By means of practical knowledge it’s not possible to apply the theoretical knowledge in the practical field. For any technical education, practical experience is almost equaled important in association with the theoretical knowledge. The industrial attachment is the process, which builds understanding, skills and attitude of the performer, which improves his knowledge in boosting productivity and services. University education provides us vast theoretical knowledge as well as more practical Attachment, in despite of all these industrial attachment helps us to be familiar with technical support of modern machinery, stillness about various processing stages. It also provides us sufficient practical knowledge about production management, work study, efficiency, industrial management, purchasing, utility and maintenance of machinery and their operation techniques etc. the above mentioned can not be achieved successfully by means of theoretical knowledge only. This is why it should be accomplished with practical knowledge in which it is based on Industrial attachment makes us reliable to be accustomed with the industrial atmosphere and improve courage and inspiration to take self responsibility. Textile education can’t be completed without industrial training. Because this industrial training minimizes the gap between theoretical and practical knowledge and make us accustomed to industrial environment.

Project Description

Name                                       :   Rupashi Knit Wear Ltd( Rupashi Group)
Type                                        :   Export Oriented Composite Knit Industry.
Year of establishment  :   1993
Location                                    :    Lamapara,Kutubpur,Fattulla, Naraynganj
Project cost                              :    40 crore
Certification & awards   :    ISO 9001&2008,W.R.A.P,And BSCI
Production capacity     :    Knitting: 30tons/day
:      Dyeing: 20 ton/day
:       Garments: 1,00000pcs/day
Main Production               :   All type of knit product like t-shirt, polo-shirt,  Fancy Wear  for men, womens,boys, girls, etc
Trade & Market:

  Main Markets          : North America
South America
Western Europe
Eastern Europe
Eastern Asia
Southeast Asia
Mid East

Total Area                     : 2,30,042 Square fit

Physical  Infrastructure  : Buildings-  02Five storied buildings, 1 Three storied  Building and 4 fabricated building.

History of the project development

After successful operation in Rupashi Knit Wear Ltd( Rupashi Group) the owner had decided to start a fully information & technology based along with the social accountability and quality controlled modern ready made composite knit garments industry in large scale. In this connection, the investor had decided in a resolution to start a company in ,Lamapara, Kutubpur, Fattulla, Narayangonj. In the year 1993 to manufacture knitwear garments for the international market. Right from inception the policy of the company has been to provide total customer satisfaction by offering quality knitwear in time. To meet the commitments of quality and prompt delivery, Rupashi Knit Wear Ltd Decided to integrate the manufacturing process in a planned manner. Over the years the entire process has been integrated by importing sophisticated machinery from world-renowned manufacturers.

Working on new concepts in styling & content of the knitwear is a continuous activity in Rupashi Knit Wear Ltd with an objective to up the quality and the value of merchandise. Rupashi Knit Wear Ltd (RupashiGroup). Concentrated all its strengths and resources in developing a wide range of knitwear for the international market.

Vision & mission of the project

The mission and vision of. Rupashi Knit Wear Ltd (RupashiGroup).  is to manufacture and deliver high quality readymade garments (RMG) to its customers. The core objective is to attain and enhance customer satisfaction by providing on time delivery of desired quality readymade garments and also to increase efficiency of workforce.

To attain these objectives, the management of Rupashi Knit Wear Ltd (RupashiGroup). has decided to adopt the following-

  1. To increase awareness regarding customers requirements throughout the organization.
  2. By providing training to develop efficiency of the employee.
  3. To collect customer’s feedback regularly to know about their conception about their company and to take timely appropriate action.

Certification & awards:

No, Certified by Logo of Certification Body
01 ISO 9001: 2000  
03 WARP  

Buyer Name of Rupashi  Knit Wear Ltd

Name of Buyer

The company properties Rupashi Knit Wear , Narayngonz; which is about 10 km from the heart of the capital city. Charming sights along with natural beauty of rural areas with no hazards or air pollution attracts the foreign buyers during their visits.

Management System

Rupashi Knit Wear Limited(Rupashi Group) the Managing Director/ Chairman who controls the entire factory. In this below the organograms of administration and the others department is showing:

Knitting section(Organogram):


Production Manager                             Knitting Manager                           Technical Manager

Floor In charge                             Production Control Officer                               Master

Supervisor                                                                                                     Feeder man




Dyeing Section(Organogram):



                       Production Manager

Production Officer

Assistant Production Officer

Senior Operator



Printing section (Organogram:) 


Printing Manager

Assistant Manager

Senior Production Officer

Production Officer                                                                          Production Officer

                         Assistant Production Officer                                           Assistant Production Officer

Supervisor                                                                                        Supervisor

Machine Operator                                                                  Machine Operator

Helper                                                                                Helper

HRD Department(Organogram):                  



Assistant Manager

Admin Officer                       Complains / Welfare Officer                                         Medical Officer

Time Kipper


Organogram of Marketing & Merchandising Department

GM Marketing & Merchandising

Manager Merchandising

Sr. Merchandiser


Jr. Merchandiser

Asst. Merchandiser

Trainee Merchandiser


             Department             no. of people
Dyeing                                                850
Knitting                                             400
Printing                                              160
Embrotory                                         120
Packing                                                 30
Poly                                                      40
Washing                                            150
Garments                                          3800
Inventory                                            14
Security                                              20
All over printing                                20











Management system:

Intercom telephone

  • Fax
  • E-mail
  • Written letters
  • Oral


Management System:
Buyer sample is send to E.D

  1. Matching is done by lab in charge.
  2. Sample is prepared by dyeing master.
  3. Sample is send to the buyer for approval.
  4. Approved sample is returned and taken as STD. Sample for bulk production.
  5. Dyeing master gives responsibilities to production officer.
  6. Then production officer, with the supervisors start bulk production.
  7. On line and off line quality check is done by lab in charge and Dyeing master.
  8. After dyeing finishing in charge controls the finishing process with the supervision of production officer.
  9. After finishing, the material is checked by dyeing master.
  10. Finally E. D checks the result with dyeing master and decision is taken for delivery.

Duties & Responsibilities of Production Officer:

To collect the necessary information and instruction from the previous shift for the smooth running of the section.

  1. To make the junior officer understand how to operate the whole production process.
  2. To match production sample with target shade.
  3. To collect the production sample lot sample matching next production.
  4. To observe dyed fabric during finishing running and also after finishing process.
  5. To identify disputed fabrics and report to PM/EDfor necessary action.
  6. To discuss with PM about overall production if necessary.
  7. To sign the store requisition and delivery challenge in the absence of PM
  8. To execute the overall floor work.
  9. To maintain loading/ unloading paper.
  10. Any other assignment given by the authority.

Duties & Responsibilities of Senior Production Officer:

  1. Overall supervision of dyeing and finishing section.
  2. Batch preparation and pH check.
  3. Dyes and chemicals requisition issue and check.
  4. Write loading / unloading time from machine.
  5. Program making, sample checking, color measurement.
  6. Control the supervisor, operator, asst. operator and helper of dyeing machin

Duties & Responsibilities of DGM (Production):

  1. Overall supervision of dyeing and finishing section.
  2.   Check the sensitive parameters of different machines for smooth dyeing.
  3.  Check the different log books and report to management.
  4.  Check the plan to control the best output.
  5.   To trained and motive the subordinates how to improve the quality.
  1. Control the supervisor, operator, asst. operator and helper of dyeing m/c
  2.  Maintenance the machinery and equipments.

