and preparing samples, arranging for the production and distribution of the apparel, and marketing the finished product.

The word “textile” originally applied only to woven fabrics, now generally applied to fibres, yarns, or fabrics or products made of fibers, yarns or fabrics.

The term textile originates from the Latin verb texere –to weave-but, as the textile institute’s terms and definitions glossary explains, it is now “a general term applied to any manufacture from fibres, filaments or yarns characterized by flexibility, fineness and high ratio of length to thickness”.

Textiles, especially fabric are the fundamental component of a readymade garment, because it is the basic material of garments. So it is important to know the manufacturing sequence of fabric from fibre. The quality product is the main goal at present time.

Without knowledge of textile manufacturing i.e. fiber, yarn and fabrics it is impossible to maintain the quality of a garment.


Apply understanding of industrial equipment to develop manufacturing skills


Select and use machinery, hand tools and techniques suitable for identified purposes:

The development of the sewing machine was hard at work at the end of the eighteenth century in England, France, and the United States. Leather and canvas could be stitched by this heavy machine, which used a notched needle and awl to create a chain stitch. Like many early machines, it copied the motions of hand sewing. A critical innovation was patented. Their sewing machine used a needle with an eye in the point of the needle instead of at the top.

Sewing machine:

A sewing machine is a textile machine used to stitch fabric, cards and other material together with thread. Sewing machines were invented during the first Industrial Revolution to decrease the amount of manual sewing work performed in clothing companies. The research and development department of a manufacturer works, in conjunction with the marketing department, to develop specifications for a new machine that is then designed as a prototype. Software for manufacturing the machine is developed, and working models are made and tested by users. Meanwhile, engineers test the working models for durability and establish useful life criteria. In the sewing laboratory, stitch quality is precisely evaluated, and other performance tests are conducted under controlled conditions.

Sewing machine

Lock Stitch Machine:

Lockstitch sewing machine is very popular sewing machine and widely used in most of the conventional modern garments sewing system. The lockstitch machine is very easy to use but required more power to operate.

Lockstitch machine

The primary components concerned with the formation of the stitch are:

(i) The needle,

(ii) The feed dogs,

(iii) Throat plate,

(iv) The presser foot,

(v) The rotary sewing hook, and

(vi) Bobbin and the bobbin case.

Stitch forming action of the rotary-hook lock stitch machine:

Rotary-hook machine forms the plain stitch or simple two thread lock stitch by carrying the needle thread loop around a bobbin containing the under thread. Commencing with the needle at the lowest point of its stroke, the needle starts to raise the needle-thread which, being flexible, bulges out away from the needle to form a loop. The loop formed in the needle-thread is then entered by the point of the sewing hook.

As the needle continues to rise and the hook progresses in its rotation, the needle-thread take-up arm provides sufficient slack thread to be drawn down through the fabric to increase the size of the loop.

On its first rotation, the sewing hook carries the needle-thread loops around the bobbin case and bobbin, the inside of the loop sliding over the face of the bobbin-case whilst the outside passes around the back, to enclose the bobbin-thread. As the needle-thread take-up starts to rise, the loop is drawn up through the “cast-off” opening of the sewing-hook before the revolution is complete.

Overlook Machine:

· No of needles – one or 2 needs

· No of thread – 2-5 threads

· Stitches per minute ( SMP)- ( 6500- 8500)

· Stitch length Maximum 4mm and stitch length and be changed by push button

· Used for sewing both woven and knitted good butextens lively used for knitted well.

Overlook Machine

Chain stitch machine:

· No of needle — one or more needle

· No of thread – one or more thread

· Stitches per minute ( SPM) – ( 1800-6000)

· Various types of feed mechanism is adjusted to the m/c

· use in knitted wear and jeans

Chain stitch machine

Button hole machine:

Button hole m/c

· Stitch group lock on chain stitch

· Arrangement of button hale size being smaller larger

· Button hole can be mode to cut the hole before or after

· sewing a button hole

· Button hole looks cleans

· No arrangement changing the button hole position

Hoffman press:

Hoffman Press has been in business since 1908. We are a fourth-generation company, located in New Haven, CT, that prints pressure sensitive labels, tags, and foil. We print up to 8 colors and up to 20×19 inches wide, with all different substrates, papers, films, and foils along with thermal transfer and direct thermal labels.

