Industrial Attachment on Zaara Composite Textile Ltd.
Project description general information about the factory
Name of the Factory : Zaara Composite Textiles Ltd.
Owner of the Factory : Md. Badrul Hasan
Status : Private Ltd. Company.
Location of the Mill : Surabari, Kashimpur, Gazipur.
Head office :
Commercial production : 2003
Business Line :
Nature of Businesses :
Vision: Building true marketing, innovative vision, and strong revenue based product portfolio, customer satisfaction & understand of global market.
Mission: Each of the activities must benefit & add value to the common wealth of our society. We firmly believe that, in the final analysis we are accountable to each of the constituents with whom we interact; namely our employees, our customers, our business associates, our fellow, citizens & our shareholders.
Infrastructure: Total Area: 100000
Building Space: 1, 10,000
EXECUTIVE TEAM: professionally skilled, highly educated & technically experts a team of 60 of official.
Year turnover: US$0.00-0.00 Million
Production capacity: Knitting : 3000 Kg/day
Dying : 4000 Kg/day
Finishing : 4000 Kg/day
Garment : 30.000pcs/day
LAY OUT OF THE MILL
||10. Production planning &control.|
PRODCUCT TYPES & VARITIES:
v Single Jersey
v Single Jersey Lycra
v Single Jersey slob
v 1 ´1 Rib
v 2´2 Rib
v Lycra Rib
v Interlock Plane
v Interlock Lycra
v Collar & Cuff
DYEING & FINISHING SECTION
|Dyeing & Finishing Section||84|
|Power generator, Boiler & Utility||29|
Knitting Section: (Both General & Shifting)
Batch Selection Section: (Both General & Shifting)
|Batching In charge||1|
|Turning m/c Operator||4|
Dyeing Section: (Both General & Shifting)
|General Manager Same as Knitting G.S.M||—|
Finishing Section: (Both General & Shifting)
|Finishing In charge||1|
|Squeezer Operator +Helper||6|
|Dryer operator+ Helper||8|
|Compactor operator+ Helper||10|
|Dyeing QC. Lab||Manpower|
|Q.C In charge||1|
Power Generator, Boiler & Utility: (Both General & Shifting)
|ETP In charge||1|
|Water Pump operator||2|
Store section: (Both General & Shifting)
|Store Keeper (Dyeing)||2|
|Store Keeper (Knitting)||1|
|Store Keeper (garments)||4|
Administration: (Both General & Shifting)
Security: (Both General & Shifting)
|Security In charge||1|
|Arm force guard||12|
- Shift of eight hours.
- Shift changes in every week on Friday.
LAYOUT OF KNITTNG SECTION:
DESCRIPTION OF KNITTING MACHINE:
Knitting division is divided into four sections.
- Circular Knitting Section.
- Flat Knitting Section.
- Inspection section.
- Store Section
1. Circular Knitting Section:
In Zaara composite Textile Ltd, this section contains 12 circular knitting machines of different types and made by same manufactures. In this section body fabrics for knit wears are produced. Specifications of the machines are given below.
|Type of Mach.||M/c No||Brand Name||Origin||Model No||M/c Dia||M/C Gauge||No of Feeder||m/c Qty||Attch.|
|SingleJersey||1||Year China||Taiwan||IC-DM3||21²||24||63||1||With Lyora|
Total knitting section capacity: 3ton/day
2. Flat Knitting Section (Collar & Cuff):
Generally collar & cuff of knitted garments is produced in this section. There are 2 flat knitting machines of the same type. The specifications of these machines are given below:
|Type of Mach.||M/c No||Brand Name||Origin||Model No||M/c Dia||M/C Gauge||No of fiddle||No of Neddle||m/c Qty||Attch.|
Zaara Capacity: Collar- 200 Pcs
Cuff: 400 Pcs.
3. Fabric Inspection Section:
There are one machine is fabric inspection section. Specification of this machine is given below:
|Type of Mach.||M/c No||Brand Name||Origin||Model No||Speed||Manufacture Turning Date|
|Collar||1||HW ANG SHIN||TAIWAN||HS-125||50 RPM||AUG-7/2006|
DESCIRPTION OF BATHING (TURNING MACHINE)
Delivery roller (anti-clockwise)
Cross-sectional diagram of turning m/c:
Special feature of turning m/c:
- Fabric turning face side to back side y cylinder
- Rope form delivery by the delivery roller
- Delivery per house= 417 kg.