The manpower management system of The Rupashi Composite Knitting Ind. Ltd is well arranged. Every officers & stuffs are responsible for their duty. But there are no textile engineers in the Knitting section. It is not good for smooth production. More technical people are required.
Raw materials

Raw materials
Raw material is a unique substance in any production oriented textile industry. It plays a vital role in continuous production and for high quality fabric.

Types of Raw Materials:
1.  Yarn
2.  Fabric
3.  Dye stuff
4.  Chemical and auxiliarie

Raw Materials Sources:
Cotton Yarn:   1. M.S.A Spinning Mill.
2. A.A Spinning Mill.
3.NRG  Spinning Mill.
4. Arsad  Spinning Mill.
5. Tara Spinning mill
6.Tamizuddin Spinning mill

Polyester Yarn:   India
Lycra               :   Indronesia, India
Fabric              :  Sirajgonj check Industries Ltd.(RadianceGroup).

Different Types of Dyes Used In Rupashi Knit Wear Ltd with Their Brand Name:

Remazol Deep Black GWF
Remazol Red RR
Remazol Turquoise Blue G
Remazol B/Yellow3GL
Remazol Blue BB new
Remazol Blue RR
Remazol  Blue RSPL
Levafix Rubine CA Gran
Levafix Red CA Gran
Levafix Olive CA Gran
Levafix Fast Red CA Gran
Sunfix RedMF –CN
Sunfix Blu MF- CN
Sunfix Deep Red MF-CN
Sunfix N BlueMF-Cn
Sunzol BlackB 150%
Sunzol Black DN Cone
Sunzol Blue BB133%
Sunzol Blue SPR
SUMIFIX JAPAN Sumifix Supra Blue E-XF
Sumifix Supra Yellow E-XF
REACTOBOND INDIA Reactobond  Black WNN60%
Reactobond  Black HL
Reactobond  Blue BB
ReactobondBlue Hlf
Reactobond Blue RR
Reactobond Orange 3-R
Reactobond red 3BX
Reactobond Red HL
Reactobond  Yellow 3RS
  CHINA Hifix Red RW
Hifix Yelllow R-3R80%
HifixBlack GN60%
Hifix Blue R-2R
Kiractive Supper Black G
Kiractive Blue HLLD
Kiractive Red ME4BL

Different Types of Chemicals Used In Rupashi knitwear Ltd With Their Brand Name:

     Chemical Name Function CountryName
           Acitic Acid  Control PH INDIA
           Blufix R  Fixing Agent INDIA
           Chimilub Enzyme Spain
           Forlev CFTR Levelling Agent Taiwan
           Jintex  Mis Fixing Agent Taiwan
          Jintex QSE Sequestering agent Taiwan
          Jintex RS cone Antifoaming agent Taiwan
          Jintex TPA Fixing Remover Taiwan
           Jintex SQ114 Sequestering agent for white Taiwan
          Jintex SQ117 Sequestering Agent for terquies color  
         Kapafix BS Fixing Agent Germany
         Kappafix GG-100 Fixing agent Germany
         Kappaquest FE Sequestering agent Germany
          Kappasoft BD Ctaionic Softener Germany
          Kappasoft SM Silicon Softener Germany
          Kappasoft AF2000 Antifoaming Agent Germany

Layout Plan

1.  Knitting Section
2.  Embroidery section
3.  Garments Section
4.  Car parking                                         5. Water treatment plan
6. Boiler , Generator
8.1st floor printing,2nd 3rd 4th floor Garments
9.Dyeing section
10.Main gate
11.Securities & Gate passes

Knitting Section (1):    

The numbers indicate the following:

1. Exucative Director & General Manager office
2. Other officers office.
3 &4 Fabric inspection m/c
5-34 knitting m/c
35. Enterance
36.Emergency Exit

Machine Description of Knitting Section:

Total machine: 91
Single Jersey : 60
Rib/Interlock: 28
Fleece           : 02
Auto Steeper : 01








List of Machinery:

No. of m/c M/C
No. Of
No. Of
Brand Origin
         1 22” 22 66 1130 S/J LASKY Taiwan
2 24” 24 72 1272 S/J LASKY Taiwan
3 21 24 63 1250 S/J LASKY Taiwan
4 25 24 75 1340 S/J LASKY Japan
5 27” 24 81 1520 S/J LASKY Taiwan
6 34 24 102 2540 S/J LASKY Japan
 8 22” 24 52 1680 S/J LASKY Taiwan
        9 24” 24 72 1860 S/J LASKY Taiwan
10 22” 24 66 1620 Fleece LASKY Taiwan
        11 23” 24/28 92 1932 S/J LASKY Japan
12 24” 24 72 1920 S/J LASKY Taiwan
13 26” 24 84 1944 S/J HANTEX Taiwan
14 30” 24 90 2232 S/J HANTEXs Taiwan
15 30” 24 72 2232 S/J LASKY Taiwan
16 30” 24/28 90 2268 S/J LASKY Japan
       17 30” 24/20 90 2256 S/J LASKY Taiwan
        18     90 2256 S/J H/L LASKY Taiwan
       19 30” 24/28 96 2268 S/J LASKY Taiwan
       20 44” 18 92 2650 Rib LASKY Taiwan
      21 38” 18 64 2340 Rib LASKY Japan
22 36” 18 64 2230 Rib LASKY Taiwan
23 38” 18 72 2040 Rib/
        24 36” 18 72 2040 Rib/
25 36” 18 72 2040 Rib HANTEX Japan
26 32” 24 93 2424 Rib HANTEX Taiwan
27 36” 18 72 2040 Rib HANTEX Taiwan.
28 36” 18 72 2040 Rib HANTEX Japan
29 36” 18 72 2040 Rib HANTEX Taiwan
30 36” 22 73 2040 Rib/
LASKY Taiwan

 Important Parts of Circular Knitting machine

The important parts of circular knitting machine are mentioned in the below 

No Parts name Function of the parts
01 Creel All the side of machine, it holds the yarn package
02 Tube Yarn is drawn through this for security and avoiding mixing waste.
03 Positive feeder Wind the yarn from package and send to needle for reducing tension
04 Toothed belt All the feeders are driven by it.
05 VDQ pulley Change the stitch length .So the G.S.M is maintained.
06 Thread guide Supply yarn to needle from very short distance.
07 Needle Main part of the machine, it helps to form loop.
08 Needle bed It can be cylinder or dial which holds the needle
09 Cam Direct the needle, sinker to form different kinds of loops.
10 Needle detector It can detect the needle breakage, jamping etc
11 Take up roller Draw the formed fabric at downwards.
12 Pressure roller Press the fabric with take up roller.
13 Batch roller Wind the fabric into its surface to form roll.
14 Blower Removes the dirts, flocks from the machine
15 Air nozzle Clean the needle, sinker trick plate etc.
16 Lubricating parts Lubricate the cam, sinker, needle and other gearings.