Hoffman press m/c

We pride ourselves on our service and we give the customer exactly what they want. We give our customers the proper knowledge, experience, and attention with every quote to ensure that you are getting the best quality, service, and lowest cost possible. Whether your job is large or small, we will get the best service, quality, and low cost that we deserve.

Hoffman Press also offers a full service, in house art department. Our art department offers design, layout, and typesetting. We can design a label from just an idea in your head or take our existing artwork and turn it into a masterpiece. Whatever your needs are, we can handle it. Please feel free to inquire about any information above. We also carry a full line of label applicators, thermal transfer and direct thermal printers as well as thermal transfer ribbons.

Steam iron:

There are many irons on the market, but when it comes to deciding whether you need a steam iron or a steam generator, and how much steam output to go for, there are three main things to review: the size of your average ironing load, the types of fabrics and how often you use the iron. Other factors include the length of the cable and anti-scale systems if you live in a hard water area. We recommend trying and getting one with a ceramic sole plate if possible – they give the smoothest gliding.

Steam iron

Clean Tools and Materials:

Having clean tools in proper working condition will be important to completing a project on time. Having to buy new tools can be expensive but with the proper care you can save your money as you will only need to buy them once. Regularly cleaning your tools will go a long way in keeping them in working condition which will keep you in working condition.

Clean Tools and Materials

Method of Pressing Operation:

  1. All shirt collars and cuffs are finished.
  2. The operator loads the body form.
  3. The Hoffman Automated.

The expandable Transport Conveyor System is used for buttoning, collar striping and preparation for folding. After the preparation, the conveyor moves the shirts to the folding stations where they are either folded, or for GOH a hanger is inserted, after which the garment then goes to a central bagging area.

Average Family:

For an average family’s weekly ironing needs, consider a more heavy duty steam iron with greater constant steam. Look for one with 2400 watts or more – they heat up and stay hot, quicker. If you have a lot of thicker or crease prone fabrics then you may want to consider a steam generator.

Power Users:

Does our ironing pile never seem to go down, iron working overtime. We would certainly benefit from the extra muscle of a steam generator. Their large water tanks can produce huge amounts of high pressure steam for a couple of hours before a top-up is needed. We won’t want to go back to using a regular steam iron ever again!


Adjust and maintain industrial equipment to ensure an acceptable quality of finish

Acceptable quality of finish garments:

In the apparel business, before accepting the finished goods from the manufacturer buyer do inspection of goods. As whole lot of goods inspection is not viable, also not advisable, inspection is done on sampling basis. In inspection how much percentage of defective pieces will be accepted depends on acceptable quality level. In the following table a sampling plan is given for final shipment inspection. The AQL level varies process to process, product to product and even buyer to buyer.

The AQL (Acceptable Quality Level) is the maximum per cent defective that for the purpose of sampling inspection can be considered satisfactory as a process average.

Table: Sampling plan for shipment inspection:

Lot or Batch size Sample size Code Letter Sample Size Acceptable Quality level
2.5 4.0 6.5
Ac Re Ac Re Ac Re
2 – 8 A 2 0 1 0 1 0 1
9 – 15 B 3 0 1 0 1 0 1
15 – 25 C 5 0 1 0 1 0 1
26 – 50 D 8 0 1 1 2 1 2
51-90 E 13 1 2 1 2 2 3
91-150 F 20 1 2 2 3 3 4
151-280 G 32 2 3 3 4 5 6
251-500 H 50 3 4 5 6 7 8
501-1200 J 80 5 6 7 8 10 11
1201-3200 K 125 7 8 10 11 14 15
3201-10000 L 200 10 11 14 15 21 22
10001-35000 M 315 14 15 21 22 21 22
Source: ANSI/ASQ Z 1.4 The Sampling procedures and table for inspection by attributes

Lot or Batch size: This means total how many pieces inspector is going to check or inspect. If we have been offered a shipment of 600 pieces order quantity, the batch size of this shipment will fall under 501 to 1200 pieces.