- A large cylinder present
- An air blower present.
At first, the face sides of the fabrics are placed on cylinder surface and few partitions are entered inside of the cylinder then blower on which pass the fabric inside of the cylinder and turn the fabric. Finally, rope form delivery by delivery roller.
LAY OUT OF THE DYEING LABORATORY:
DESCRIPTION OF DYEING LABORATORY MACHINE:
1. Machine Name : Spectro-Photometer
Machine Function : Data Color
Origin : UK
Model : CE-2180UV
Manufacturer : SDL ATLAS
2. Machine Name : Spectro Dyeing M/C
Machine Function : Sample Dyeing
Origin : TAIWAN
Model : LABORATORY
Manufacturer : DRAGON MACHINARY CO.ltd.
3. Machine Name : Washing Machine
Machine Function : Fastness Washing
Origin : Korea
Model : WF8692NEC SAFETY MARK
Manufacturer : SAMSUNG
4. Machine Name : Tumble Dryer Machine
Machine Function : Drying & Shrinkage
Origin : UK
Model : 27
Manufacturer : SDL ATLAS
5. Machine Name : Crock Meter
Machine Function : Fastness to Rubbing
Origin : UK
Model : M238AA
Manufacturer : SDL ATLAS
6. Machine Name : Verivide
Machine Function : Swatch Matching
Origin : U.S.A
Manufacturer : Verivide
LAYOUT OF DYEING & FINISHING SECTION
DESCRIPTION OF DYEING MACHINE:
|Type of Mach.||Brand Name||Origin||Model No||No of Nozzle||Capacity Kg||m/c Qty|
|8||High Temperature & Pressure||Atta.||,,||AT-G(L)||1||20||1|
Working principle of winch Dying M/C:
The winch dyeing m/c is quite simple and serves for all scouring, bleaching, dyeing, washing-off and softening processes. The m/c contains a length of fabric with the ends sewn together, which is compressed to form a continuous rope. This rope passes from the dye bath over two elevated reels and then falls back into the bath. The jockey or fly roller is free running and winch reel is driven and controls the rate of rope transport and the extent of pleating where the rope accumulates below and behind the winch. Both reels extend the full length of the m/c and accommodate several fabric ropes running side by side.
A perforated baffle separates the liquor in the front of the m/c from the remainder. This part of the m/c is called ‘the salting box’. Both dyes and chemicals are added to salting box during dyeing and gradually mix into the remainder of the solutions. All additions must be made across the full length of the m/c with stirring
Heating is by steam injection from a perforated pipe running along the length of the salting box. A heat exchanger present in the m/c absorbs extra vapor/heat to cool the m/c for safety.
The m/c is preferably closed to avoid steam and heat losses, particularly when dyeing at or near boiling point. The rate of dyeing is partly controlled by the rate of rope cycling and usually increases with increasing winch speed.
So, this is the basic mechanism of winch m/c.
- Easy to m/c operate, batch load and unload system
- The several numbers of batches can be dyed at a time
- Knitted fabric can be dyed easily because of less tension on the fabric
- High speed, high temperature and pressure causes level dyeing of the fabric.
- Little difficult to maintain uniform heating
- Initial investment cost is high
DESCRIPTION OF FINISHING MACHING:
|Sl. No||Type of Mach.||Brand Name||Origin||Model No||Capacity||m/c Qty|
|2||Trumble||—||Bangladesh||_||1000kg / day 1 ton/day||1|
|3||Dryer Tubular||Dongnam||Korea||DBPD-2400 (3L,3CH)||6 tons/day||1|
|4||Soft Callender||Dongnam||Korea||DNC-1400||2 tons/day||1|
|Sl. No||Type of Mach.||Brand Name||Origin||Model No||Capacity||m/c Qty|
|5||Compactor Tubular||Fab-con||U.S.A||60||6 tons/day||1|
|6||Fabric Inspection||UZU||Thailand||UZFQ||10 tons / day||1|
|7||Air Turning||Dongnam||Korea||DNAT -400||4 tons /day||1|
Working principle Squeezer m/c:
The fabric is fed into the machine in a rope form and then it is first de twisted by the detwister. This unit is mounted at the top of the machine. Fabric in rope for goes up into the unit and when it comes down; it takes a uniform cylindrical shape which eases the job of the centering unit, Fabric is then passes through a series of rollers and lastly goes into the squeezing rollers and delivered. This machine has a highest speed of 80 m/min.