Function of S/J, Rib and Interlock fabric

Fabric type No Functions

Single Jersey

01 Produced by one needle bed
02 Most simple structure
03 Face and back sides are not similar
04 Technical face is smooth and V-shaped
05 40% elastic
06 High cover factor


01 Produced by two needle bed
02 It has vertical card appearance
03 Double faced fabric
04 No curling tendency
05 Face and back are similar according to design
06 More elastic than single jersey


01 Produced by two needle bed
02 Two feeders are essential,
03 Needles are two bed remain face to face
04 Double faced fabric, elasticity less than others
05 Face and back side can be similar
06 Thickness is high than rib and S/J

The layout of the three dyeing and finishing are planned where there no creates any problem to move product from one place to other place. But more place need for more comfortable working. The Knitting section is not well decorated.

Production and sequance operation


(a)Knitting Process :

The knitting section is equipped with top-of-the-line machinery.   Fukuhara of japan, mayer and cie of germany , and jung-long of taiwan .The machines are equipped with special attachments to produce lycra fabrics . A well-integrated system of stringet quality measures checks all fabrics meticulously to eliminate contamination and other faults. We always believe that yarn is the core material for knitwear therefore we use best quality yarn from world renowned spinning mills. Our knitting section is well furnished with mose modern equipments which is mentioned below:

We have also

  1. Electric Balance for fabric weight 15 nos
  2. Electric Balance for GSM check 20 nos
  3. Winding machine 5 no’s

Process Flow chart of Knitting

Yarn in cone form

Feeding the yarn cone in the creel

Feeding the yarn in the feeder via trip-tape positive feeding arrangement and Tension device.


Withdraw the rolled fabric and weighting
Knitting Section: The section is divided into two sections –

  1. Knitting
  2. Inspection

Section No. Machine Types Amount of machine
Section – 1 Circular Knitting Machine 71
Grey fabric Inspection Machine 02
Flat bed Machine 0
Section – 2 Circular Knitting Machine 20
Grey fabric Inspection Machine 01
Flat bed Machine 12












Knitting Management System

  • Fabric is booked by merchandiser to knitting Manager.
  • Knitting Manager sees the required yarn with count and G.S.M.
  • Then a requirement report is informed to Executive director.
  • Executive Director books for yarn to a spinning mill.
  • After accepting yarn by store, the store provides yarn to knit section for producing required fabric.
  • Then fabric is sent to store for next process.

A profile on machinery parameters of knitting machine

Knitting m/c type → Circular, Flat bed

                      Circular machinery component’s parameters

No. Parameter Range
01 Needle type Latch needle, High and law Bart needle
02 Dia of m/c (16- 42)’’
03 Gauge m/c (18- 28)G
04 G.S.M Variable according to fabric type
05 R.P.M 5- 48
06 Cam used Knit cam , tuck came , miss cam
07 Count follow English count(for cotton), Denier count (Mélange , Lycra)
08 Count range 10s- 60s
09 Grey G.S.M Variable according to fabric type

Flat bed m/c’s specifications
Total m/c – 12
Create fabric – collar, cuff, paddy etc.
Origin – TAIWAN(All m/c)
                                    Brand –Kauo Heng
                                   Gauge – 14
                                    Needle m/c – 1200     6piece /cm (100cm)  

Product mix of Rupashi  Knitting
             The P.N knitting follows the product mix:

  • 100% Cotton
  • 100% Viscose
  • Grey Mélange
  • CVC (60%Cotton+ 40% polyester, 80% Cotton+20% polyester)
  • Polyester
  • Lycra
  • 60/40 Cotton /Modal

Name of fabric types manufactured in Rupashi  knit wear Lstd.

No Fabric types
01 Single Jersey(Plain, Strip)
02 S/J Lycra /Terry (Lycra 2.5% & Terry 97.5%)
03 Rib(General, Strip)
04 Interlock(General, Strip)
05 Lycra /Terry (Lycra 5% & Mélange 95%)
06 Double PK
07 Fleece
08 French Terry
09 Single Lacost
10 Double Lacost

Required Cam according to fabric types

No. Fabric type Required cam
01 Lycra S/J Knit cam
02 Double PK Knit cam, Tuck cam
03 Lacost (S/J) Knit cam, Tuck cam
04 Lacost (D/J) Knit cam, Tuck cam
05 Rib Knit cam
06 Fleece Knit cam, Tuck cam, Miss cam
07 Single Jersey Knit cam
08 Terry Knit cam, Tuck cam, Miss cam
09 Interlock Knit cam, Miss cam

End products of Circular Knitting Machine:
Single Jersey M/C:

  1. S/J  Plain
  2. Single Lactose
  3. Double Locoest
  4. Single pique
  5. Double pique
  1. Terry
  2. Fleece

Figure: Single Jersey machine 

Interlock M/C:
a)  Interlock pique
b)  Mash fabric
c)  Face/Back rib

Rib M/C:
a)   1*1 Rib fabric
b)   2*2 Rib  fabric
Figure: Rib Machine

Considerable points to produce knitted fabrics:

When a buyer orders for fabric then they mention some points related to production and quality. Before production of knitted fabric, these factors are needed to consider. Those are as follows-
–   Type of Fabric or design of Fabric.
–   Finished G.S.M.
–   Yarn count
–   Types of yarn (combed or carded)
–   Diameter of the fabric.
–   Stitch length
–   Stitch length
Image of needle action with yarn

Figure: Auto stepper Machine

Design Development by using CAM:
The type of fabric to produce depends on the setting of the Cam of Knitting machine. The different types of fabric can be produced by only changing the cam setting. The cam settings to produce different fabric are given below:

Single jersey:
Only knit cams are used to produce single jersey fabric. So the setting would be-
K         K         K
K         K         K
K         K         K
Inter lock:
Inter lock fabric is produced by using knit and miss cam. So the setting would be-
K         M         K
M         K         M
Lacost uses knit and tuck cam like-
K         K         T          K         K
T          K         K         K         T

French terry:
The cam setting is as follows-
K         M         K         M         K         M
K         T          K         M         K         T
K         M         K         T          K         M
Polo PK Cam arrangement                           Double Lacoste Cam arrangement                    

K K T T                                                              K K K T T K
T T K K                                                              T T K K K K
K K T T                                                              K K K T T K
 Fleece cam arrangement                                 

K  K M K K T

Used Raw materials for knitting:

Type of yarn Count
Cotton Yarn  16s ,20s, 22s, 24s, 26S, 28S, 30S, 34S, 40S
Polyester Yarn 75D, 100D,150D
Spandex yarn 20D,40D,70D
Grey Mellange (C-90% V-10%) 20S ,22S ,24S, 26S ,30,34S
PC (65%Polyester & 35% cotton) 24S, 26S, 28S, 30S
CVC 24S, 26S, 28S, 30S








Considered point of Knitting:
When a buyer orders for fabric then they mention some points related to production and quality. Before production of knitted fabric, these factors are needed to consider. Those are as follows-

  1. Finished G.S.M.
  2. Type of Fabric or design of Fabric.
  3. Yarn count
  4. Types of yarn (combed or carded)
  5. Diameter of the fabric.
  6. Stitch length
  7. Color depth.