Sample size Code letter: This code is indicative a range of batch size. (Code ‘G’ means our lot size range is from 151 pieces to 280 pieces.

Sample size: It means that how many pieces will be picked up for inspection from the total offered pieces (Batch).

Ac (Accepted): The number in this column denotes that if the inspector finds up to that much defective pieces the shipment will be accepted by buyer.

Re (Rejected): On the other hand number in this column denotes that if the inspector finds that much defective pieces or more than the listed number, the shipment will be rejected (or asked to the manufacturer for 100% inspection and re-offer for final inspection) by buyer.

Example: Suppose we have been offered a shipment of 1000 pieces for inspection. Select the range from table, it is 501-1200. Now from table we have to select number of sample you are going to actually inspect. According the above table you will select 80 pieces out of 1000 pieces. Now assume that you are inspecting at 2.5 AQL. So, after inspecting all 80 pieces if you find 5 or less than 5 defective pieces will accept the shipment. And if we find 6 or more than 6 defective pieces in 80 samples we will reject that shipment.

Plan of the overall function of quality control:

· The cost of quality.

· Functions of Quality Assurance.

· Commercial advantages form effective control systems.

· Economic aspects of quality assurance.

· The role of quality control.


Quality reporting:

Quality reporting details the definition of the quality reporting process from the Functional Area Lead standpoint, including reporting template. Process detailed within this section will be congruent with the process supported by the nausea seaport Communication Plan.


In sewing, a seam is the join where two or more layers of fabric, leather, or other materials are held together with stitches. Prior to the invention of the sewing machine, all sewing was done by hand. Seams in modern mass-produced household textiles, sporting goods, and ready-to-wear clothing are sewn by computerized machines, while home shoemaking, dressmaking, quilting, crafts, haute couture and tailoring may use a combination of hand and machine sewing.

In clothing construction, seams are classified by their type plain, lapped, abutted, or French seams and position in the finished garment center back seam, inseam, side seam. Seams are finished with a variety of techniques to prevent raveling of raw fabric edges and to neaten the inside of garments.


All basics seams used in clothing construction are variants on four basic types of seams:

  • Plain seams
  • French seams
  • Flat or abutted seams
  • Lapped seams

A plain seam is the most common sort of machine-sewn seam. It joins two pieces of fabric together face-to-face by sewing through both pieces, leaving a seam allowance with raw edges inside the work. The seam allowance usually requires some sort of seam finish to prevent raveling. Either piping or cording may be inserted into a plain seam.

In a lapped seam, the two layers overlap with the wrong side of the top layer laid against the right side of the lower layer. Lapped seams are typically used for bulky materials that do not ravel, such as leather and felt.

Plain seam. French seam Ancient or Old German flat seam.



· Backstitch

· Bar tack

· Blanket

· Buttonhole

· Chain stitch

· Cross-stitch

· Embroidery stitch

· Hemstitch

· List of sewing stitches

· Lockstitch

· Overlock

· Pad stitch

· Running

· Sashiko

· Tack

· Topstitch

· Zigzag

Notions and trims:

· Bias tape

· Elastomeric

· Eyelet

· Grommet

· Interfacing

· Notions

· Passementerie

· Piping

· Rickrack

· Self-fabric

· Saguache

· Trim

· Twill tape

· Wrights


· Buckle

· Button

· Buttonhole

· Fly

· Frog

· Hook-and-eye

· Placket

· Shank

· Snap

· Velcro

· Zipper


· Bias

· Yarn / Thread

· Selvage

· Textiles / Fabrics


· Bobbin

· Dress form

· Needle threader

· Pin

· Pincushion

· Pinking shears

· Scissors

· Seam ripper

· Sewing needle

· Stitching awl

· Tailor’s ham

· Tape measure

· Thimble

· Tracing paper

· Tracing wheel

Trades and suppliers:

· Cloth merchant

· Draper

· Dressmaker

· Haberdasher

· Mercer / Mercury

· Sewing occupations

· Tailor

Sewing machine manufacturers:

· Barthelme Thimonnier

· Bernina

· Brother Industries

· Elias Howe

· Janome

· Marrow

· New Home

· Pfaff

· Seymour

· Singer

· Tape master

· Viking / Husqvarna

· White


· Butte rick

· Cloth kits

· McCall’s

· Simplicity

Openings and fastenings:

Fasteners for clothing are both functional and decorative. Certain types of snap fasteners, for example, feature a decorative cap that resembles a round button, yet requires no buttonhole. Toggle-fastenings offer an alternative to zippers that occasionally jam or break. Fasteners help reinforce a section of a garment and add structural integrity.