Removal of excess water:
the ideal removal of excess water is 40%
If g.s.m before squeezing = 200
and g.s.m after squeezing = 150
Water remove % = ´100% = 33.33%
Then it should increase pressure of squeezing roller.
Cross sectional diagram of dryer heating zone:
Dongnam gas dryer M/c:
Chamber – 1 Chamber – 2
Special feature of dryer:
Dongnam gas dryer-
- Gas dryer (two chambers)
- Maximum temperature increase up to 200°c
- Three conveyor belts are present
- Open & tubular both type of fabrics can be dried
- Min”1 & Max”1 gas pressure control switch present
- Burner air pressure switch present
- Vibration occur in heating zone
- Two burners are present
Working principle of dryer:
After dewatering then the fabric goes through the dryer. The main function of the dryer is given below,
- To dry the fabric
- To control the overfeed system
- To control the vibration which increase the G.S.M
The speed of the dryer depends on the temperature of the m/c & the G.S.M of the fabric. If the m/c temperature is high then m/c speed also high and the m/c temperature is low then m/c speed also low. The temperature of different chambers according to the shade of the fabric.
Special feature of fab-con Compactor:
- Operating system is computerized
- Steam bar present which soften the fabric for compacting
- In compacting zone, edge & retard roller, compacting shoe and steel plates are present
- A pair of pulley present for fabric diameter control
- Auto sensor present in conveyor belt
- Fabric G.S.M, shrinkage and diameter control
Working principle of compactor m/c:
This M/C consists of five major parts and these ares-
Shaper: It looks a ladder which straightens the fabric and passing through the pulley.
1. A pair of pulley: It controls the fabric width according to the buyer’s requirements.
2. Steam zone: It is given steam on the fabric surface for softness which helps in compacting zone to compact the fabric.
Steam spray on fabric surface
4. Compacting zone: It consists of edge roller, retard roller, steel plates and compacting shoe. Fabric’s shrinkage, finished G.S.M and dia permanent by compacting shoe & edge roller at 95°c. Steel plates remove the crease mark on the fabric surface and retard roller smooth the upper portion of the fabric surface at 95 c.
Steel plate Compacting shoe
5. Folding Zone: Here fabric folding fan moving to and foe movement
RAW MATERIALS FOR KNITTING
|TYPE OF YARN||COUNT|
|Cotton||20S,24S,26 S,28 S,30 S,32 S 34 S, 36 S,40 S|
|Spandex Yarn||20 D, 40 D|
|Grey Melange (c-90%, v-10%)||24 S, 26 S,30S|
|Cotton Melange (c-100%)||24 S, 26 S,28 S|
SOURCE OF YARN FOR KNITTING:
- Jamuna Spinning.
- Padma Textile
- HK Spinning
- Arif Textile
- Prime Textile
- Keya Spinning
- Shamim Spinning
- Square Textile.
- Loyal Spinning.
1. Single Jersey
I. Single Jersey (Plain)
II. Single Lacoste
III. Polo pique
2. Double Jersey
i. 1´1 Rib
ii. 2´1 Rib
iii. 2´2 Rib
iv. Lycra Rib
v. Plain Interlock
3. Collar & Cuff
i. Plain collar or solid collar.
ii. Shaving Collar.
iii. Tipping Collar.
iv. Tipping Collar
v. Race Collar
vi. Stripe Collar
4. Different decorative single and double jersey fabric.
PRODUCTION PLANNING AND OPERATION
MAJOR BUYERS OF ZAARA COMPOSITE TEX. Ltd.