End products of circular knitting machine:
Single Jersey M/C:

  1. S/J  Plain
  2. Single lacoste
  3. Double lacoste
  4. Single pique
  5. Double pique
  6. Terry

Rib M/C:

  1. 1*1 Rib fabric
  2. 2*2 Rib  fabric
  1. Honeycomb

End product of Flat bed knitting machine:

  1. Collar
  2. Cuff

Production Calculation:
A. Production/shift in kg at 100% efficiency

B. Production/shift in meter

C. Fabric width in meter:

D. Needle calculation
 For Circular knitting machine:

  1. Diameter of the Machine X Gauge of the Machine X 3.14

For example: Diameter of the machine is 18” and Gauge of the machine is 24. Then the number of Needles on the machine would be-

  1. 18 X 24 X 3.14 = 1356

For Flat Bed knitting machine:

  1. Length of the Machine needle bed X Gauge of the Machine

For example: Length of the machine needle bed is 56” and Gauge of the machine is 14. Then the number of Needles on the machine would be-
56 X 14 = 1568

Factors that should be change in case of fabric design on quality change:

  1. Cam setting
  2. Set of needle
  3. Size of loop shape

Production Calculation of a Circular knitting machine for 3 shifts in a day:

Production Calculation of a Circular knitting machine for 3 shifts(8hours/shift)
A circular knitting machine which runs at 20 R.P.M with 90% efficiency has 90 feeders & C.P.I is 24, machine dia is 30″, gauge 22″, stitch length 3mm, count 30Ne.Determine the production of a circular machine for one day.( 3 shifts )

Here the parameters are mentioned in the below:

Parameters Amount
R.P.M 20
No. of feeder 90
Machine Efficiency 90%
Count 30Ne
C.P.I 24
Gauge 22 inch
Machine dia 30 inch
Stitch Length 3mm

 Production of Length         =               m/day
=  m/day
=  m/day
                                                = 2468.91 m/day for per machine

 Production of Weight
=  Kgs/day
= 285.64 Kgs/day for per machine
Area of Fabric            = m2
=  m2
= 5910.38 m2
Some points are needed to maintain for high quality fabric:
a)    Brought good quality yarn.
b)   Machines are oiled and greased accordingly.
c)   G.S.M, Stitch length, Tensions are controlled accurately.
d)   Machines are cleaned every shift and servicing is done after a month.
e)   Grey Fabrics are checked by 4 point grading system

Changing of GSM:

  1. Major control by QAP pulley.
  2. Minor control by stitch length adjustment.
  3. Altering the position of the tension pulley changes the G.S.M. of the fabric. If pulley moves towards the positive direction then the G.S.M. is decrease. And in the reverse direction G.S.M will increase.
  4. Other m/c in Knitting Section:

  1. Gray Inspection M/c, Brand : UZU  fabric inspection machine
  2. Electric Balance for Fabric Weight.
  3. Electric Balance for GSM check.
  4. Compressor 2 pieces

Image yarn insertion

Production Parameter:

  1. Machine Diameter;
  2. Machine rpm (revolution per minute);
  3. No. of feeds or feeders in use;
  4. Machine Gauge;
  5. Count of yarn;
  6. Required time (M/C running time);
  7. Machine running efficiency.

Relationship between knitting parameter:

  1. Stitch length increase with decrease of GSM.

  1. If stitch length increase then fabric width increase and Wales per inch                                                                                    decrease.
  2. If machine gauge increase then fabric width decrease.

  1. If yarn count increase (courser) then fabric width increase.

  1. If shrinkage increases then fabric width decrease but GSM and Wales   per inch increase.
  2. for finer gauge, finer count yarn should use.

Considerable points to produce knitted fabrics:

When a buyer orders for fabric then they mention some points related to production and quality. Before production of knitted fabric, these factors are needed to consider.
Those are as follows-

  • Type of Fabric or design of Fabric.
  • Finished G.S.M.
  • Yarn count
  • Types of yarn (combed or carded)
  • Diameter of the fabric.
  • Stitch length
  • Color depth.

Effect of stitch length on color depth:
If the depth of color of the fabric is high loop length should be higher because in case of fabric with higher loop length is less compact. In dark shade dye take up% is high so GSM is adjusted then. Similarly in case of light shade loop length should be relatively smaller
Factors that should be change in case of fabric design on quality change:

  1. Cam setting
  2. Set of needle
  3. Size of loop shape

Methods of increasing production:

By the following methods the production of knitted fabric can be increased –

A.        By increasing m/c speed:
Higher the m/c speed faster the movement of needle and ultimately production will be increased but it has to make sure that excess tension is not imposed on yarn because of this high speed.
B.         By increasing the number of feeder:
If the number of feeder is increased in the circumference of cylinder, then the number of courses will be increased in one revolution at a time.

C.         By using machine of higher gauge:
The more the machine gauge, the more the production is. So by using machine of higher gauge production can be increased.

E.         By imposing other developments:
a) Using creel-feeding system.
b) Applying yarn supply through plastic tube that eliminates the possibilities of yarn damage.
c) Using yarn feed control device.
d) Using auto lint removal

Faults of Knitting:

  1. Hole Mark


  • Holes are the results of yarn breakage or yarn cracks.
  • During loop formation the yarn breaks in the rejoin of the needle hook.
  • If the yarn count is not correct on regarding structure, gauge, course and density.
  • Badly knot or splicing.
  • Yarn feeder badly set.


  • Yarn strength must be sufficient to withstand the stretch as well as uniform.
  • Use proper count of yarn.
  • Correctly set of yarn feeder.
  • Knot should be given properly.

  1. Needle Mark


  • When a needle breaks down then needle mark comes along the fabrics.
  • If a needle or needle hook is slightly bends then needle mark comes on the fabrics.


  • Needle should be straight as well as from broken latch.

  1. Sinker Mark


  • When sinker corrode due to abrasion then some times can not hold a new loop as a result sinker mark comes.
  • If sinker head bend then sinker mark comes.


  • Sinker should be changed.

  1. Star


  • Yarn tension variation during production.
  • Buckling of the needle latch.
  • Low G.S.M fabric production.


  • Maintain same Yarn tension during production.
  • Use good conditioned needles.

  1. Drop Stitches


  • Defective needle.
  • If yarn is not properly fed during loop formation i.e. not properly laid on to the needle hook.
  • Take-down mechanism too loose.
  • Insufficient yarn tension.
  • Badly set yarn feeder.


  • Needle should be straight & well.
  • Proper feeding of yarn during loop formation.
  • Correct take up of the fabric & correct fabric tension.
  • Yarn tension should be properly.

  1. Oil stain


  • When oil lick through the needle trick then it pass on the fabrics and make a line.