Toggle fastenings are often made of wood, buffalo horn, metal or plastic. In contrast to the disc-shaped button, the toggle is usually long and narrow. The duffel coat features four toggle fastenings, sometimes known as “walrus teeth.” The toggle fastenings insert through loops of rope or leather to help fasten the front of the coat. A person wearing gloves is able to fasten and unfasten these toggle fasteners.

Collars and cuffs:

A shirt has several components: A one-piece back, which is usually pleated, gathered, or eased into a section of fabric in the upper part of the back behind the neck and over the shoulders known as the yoke (either one-piece or seamed vertically in the middle); one-piece sleeves with plackets at the wrist, or else short-sleeved (cut off above the elbow), though this is not traditional; a band of fabric around each wrist known as a cuff; the collar, a strip around the neck, which is normally a turndown collar, with the strip folded down away from the neck, leaving two points at the front, the width of which is known as the spread; and finally two front panels which overlap slightly down the middle on the placket to fasten with buttons.


Eyelet collars require a barbell-style collar bar to join the small stitched hole on each point. Tab collars are point collars with two strips of fabric extending from the middle of the collar and joined behind the tie. These lift the tie, giving an arc effect similar to a pinned collar. The tabs can be closed with a metal snap, button or stud. Club collars have rounded edges, and were very popular in the first few decades of the twentieth century. The varsity is a type of spread collar in which the points curve outward from the placket of the shirt. Shirts designed to take a detachable collar have a tunic collar, which is a low standing band of fabric around the neck, with a hole at the front and back for the collar studs.

Contrast collar shirts are occasionally made, which are white collars on a colored or patterned shirt. These are worn for a variety of reasons, such as to offset certain complexions;


The main distinctions between cuffs are whether they require buttons or cufflinks to fasten, and whether they are folded back (double) or single. The main resulting types are therefore

Barrel cuffs, the standard style fastened by one or two buttons according to taste; Bauble, or French, cuffs, which are more formal, and have an extra length of sleeve folded back and fastened with links; and Single cuffs, the most formal style, usually only worn with formal eveningwear, which are double cuffs without the fold.

Seam finishes:

Most machines these days come with the ability to sew zigzag stitching, and this is a great help for finishing seams. It is so much quicker than hand finishing that for most areas, it has taken over completely. The following are three ways of finishing seams. They are all used on flat seams.


Create and present a collection of samples that show the potential/limitations of the application of a range of manufacturing equipment and techniques

At first I went to sikder apparel industry Ltd and draw out the measurement for making T-shirt. Using that measurement, draw a pattern piece for the sleeve. Both arms will have an identical sleeve pattern, so it is only necessary to create one piece and copy it for the other sleeve. Once the front and back are completed, add 1/4 inch to the edges of the pattern to allot for sewing salvage Trace the pattern with fabric chalk onto a flat piece of inexpensive fabric for sampling. Cut out the front, back and sleeve pieces of the pattern. Sew the pieces together to create a sample of the pattern. Then I make a finished garment of T-shirt.

T-shirt process of garment making is given below:

Measurement of T-shirt pattern:

· Length – 8.3/4 ins

· Chest – 7.3/8 ins

· Across shoulder- 6.1/4 ins

· Back neck with- 3.3/4 ins

· Arm hole -3.3/8 ins

· Front neck droop- ½ ins

· Sleeve length – 3 ins

· Sleeve opening/all round -5 ins

· Neck rip – ½”(height) ins

Use of machine:

· Shoulder join ——- Over-lock m/c.