- RED HERRING
- HENLEY COLLAR
- TRADE UP
BASIC PROCEDURE OF PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL:
A planned work brings success. With out planning nothing is complete within the required time. So planning has its own importance which is intolerable. Planning gives a scheduled task and control completes it successfully. But production planning and control is not an easy task. Its basic working procedure is as follows-
- Taking order from marketing division.
- Analyzing the orders.
- Planning for knitting the fabric.
- Planning for dyeing the fabric.
- Planning for finishing the fabric.
It is only a basic procedure. It may change according to the type of order. Sometimes the order is placed only for finishing the materials or only for dyeing the goods. Then some steps are minimizing for planning.
- Taking order from marketing division:
Zaara marketing division supplied fabric orders to the planning and control division by a specific format.
- Analyzing the orders:
After getting the fabric order, this section analyzes the orders according to buyers order quantity, type of orders (i.e. type of fabric, color to be dyed etc.), delivery date etc. This section plans for required quantity of fabric to be knitted (order quantity + 10% of the order quantity), knitting balance, fabric to be dyed, dyeing balance, RFD (ready for delivery), RFD balance, delivery fabric & delivery balance etc.
- Planning for knitting:
This section plans for knitting production. It selects m/c for knitting the fabric, no of m/c to be used, type of yarn used, from which source yarn will be collected, required GSM, width etc. It also gives delivery date of knitted fabric.
- Planning for dyeing the fabric:
Production planning for dyeing is called “Batch plan”. Batch plan is prepared according to the batch no, fabric construction, color, width, GSM and priority of delivery etc and written in a batch card.
- Planning for finishing the fabric:
Finishing schedule are same as the dyeing. After dyeing, materials go to the finishing section with the batch plan. Finishing data is written to the batch card and is informed to the planning section. However, this section always forces to all the departments to finish all the work within the delivery time given by the buyers. Thus, it plays a very important role in the success of the company.
PRODUCTION PLANNING AND OPERATIONS OF KNITTING DIVISION:
Knitting is the interlocking of one or more yarns through a series of loops. The length wise columns of stitches, corresponding to the warp in woven cloth, are called Wales; the cross wise rows of stitches, corresponding to the filling in woven cloth, are called Courses, Filling Knits (Weft Knits) are those fabrics in which the courses are composed of a single strand of yarn, while warp knits are those in which the Wales are composed of single strand of yarn. Gauge corresponds to the yarn in a woven fabric, and is defined as the number of needles of yarns in half inches of cloth. The higher the gauge, the more compact and finer is the cloth.
Description Production Process:
In every mill, there maintains a sequences hi production processing. It is also followed in this mill where we were in industrial attachment. The process sequences are in list below:
1) Firstly, knitting manager gets a production shit from the merchandiser as accordance as consumer requirements then he informs or orders production officer about it.
2) Production officer informs technical in charge and knows about machine in which the production will be running.
3) Technical in charge calls for leader of mechanical fitter troops, they two take decision about machine for production considering machine condition, production capacity, maintenance complexity, etc.
4) Production officer with experienced mechanical fitter adjusts required stitch length and grey GSM for required final GSM.
5) Supervisor checks daily production regularity and make operator conscious about finishing tin due time.
6) Operators operate machine in high attention as if there were no faults in the fabrics. If he thinks or sure about any fabric fault, then he calls for the mechanical fitters in duty. Mechanical fitter then fixes it if he can or he informs technical in charge. Then he comes in spot.
7) After required production and final inspection in 4-point system, they sent in dyeing section.
We have already discussed there are basically three kinds of machine which is used to Produce knit fabric and these are:
1) Circular knitting machine (Single Jersey Machines.
2) Circular knitting machine (Double Jersey Machines.
3) Flat knitting machine.
Minimum Requirement of production Parameters:
1. Machine Diameter
2. Machine rpm (revolution per minute)
3. No. of feeds or feeders hi use
4. Machine Gauge
5. Counter setup
6. Required time (M/C running time)
7. Machine running efficiency
1. Yarn strength (minimum 13gm/tex)
2. Yarn should be waxed (0.1%-0.3%)
3. Yarn should not dry
4. Right cone angle
5. A tail should be kept during winding
6. Packing density must be maintained
1. Should be good elasticity
2. Yarn should be uniform
3. Elastic recovery 100%
1. Needle oil; should be water soluble
4. Kerosene: etc
Considerable Points to Produce Knit Fabrics
When a buyer orders for fabric then they mention some points related to production and quality. Before production of knitted fabric, these factors are needed to consider. Those are as follows-
- Type of Fabric or design of Fabric.