  • Ensure that oil does not pass on the fabrics.
  • Well maintenance as well as proper oiling.

7.   Rust stain

  • If any rust on the machine parts.


  • If any rust on the machine parts then clean it.
  • Proper maintenance as well as proper oiling.

  1. Pin hole


  • Due to break down or bend of the latch, pin hole may come in the fabric.


  • Change the needle

  1. Grease stain


  • Improper greasing
  • Excess greasing


  • Proper greasing as well as proper maintenance

  1.  Cloth fall- out


  • Cloth fall- out can occur after a drop stitch especially when an empty needle with an empty needle with closed latch runs into the yarn feeder and remove the yarn out of the hook of the following  needles.


  • Make sure all the latches of needle are closed with feeding yarn after a drop stitch.

11.  Barre:
A fault in weft knitted fabric appearing as light or dark course wise        (width wise)   Stripe.

  • This fault comes from yarn fault.
  • If different micro near value of fiber content in yarn.
  • Different lusture, dye affinity of fiber content in yarn.
  • During spinning different similar classes of fiber is mixed specially in carded yarn & these fibers have similar characteristics.
  • In draw fame different similar classes sliver is mixed and make one sliver.


  • We can use this fabric in white color.

  1.   Fly dust:


  • In knitting section too much lint is flying to and fro that are created from yarn due to low twist as well as yarn friction. This lint may adhere or attaches to the fabric surface tightly during knit fabric production.


  • Blowing air for cleaning and different parts after a certain period of time.
  • By cleaning the floor continuously.
  • By using ducting system for cleaning too much lint in the floor.
  • Over all ensure that lint does not attach to the fabric.

13.  Yarn contamination

  • If yarn contains foreign fiber then it remains in the fabric even after finishing,
  • If lot, count mixing occurs.


  • By avoiding lot, count mixing.
  • Fault less spinning.

  1. Yarn Faults:
  • Neps.
  • Slubs.
  • Yarn count variations.
  • Thick/Thin place in yarn.
  • Hairiness

Flat Knitting Machines Fault:

  1. Holes:


  • Needle Break,
  • High Tension on Tensioner,
  • Excess cotton with yarn on needle.
  1. Missing Needle:


  • Faulty Needle,
  • Faulty Cam setting.
  1. Oil mark:


  • Improper Oiling on Machine.
  • Inexperienced Operator

  1. Loop Miss:


  • Tension on take up roller,
  • Needle miss.

 Yarn contamination
If yarn contains foreign fiber then it remains in the fabric even after finishing,
If lot, count mixing occurs.
By avoiding lot, count mixing.
Fault less spinning.

Image of fabric Inspection M/c

 Yarn Faults:

  • Neps.
  • Slubs.
  • Yarn count.
  • Thick/Thin place in yarn.

Batch process flow chart
Flow process chart of Batching Section of Cotton Club (BD) Ltd.
Fabric Received


Fabric Divided according to Diameter

Supervisor batches the fabric according to quantity by Calculation

Sent for Dyeing

Grey fabric inspection
The batch section of the Cotton Club (BD) Ltd. inspects the following parameters of the received fabric-

  • Knitting Hole
  • Oil Spot
  • Tara
  • Shade UP
  • Star Mark
  • Patta
  • Lack out

Batch Calculation:
= Batch Quantity (M/C Quantity) / Total Quantity X Diameter quantity
Equation for Rope Length
=Diameter Quantity (Weight of Fabric in a roll) X 39.37 X1000 / Finished GSM / Finished open Diameter

Batch management:
Primarily batching is done by dyeing manager taking the above criteria under consideration. Batch section in charge receives this primary batch plan from dyeing manager. Some time planning is adjusted according to m/c condition or emergency.


Lab department: Lab dip is a process by which buyers supplied swatch is matched with the varying dyes percentage in the laboratory with or without help of “DATA COLOR”
Lab dip plays an important role in shade matching & and detaching the characteristics of the dyes and chemicals are to be used in the large scale of production so this is an important task before bulk production.

Lab Working Procedure:

Lab dip receive

Input id number entry

By reference ←Recipe making→ from data color

Recipe calculation


Fabric weighting & fabric input

Fabric input into dye bath for dyeing


    Cold wash

    Hot wash→ with chemical

    Hot wash→ normal water

  Acid wash→ normal water



Shade matching

Shade ok

Lab dip cutting

Submit to buyer

   Buyer approval

       OK                                              Not OK

          Send to floor

Available Stock Solutions:

  • Red – 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% (very common)
  • Yellow – 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% (very common)
  • Blue – 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% (very common).


  • To prepare 0.1% Stock solution, it is necessary to mix 0.1 g dye and 100 cc water.
  • To prepare 0.5% Stock solution, 0.5 g dye stuff is mixed with 100 cc water.
  • To prepare 1.0% & 2.0% Stock solution similar procedure is followed.
  • To prepare 10% Stock solution of Soda ash, 10 g Soda is mixed with 100 cc water

Depth of shade:

  • Montex Fabrics Ltd. Produces 0.1% to 5% shade for the goods.

2.0%for deep shade.

  • 1.0%for medium shade.
  • 0.5%for deep shade.
  • 0.1%for light shade.

Usually following calculations are followed :-

Recipe % × Sample Weight

  • Dye Solution =                                                                         (cc).

                                                            Stock solution %
Recipe % × Liquor)

  • Salt      =                                                         (gram per liter).


Recipe % × 100 × Liquor)

  • Soda Solution =                                                                       (cc).

                                                              (1000 × Stock solution %)
Sample calculation for 0.5%  shade

  • Sample wt. = 5 mg
    • Material liquor ratio = 1: 10
    • Total liquor  (5  10) = 50 cc

                                                              5  0.5%

  •  Dye solution  required     = ­­­­­­­­­­——————-  =  2.5  cc

                                                                  1 %

50  25

  • Salt  solution  required     = ­­­­­­­­­­——————-  =  6.25  cc

  20  10

50  10

  • Soda ash  solution  required  = ­­­­­­­­­­——————-  =  2.5  cc

                                                                          20  10

  • Water required {50  – (2.5 + 6.25 + 2.5)} =  38.75 cc

Procedure for100 % cotton fabric:

  1. Calculate the recipe.
  2. Weight the fabric.
  3. Take the beaker keep the fabric into the beaker.
  4. Then the dyes, chemicals & required amount of water take in to the beaker by the digital pipeting.
  5. Then weight the salt by the electric balance and add in to the beaker.
  6. Then the beaker set in to the lab dyeing machine for dyeing.
  7. Start the program for dyeing the whole dyeing time 60 min at 60 °C temperature. (The dyeing time and temperature depends on which classes of dyes are used for dyeing.)
  8. After 30 min add the then add the soda ash. By pipeting .
  9. Again run the program next 30 min at the same temperature.

10. Finished the dyeing time then the sample taken from the beaker first
Hot wash & then cold wash.
11. Then acid wash as for neutralization.
12. Then soaping required soap solution 10 min at 90° C temperature.
13. After the fabric again cold.
14. Then dry the lab dip and compare with the standard.