· Rip tack ————– Plain m/c.

· Sleeve ham ———- Flat lock m/c.

· Sleeve join ———- Over-lock m/c.

· Side join ————- Over-lock m/c.

· Level attach ——— Plain m/c e.


A sample Garment of T-shirt & pattern


Contribute to a safe working environment:

Safe working environment:

Provide a safe work environment for all employees, free from any hazards and complying with all state and federal laws.

Health and safety in the workplace is about preventing work-related injury and disease, and designing an environment that promotes well-being for everyone at work. Knowledge is the key ingredient in providing a safe work environment if everyone knows the correct procedures then accidents and injuries can be kept to a minimum. The following checklists are also available to help we provide a safe working environment.

Health and safety:

Occupational health and safety procedures must be implemented wherever the work is being conducted be that in an office, factory, construction site or home.

We should develop and have in place an occupational health and safety policy to meet the following standards:

· Ensure that the way work is done is safe and does not affect employees’ health

· Ensure that tools, equipment and machinery are safe and are kept safe

· Ensure that ways of storing, transporting or working with dangerous substances is safe and does not damage employees’ health

· Provide employees with the information, instruction and training they need to do their job safely and without damaging their health

· Consult with employees about health and safety in the workplace

· Monitor the work place regularly and keep a record of what is found during the checks.

Safety Guidelines Work:

Every workplace has job-specific safety issues, from working with potentially dangerous equipment on construction sites to ergonomic considerations in an office. OSHA requires employers to provide.

Hydraulic Press Safety:

Operators running a hydraulic press are responsible for correctly positioning, feeding and removing materials from the machine. Due to the high amount of operator involvement necessary to run.

Work Safety Policy:

Hot work is an operation that includes welding, flame cutting or other fire-producing work, according to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Work safety policy guidelines.

Work Platform Safety Guidelines:

There are different types of aerial work platforms, such as elevating work platforms, scaffolds, scissor lifts, hotel lifts and cherry pickers. They provide temporary work surfaces and access.

Heavy Lifting Safety:

Heavy lifting safety is an essential, yet often overlooked, aspect of workplace safety training. It is important to recognize the proper technique for lifting heavy objects to avoid injury.

Safety for kids:

Kids like to mimic what their parents do. Boys and girls often want to help with household repairs or building projects. While it is good to teach children how these things are done, caution should.

Safety Bingo Work:

Safety bingo is a motivational game that increases safety awareness in the workplace. The concept is similar to traditional bingo. Each employee receives a bingo card at the beginning of the game.

Safety rules of sewing machine:

· Never run with scissors because you can fall on them and hurt yourself and others.

· Never run with a needle or pin otherwise you’ll prick yourself or others

· Always put anything you’ve used back to where you found it

· Keep your fingers well away from the needle on the sewing machine

· Never put a needle on a chair otherwise someone or you will sit on it and end up having a sore bum.

· Always remember to keep your hair tied up so when you use a sewing machine our hair won’t go in your face and end up being cut off by the needle on the sewing machine.

Safety work

Safety of Benefits:

Industrial safety clothing offers several benefits. However, the choice of type, style or material will depend on the specific nature of a company’s business and the particular hazards that its employees are likely to be exposed to. For example, fire, acids and chemicals are such hazards that appropriate industrial safety clothing can provide protection against. When combined with safety gloves, helmets, boots, masks and eyewear, industrial safety clothing will offer complete body protection against most hazards.


Construct an accurate calico toile for an identified garment


Cut appropriate pieces accurately following a lay plan:

A lay plan is when we position pattern pieces onto fabric and then cut them out. We can have a piece of paper with pattern pieces on then cut them out onto fabric and sew them together.


The definition of cutting is very complex. in germens industries fabric is cut from lay and spreading with accuracy and properly which is termed as fabric cutting.

Marker outline is used to cut the fabric .fabric cutting is very important as if something is cut in wrong way, cannot be rectified.