- Finished G.S.M.
- Yarn count
- Types of yarn (combed or carded)
- Diameter of the fabric.
- Stitch length
- Color depth.
Methods of Increasing Production:
By the following methods the production of knitted fabric can be increased –
1. By increasing m/c speed;
Higher the m/c speed faster the movement of needle and ultimately production will be increased. But it has to make sure that excess tension is not imposed on yarn because of this high speed.
2. By increasing the number of feeder:
If the number of feeder is increased in the circumference of cylinder, then the number of courses will be increased in one revolution at a time.
3. By using machine of higher gauge:
The more the machine gauge, the more the production is. So by using machine of higher gauge production can be increased.
4. By imposing automation in the m/c:
a) Quick starting & stopping for efficient driving system.
b) Automatic m/c lubrication system for smoother operation.
c) Photo electric fabric fault detector.
5. By imposing other developments:
1. Using creel-feeding system.
2. Applying yarn supply through plastic tube that eliminates the possibilities of yarn damage.
3. Using yarn feed control device,
Checklist before operation:
Operator must be checks the following points prior to operation:
1. Machine condition
2. Power supply and air availability
3. Yarn availability
4. Buyers specification
5. Yarn quality
6. Machine adjusts with given parameter (yarn count, stitch length, GSM. Etc.)
7. Oil inlet clean or not
8. Oil drip meter should be adjusted
9. Door should be closed
- Put safety mask during working hours
- Be cautious while starting the machine. Do not insert hand in the machine while starting operation
- Do not touch the panel board or love wire in absence of responsible engineer or concerned person.
- Use proper safety equipment like hand gloves, eye protecting glass, masks etc. during maintenance work.
- Smocking is strictly prohibited in the floor.
Factors that should be changed in case of fabric design on quality change:
a) Cam setting
b) Set of needle
c) Size of loop shape
1. Production /Shifting Kg at 100% efficiency.
RPM ´No of Feeder ´ No of Needle ´ SL (mm)´60´12
2. Production /Shift in meter
RPM´No. of Feeder ´60´12´Efficiency
Course /CM ´100
3. Fabric width in Meter:
Total no of Wales
Total no of Needles Knitting
PROCESS OF DIFFERENT SECTION
Process flow chart of knitting
Yarn in cone form
Feeding the yarn cone in the creel.
Feeding the yarn in the feeder via trip-tape
Positive feeding arrangement and tension device
Withdraw the rolled fabric and weighting
FUNCTION OR PUPOSE OF BATCH SECTION:
-To receive the grey fabric roll from knitting section or
-Turn the grey fabric if require
-To prepare the batch of fabric for dyeing according to the
following criteria –
- Order sheet (Received from buyer)
- Dyeing shade (color or white, light or dark)
- M/C capacity
- M/C available
- Type of fabrics (100% cotton, PE, PC, CVC)
-To send the grey fabric to the dyeing floor with batch
-to keep records for every previous dyeing .
PROPER BATCHING CRITERIA:
-To use maximum capacity of existing dyeing m/c
-To minimize the washing time or preparation time & m/c stoppage time.
– To keep the no of batch as less as possible for same shade.
-To use a particular m/c for dyeing same shade.
Primarily batching is done by dyeing manager taking the above criteria under consideration. Batch section in charge receives this primary batch plan from dyeing manager .some time planning is adjusted according to m/c condition or emergency.
PROCEDURE OF LAB DIP:
For 100% cotton fabric (all in method) –
- Fabric weight measured by electric balance.
- Calculate the recipe.
- Keep the fabric in the pot.
- Then required amount of dyes, water, salt, soda and other chemicals are taken to the pot by pipetting.
- Start the program for dyeing. The dyeing time and temperature depend on types of dyes being used.