Laboratory MACHINEries with its specification:

 01).  Machine Type:     Pilling Tester.
        Brand               :    Presto Stantest Private Ltd
        Manufacturer   :     INDIA
        Function           :    To determine the pilling resistance of fabric

02).  Machine Type   :    Color Fastness to Rubbing
       Brand                 :    Presto Stantest Private Ltd
       Manufacturer     :    INDIA
       Function             :   To determine the color fastness to rubbing of dyed fabric

03.)  Machine Type    :     Light Box
       Brand                 :      Gotech Testing Machine
       Manufacturer      :     Taiwan
       Function              :     To match the shade color under different illuminant

04). Test Name          : Color fastness to Wash.
       Brand                 : Presto Stantest Private Ltd
       Origin                : INDIA
      Test Method       : ISO 105-C06, ISO105-D0

05.) Test Name          : Color Fastness to Perspiration
      Brand                  : Presto Stantest Private Ltd
      Origin                 : INDIA
      Test Method       : ISO 105-C06

06.) Machine type      :Twisting tester:
     Brand name         : Fangyan Instrument Co. Ltd
     Origin                  : CHINA
     Function              : To determine the net no of twist per inch/ cm /m of yearn

07)Machine Name     : Electronic wrap reel
    Brand Name        :  Fangyuan Instrument Co.Ltd
    Origin                  :  CHINA
    Function            : To Warp the yearn in predetermining length which helps to determine yarn count           

08)  Machine Name   :  Electronic yearn count tester
     Brand Name        : Fangyuan Instrument Co.Ltd
    Origin                   :  CHINA
    Function               : To determine yearn count in TEX and English count

09) Machine Name    : Formaldehyde content test
     Brand Name        : Fangyuan Instrument Co.Ltd
     Origin                   : CHINA
Function               : To determine the amount of formaldehyde present in dyed goods.

10) Machine Name      : Digital Breusting Strength Tester
    Brand Name           :  Fangyuan Instrument Co.Ltd
    Origin                     :   CHINA
    Function                 : To determine the bruesting strength of fabric

11)Machine Name      : Light Fastness Machine
    Brand Name           : Q labcorporation
    Origin                      :U.S.A
    Function                  : to determine the light fastness of dyed Fabric

12) Machine Name : Perspirometer
Brand Name      : Fangyuan Instrument Co.Ltd
     Origin                :  CHINA
Function             : For the purpose of perspiration and other fastness properties tested .

Mentioned that the place of the laboratory is so limited where the employees can not get proper comfortable working environment. Because the lab Q.C and lab dyeing is mixed in a roof but it cannot make a easy mode to work in laboratory. The employees here are so hard responsible.

Batching is the process to get ready the fabrics that should be dyed and processed for a Particular lot of a Particular order.

Batch Management:

Primarily Batching is done by dyeing manager taking the above criteria under consideration. Batch section in charge receives this primary batch plan from dyeing Manager. Some time Planning is adjusted according to m/c condition.

Batch process follow-up:

Grey fabric inspection


                                                   Fabric Turning

                                            Storing for dyeing

Purpose of Batch Section:

  • To receive the grey fabrics roll from knitting section or other source.
  • To turn out the tubular fabric in its grey stage and to safe the face side of the fabric from any type of friction during the time of dyeing.
  • To prepare the batch of fabric for dyeing according to the following criteria-
  • Order sheet (Receive from buyer)
  • Dyeing shade (Color or white, light or Dark)
  • M/c available
  • Type of fabrics (100% cotton, PC, CVC)
  • Emergency
  • To send the grey fabric to the dyeing floor with batch card.
  • To keep records for every previous dyeing.

Criteria of proper batching:

  • To use maximum capacity of existing dyeing m/c.
  • To minimize the washing time or preparation time & m/c stoppage time.
  • To keep the no. of batch as less as possible for same shade.
  • To use a particular m/c for dyeing same shade.

Fabrics Faults Identification:

  • Hole Mark: Five are acceptable.
  • Needle Mark: five are acceptable. Visualize on the face side of the fabric.
  • Sinker Mark: These problems are not acceptable. It is Visualize on the back side of the fabric.
  • Patta: acceptable for only white color producing.
  • Star Mark: Five are acceptable.
  • Thick and thin place.
  • Lycra out.
  • Loop hole.
  • Oil spot.
  •  Drop Stitches

Batch section is a important place to do batch of fabric for dyeing purpose. The inspection is done here carefully and they always try to find out the faults of grey fabric. The batch place should large than existing.

  Dyeing section

Dyeing is the process of imparting colors to a textile material in loose fiber, yarn, cloth or garment form by treatment with a dye.

General Classification of dye stuff (Dyers Point of view):

Coloring matters

                                           Dyes                                             Pigment

Water soluble                                     Water insoluble          Vat      Azoic          Mineral    Mineral

                                                Vat      Sulpher            Disperse

Direct     Acid             Basic               Reactive          Optical whiteners

Goals of dyeing:

  • Shade with the tolerance limit
  • Perfect leveling, Bleaching, Scouring, Soaping etc.
  • No crease mark, Foaming etc.
  • Fastness properties according to requirement.

Dyeing Machine Specification:
Machine no-01

Machine name                       : Hertorng
Origin                                      : Taiwan
Capacity                                     : 750kg
Model                                       : HP-NH750
Number of nozzle                    : 3
Max. working Temperature  : 98C
M/L  ratio                                 :1:8

Machine no-02

Machine name                          : Hertorng
Origin                                       : Taiwan
Capacity                                   : 1200Kg
Model                                       : HP_NH_1200
Number of nozzle                    : 06
Max. working Temperature     : 98°C
M/L  ratio                                 :1:8

Machine no-03

Machine name                         : Hertorng
Origin                                      : Taiwan
Capacity                                   : 900kg
Model                                      :HP-NH-900
Number of nozzle                    : 4
Max. working Temperature    : 98°C
M/L  ratio                                 :1:8

Machine no-04

Machine name                           : Hertorng
Origin                                        : Taiwan
Capacity                                    : 300kg
Model                                       :HT-RN-300
Number of nozzle                     : 2
Max. working Temperature     : 98°C
M/L  ratio                                 :1:8

Machine no-05

Machine name                :  Hertorng
Origin                                         : Taiwan
Capacity                                    : 350kg
Model                                       : HT- NH-350
Number of nozzle                   : 2
Max. working Temperature   : 98°C
M/L  ratio                                  :1:8

Machine no-06

Machine name                  : Hertorng
Origin                               : Taiwan
Capacity                            : 150kg
Model                                : HT-NH-150
Number of nozzle               : 1
Max. working Temperature : 98°C
M/L  ratio                              :1/6

Machine no-07

Machine name                  : HERtorng
Origin                                          : Taiwan
Capacity                                      : 40kg
Model                                        : HTET
Number of nozzle                     : 01
Max. working Temperature   : 140°C
Max. working pressure:          : 3.5 bar
M/L  ratio                                 :1:8

Machine no-08

Machine name                         : HERtorng
Origin                                      :Taiwan
Capacity                                  : 900kg
Production Date:                      :2009
Number of nozzle                    : 8
Max. working Temperature     : 135°C
Max. working pressure:           : 2.5 bar
M/L  ratio                                 :1:8

Machine no-09

Machine name                  : Fong’s
Origin                                      : Korea
Production Date                       : 2001
Capacity                                     :  1200kg
Number of nozzle                        : 6
Max. working Temperature      : 140°C
M/L ratio         .                        :1:8

Machine no-10

Machine name                        : Fong’s
Origin                                      : Korea
Production Date                       : 2007
Capacity                                     :  800 kg
Number of nozzle                        : 4
Max. working Temperature        : 140°C
M/L ratio         .                          :1:8

Machine no-11

Machine name                          : Fong’s
Origin                                       : Korea
Capacity                                     :  400 kg
Number of nozzle                        : 2
Max. working Temperature        : 140°C
M/L ratio         .                          :1:8

 Sample Dyeing
 Objective of Sample dyeing section:

  • Receive lab-dip from lab section.
  • They make sample dyeing before going to bulk production.