Methods of fabric cutting:

1. Manual

2. Hand operated scissor

3. Manually operated power knife.

a. Straight knife

b. Band knife

c. Round knife

d. Die cutting

e. Notcher

f. Drill



1. Knife

2. Laser

3. Water knife

4. Plasma torch

Features of straight knife

· Possible to cut pattern piece directly from the fabric lays

· Could be used to cut for higher depth of fabric

· High cutting sped

· Blade height 10 to 33 cm

· Ballade stroke 2.5 cm to 4.5cm

· Special attachment such as sew edge or serrated edge can be provided for heavy fabric such as canvas or denim.

Advantages of straight knife

· Comparatively cheap and can be transferred easily from one place to another.

· Higher lay of height can be cut very easily

· Round corners can be cut more e precisely then even round knife.

· Production speed is very good as up to 10 heights can be cut at a time.

· Garment compo9nents can be directly separated from fabric lays.

· Fabric can be cut from any angle.

Disadvantages of straight knife

· Sometimes deflection may occur due to the weighty of the motor.

· Knife defection is high is risk, when lay height s too high .

· Sometimes accident may happen.

Features of Round knife

The elements of a round knife are:

· Base plate.

· Electric motor

· Blade diameter varies form 6 – 20cm.

· The circular knife is driven by 1000 – 3500rpm.

· Blade edge.

· Wave edge.

· Circular edge.

Advantages of Round knife:

· Suitable for single ply cutting as well as multi – layer

· Suitable for small scale cutting.

· Suitable for gentle curve cutting.

· Easy to operate.

· Useful of cutting layer parts of a garments.

Disadvantages of Round knife:

· Not suitable for cutting very curved lens in higher number of lays as the blade does not straight all the piles simultaneously at the same point.

· Round knife is used only for straight lines and lower number of piles.

· Not suitable for higher production.

· Possibility of accident is high.

· Difficult of cut small component.

· Needs skilled operator.

Seam allowance:

Seam allowance refers to the area between the stitching and raw, cut edge of the fabric.

The most common seam allowances are 1/4″, 1/2″ and 5/8″. Always check your pattern directions and use the seam allowance called for in the directions.

A seam joins more than one pieces of fabric. All layers of fabric joined by a seam must have the same seam allowance. Make sure that the raw edges line up evenly to create an equal seam allowances on all of the pieces being joined.

Balancing the Armhole:

Measure the front & back armhole. The front armhole should measure 1/2 inch shorter than the back armhole.

Correcting front & back armhole: To make the armhole longer removing 1/4 inch at the middle of the armhole, shaping back to its original corners at the top and bottom. To make the armhole shorter add 1/4 inch at the mid/armhole area, and again, reshape to its original corners at the top & bottom. If the arm hole does not balance by removing or adding 1/4 inch an error was made on the dress form or when transferring your markings.


• 1/2 inch ease at side seam/armhole

• 1/8 inch ease across front chest area without pulling

• 1/4 inch ease across back shoulder blade level

• Draped side seams align with dress form side seam.

• Side seam draped together without pulling, twisting or distorting.


Once we have both pattern pieces cut out, its time to notch. We’ll need the CF/neck & waist, CB/neck & waist, Shoulder & Waist darts & armhole. For the Front & Back Armhole Notch measure 3 inches away from SS. Note that the back armhole gets two notches. So measure 1/2 inch from the 3 inch point & notch.

Marking our patterns:

First open our patterns so they are mirrored. The front bodice shouldn’t be a problem, but the back bodice since they are two separate pieces, we should have a right and left back bodice.

1. Start by Marking the Front Bodice, grain line, Pattern Piece Name, Size & Cut # (circle the cut number).

2. For the Back Bodice mark the, grain line, Pattern Piece Name, Size & Cut # (circle the cut number).

3. Like I said in this episode, I’m going to make a separate tutorial explaining all you need to know about marking your patterns.

Buying Supplies

Full automatic


· Marching can be set before the desired amount of piles spreading.

· After completing spreading will stop automatically and give a signal.

· It is automatically spliced and stray new fabric spreading where the last fabric roll has finished.

· Less time needed for fabric spreading.

· Less labor cost.


· Very expensive

· so that capital investment is high

· Skillful operator is needed to operate the machine.