      After sampling ok then it ensures to go bulk production.

Functions of various chemicals and auxiliaries used in dyeing 
There are various kinds of chemicals and auxiliaries are used in textile dyeing. Their functions are mentioned in the below

No Auxiliaries name Functions of the auxiliaries
01 Wetting agent
  • To wet the fabric as well as dye stuff.
  • To reduce the surface tension of water as if it allows the dye stuff for easy penetration into fiber.
  • Help to increase dye uptake to fiber by wetting it.
  • Emulsify oil, fats, waxes and remove oil-borne stains.
02 Antifoaming agent
  • Generally the dye molecule contains some of oil, wax & others impurities thats are responsible to make foam which needs to prevent from fabric. So this agent helps to prevent the foam formation.
  • Used to protect dye liquor from foaming. Thus they help in even and regular dyeing.
03 Anti-creasing agent
  • It helps to remove the crease marks of fabric.
04 Sequestering agent
  • It helps to remove the hardness of water.
05 Stabilizer
  • It preserve the strength loss of the H2O2 .That is, it helps to catch the powerity of H2O2.
  • When the temperature is increased then it has to possibility to reduce the powerity of H2O2 (At 90˚C-110˚C).So stabilizers are used.
06 Caustic Soda/
Soda Ash
  • Used in scouring which removes the oil, wax and others impurities from the fabrics.
  • It increases the absorbency of the fabrics.(During pretreatment)  
  • After dyeing of a fabric, the Soda Ash helps to stain (catch) the fabric’s color. So it acts as fixing agent.(During dyeing) & It increases the activity of salt.
07 Bleaching agent
  • It removes the natural color from the fabric.
  • It increases the whiteness of the fabric.
08 Acetic acid
  • It is used to neutralize the solution for controlling the pH. The alkalinity may reduce by using it in solution.
09 Enzyme
  • It removes the hairiness/ floated fiber from the surface of fabric.
10 Peroxide killer
  • To remove the residual peroxide from the fabric.
11 Leveling agent
  • It spreads the color evenly through the whole of the place of the fabric.
12 Dye stuff
  • To make color the fabrics by using dye stuff.
13 Oil remover
  • Remove the oily material from the surface of fabric.
14 NaCl/ Glauber salt
  • The attraction powerity of a salt to water is higher. So when NaCl is added to water then it falls on the dyes. It spreads color evenly to whole place of the fabric.
  • To increase the absorption powerity of the dye to fiber.
15 Carrier
  • Carrier transports the dye to the fiber.
  • Used for fixing disperse dyes on polyester or polyester wool blends at temperature below 105˚C.
  • They make dye film on the surface of the fiber.
  • To increase the dyes take up% by covalent bond of the fiber liquid. They may act as molecular lubricant.
16 Dispersing agent
  • To spread dye molecules into the fiber.
  • It assists the process of particle size reduction of the dye.
  • To assist dye penetration.
  • To increase solubility of the dyes.
17  Hydrose
  • To remove the unfix color from the ground of fabric.(During Reduction Clearing)
  • Machine wash(When Light color will dye after Deep shade then the machine wash is carried out)
  • Stripping purpose (For removing the fix color from fabric. Here NaOH also mixes for stripping)
18 OBA
  • Used as physical brightening (bleaching) agent in fabric.
  • It increases the whitening effects on the fabric surface.
  • It is generally used after scouring and bleaching.
19 Soaping
  • The floated colors are removed from fabric by soaping.
  • The stability of color’s brightness is increased as a result of soaping.
20 Softener
  • After dyeing, the fabric is remained hard in nature. So softener is used to make the fabric soft in nature.
21 Fixing agent
  • It helps to fix the color in the fabric.
  • Enhance wet fastness for heavy shade but usually reduce light fastness.

Name of Various Critical Colors:

No Name of the critical colors
General Critical colors Most Critical colors
01 Green Turquoise
02 Brown Royal
03 Grey  
04 Chocolate
05 An-tacit
06 Khucki
07 Violet

Selection of Program for color dosing based on shade type: 

Program No. Set for Temperature Color Dosing Time
01 General Critical shade 78˚C 30 minutes →10΄ run
02 Normal/Easy shade 60˚C 30 minutes→10΄ run
03 Most Critical shade 60˚C×30΄D → 90˚C×10΄ runtime

# For all critical shade → Normal hot wash =90˚C×10΄

Various Dosing systems followed for Color, Salt, and Soda Ash
Dosing system for Color:

Dosing Name Temperature Total Dosing time
Linear Dosing 60˚C 30 minutes
Dosing description
Equal rate of color will be passed

Dosing system for Salt:

Dosing Name Temperature Total Dosing time
Linear Dosing 60˚C 30 minutes
Dosing description
1st 10 minutes 2nd 10 minutes 3rd 10 minutes
part part part

Dosing system for Soda:

Dosing Name Temperature Total Dosing time
Progressive 60˚C 45 minutes
Dosing description
1st 25 minutes 2nd 20 minutes
part part
part part

Reaction for scouring action during pretreatment:

The NaOH (Alkali) reacts with the impurities present in the fabric and finally removed.


CH2—OOC—C17H33               + NaOH

Oil (Impurities)           Soda


CH2—OH   +   3C17H33COONa

CH2—OH            Sodium Salt

Reaction for bleaching action during pretreatment:
The hydrogen peroxide is ionized in the water as following:
H2O2                                              H+              +          HO2
        Hydrogen peroxide                                                             Per hydroxyl ion

When the peroxide is ionized in the water then proton and per hydroxyl ion are produced where the per oxide ion is responsible for bleaching.