Requirements of fabric spreading:

1. Alignment of fabric ply.

2. Correct ply tension.

3. Fabre must be fault.

4. Elimination of fabric flaws.

5. Correct ply direction and lay stability .

6. Eliminations f static electricity.

7. Easy separation of the cut lay into bundles .

8. Avoidance of fusion of plies during cutting.

9. Avoidance of distortion is spread.

10. Matching checks and stripes.


Identify a suitable sequence of processes to construct a toile from working design:

Any filament, fiber, or yarn that can be made into fabric or cloth, and the resulting material itself. The word originally referred only to woven fabrics but now includes knitted, bonded, felted, and tufted fabrics as well. The basic raw materials used in textile production are fibers, either obtained from natural sources or produced from chemical substances. Textiles are used for wearing apparel, household linens and bedding, upholstery, draperies and curtains, wall coverings, rugs and carpets, and bookbinding’s, in addition to being used widely in industry.

Working design flowchart:

Sketch / Design






Design / Sketch:

In the garment manufacturing the first step is designing the sketch for the dresses that have to be prepared. For this purpose the designer first draw several rough sketches in the sketch book. The designer does not go for details at this moment but he rather let his creativity flow on the paper and he draws many sketches. Later these sketches are analyzed by a panel of designers. They finally select few out of them. These few sketches are rendered in detail separately or in the form of a single collection. The designer also draws working drawings along with the sketch. Working drawings are flat drawing of the sketch and it help pattern maker in understanding the patterns involved in the construction.

Pattern Design:

The pattern maker now develop first pattern for the designs in any one standard size. This is made by pattern drafting method and the purpose of making this pattern is to create the sample garment for test fit.

Sample Making:

The first patterns are sent to the sewing unit for assembling them into garment. This is usually stitched on calico or muslin which is an inferior quality of fabric and it reduces cost. This sample is constructed to analyze the pattern fit and design too. After the sample garment is stitched it is reviewed by a panel of designers, pattern makers and sewing specialists. If any changes have to be made they are made at this time.

Marker Making:

The measuring department determines the fabric yardage needed for each style and size of garment. Computer software helps the technicians create the optimum fabric layout to suggest so fabric can be used efficiently. Markers, made in accordance to the patterns are attached to the fabric with the help of adhesive stripping or staples. Markers are laid in such a way so that minimum possible fabric gets wasted during cutting operation. After marking the garment manufacturer will get the idea of how much fabric he has to order in advance for the construction of garments. Therefore careful execution is important in this step.


The fabric is then cut with the help of cloth cutting machines suitable for the type of the cloth. These can be band cutters having similar work method like that of band saws; cutters having rotary blades; machines having reciprocal blades which saw up and down; die clickers similar to die or punch press; or computerized machines that use either blades or laser beams to cut the fabric in desired shapes.


The sorter sorts the patterns according to size and design and makes bundles of them. This step requires much precision because making bundles of mismatched patterns can create severe problems. On each bundle there are specifications of the style size and the marker too is attached with it.


The sorted bundles of fabrics are now ready to be stitched. Large garment manufacturers have their own sewing units other use to give the fabrics on contract to other contractors. Stitching in-house is preferable because one can maintain quality control during the processing. On the other hand if contractors are hired keeping eye on quality is difficult unless the contactor is one who precisely controls the process.


Open seams, wrong stitching techniques, non- matching threads, and missing stitches, improper creasing of the garment, erroneous thread tension and raw edges are some of the sewing defects which can affect the garment quality adversely. During processing the quality control section needs to check each prepared article against these defects.

Pressing/ Finishing:

The next operations are those of finishing and/or decorating. Molding may be done to change the finished surface of the garment by applying pressure, heat, moisture, or certain other combination. Pressing, pleating and creasing are the basic molding processes. Creasing is mostly done before other finishing processes like that of stitching a cuff. Creasing is also done before decorating the garment with something like a pocket, embroidered emblems etc.

Final Inspection:

For the textile and apparel industry, product quality is calculated in terms of quality and standard of fibers, yarns, fabric construction, color fastness, designs and the final finished garments. Quality control in terms of ga