The calculated formula followed in production:

No For Formula Basis
01 Color (%) Required dye (gm)
On the weight of fabric(OWF)
02 Chemical+Auxiliaries
Required chemical (gm)
On the weight of fabric(OWW)

Pretreatment Process of Scouring/ Bleaching:

Machine filling with water

Chemical Dozing (FE+LFW+C)
Hot Wash70 0C 20 min


Run  time 600C 20min

Run time 70 0C 10 min

Run time at 98 0C (60min)

Wash80 0C & Drain

CH3COOH   60 0C  20min

PKS 80 0C 20min

Wash 600c  20min

PH check (up 4.5)

Enzyme 550c 60min

800c 10min Wash

Leveling Agent/Anti Creasing agent/Sequestaring agent
CH3COOH   60 0C  PH Check5.5-6

Demineralization process:
It is a modern Industrial water softening process. By this process it can be possible remove of water hardness as well as remove all dissolve salts i.e. FeCO3, CaCl2.

Flow chart of Turquoise Color dyeing:

After Enzyme

Leveling Agent+ Anti Foaming  agent

Sequestering Agent

Turquoise Color ( Dosing at 40min)

Run time 20 min 600c

Salt ( 3 Step)

Run time 10 min 600c

Migration (800c) (2 Grade Rise Temp)

Run time20 min 800c

Cooling (600c 20Grade)

Salt Sample

Soda ash (600c Dosing 60min)
Sample Test( After 20min) Color steam 600c 60min


Hot wash

Fixing agernt

Bath drop

Flow chart of White fabric dyeing:
Scouring Two hours
After Enzyme Wash
BHT+BVB  850c 30 min doasing

980c  30min Run Sample check


Wash ( Overflow)

QSE(Sequestering Agent)
900c  10min

Over Flow( Sample Check)

CH3COOH  PH check 5.5


Finish product

Polyester Part dyeing                AF2000+LFW+CA+FE    800c 20min

Ringing Wash 10-15 min

Take water

CH3COOH check PH =3.8-4

Leveling agent 10min runtime

Dye 500c 30min

Run time 10min

Temperature rise 1000c (1 Grade)

1000c-1300c  (0.5 Grade)
Runtime 45 min

Temperature decrees  1300c-1000c (0.5 Grade)

Temperature decrees  1000c-800c (1 Grade)

Sample check

Ringing 15min

Hydrose  /  coustic
700c              600c
Dosing10 min   Dosing10 min

Temperature rise800c  20min(Sample Check)

Ringing 15min


Figure: Fong’s Dyeing Machine

Common dyeing faults with their remedies

  1. Uneven dyeing:

– Uneven pretreatment (uneven scouring & bleaching).
– Improper color dosing.
– Using dyes of high fixation property.
– Uneven heat-setting in case of synthetic fibers.
– Lack of control on dyeing m/c


– By ensuring even pretreatment.
– By ensuring even heat-setting in case of synthetic fibers.
– Proper dosing of dyes and chemicals.
– Proper controlling of dyeing m/c

  1. Batch to Batch Shade variation:

–  Fluctuation of Temperature.
–  Improper dosing time of dyes & chemicals.
– Batch to batch weight variation of dyes and chemicals.
– Dyes lot variation.
– Improper reel speed, pump speed, liquor ratio.
Improper pretreatment.

Use standard dyes and chemicals.
– Maintain the same liquor ratio.
– Follow the standard pretreatment procedure.
– Maintain the same dyeing cycle.
– Identical dyeing procedure should be followed for the same depth of the

  1. Roll to roll variation or Meter to Meter variation:

Poor migration property of dyes.
– Improper dyes solubility.
– Hardness of water.
– Faulty m/c speed, etc

            – Use standard dyes and chemicals.
– Proper m/c speed.
– Use of soft water

  1. Crease mark:

            – Poor opening of the fabric rope
– Shock cooling of synthetic material
–  If pump pressure & reel speed is not equal
– Due to high speed m/c running

maintaining proper reel sped & pump speed.
– Lower rate rising and cooling the temperature
– Reducing the m/c load
– Higher liquor ratio

  1. Dye spot:

Improper Dissolving of dye particle in bath.
– Improper Dissolving of caustic soda particle in bath.

By proper dissolving of dyes & chemicals
– By passing the dissolved dyestuff through a fine stainless steel mesh
Strainer, so that the large un-dissolved particles are removed

  1. Wrinkle mark:

            – Poor opening of the fabric rope
– Shock cooling of synthetic material
–  High temperature entanglement of the fabric

Maintaining proper reel sped & pump speed.
– Lower rate rising and cooling the temperature
– Higher liquor ratio

  1. Softener Mark:

– Improper mixing of the Softener.
– Improper running time of the fabric during application of softener.
– Entanglement of the fabric during application of softener

Maintaining proper reel sped & pump speed.
– Proper Mixing of the softener before addition.

Finishing Section

The making of a marketable and consumer usable textile is not completed after fabric production dyeing or printing operation. Fabrics usually still need to undergo an additional processing known as finishing, which is the final processing before the fabric is cut into apparel or made into any articles of textiles. Finishing is what improves attractiveness and makes fabrics suitable for their intended end use.

Finishing section is consisting of two lines. They are –

  1. Open line finishing
  2. Tube line finishing

  1. The machine that are used for open line mentioned in the bellow →
  • Slitting and Dewatering machine
  • Stenter machine
  • Open width compactor

  1. The machines that are used for tube line mentioned in the bellow →
  • Dewatering /Squeezer machine
  • Dryer machine
  • Soft setting calender
  • Compactor machine

Process flow Chart for Finishing Section:


              Open Line Finishing                                                          Tube Line Finishing

           Slitting and Dewatering                                                       Squeezing 

               Stentering                                                                                 Drying

                                                                                                                    Soft setting
           Open width compactor                                                               


                   Delivery                                                                                      Delivery                                                                                                                                       
Open Line Finishing
Slitter and De-watering M/C-(01,02,03):
Brand name                                         :   TAOYOUN
Manufacturing Country                       :   Taiwan
Year of manufacturing                        :   2007
Max speed                                                       :   100rpm
M/c width                                            :   48 inch
Max capacity                                                   :  8 tons
Main parts:
§ Turntable                                  § Beater
§ Rope Squeeze                          § Centering Unit
§ De-twister                              § Slitting Unit
§ Pulley Drive                           § Squeezing

Utilities used:

  •  Gas
  • Compressed air(to keep the tubular fabric to be cut in proper tension)

Passage Diagram of Taoyoun Slitting machine

Dyed fabric

Knife for open
The fabric

Open Fabric

Tubular Fabric





Fig: Fabric passage through the slitting machine

Working principle:-

  • The slitting m/c has 4 units –
    1. Initial squeezer,
    2. De-twisting,
    3. Slitter and
    4. Padder.
  • After dyeing completed, it is necessary to remove some water initially for the case of further processing in this m/c.
  • The initial squeezer does this work.
  • The de-twisting unit removes twists that may present in tubular rope form fabric. This unit has 3 de-twisting rollers, one rotation drum and 2 feeler rollers with sensors. By these rollers it detects twist in fabric and removes by rotating rope fabric in opposite direction. Before slitting there is a blower which blows air to open the tubular fabric & makes it easy to pass over cigger. The cigger can be extended in circumference and opens the tubular fabric in full circumference.
  • Slitting is done by using open mark detecting golden eye by around knife. Then the fabric passes through the padder where washing or chemical treatment is done. Squeezer is used to remove 60-70% of water. After removing water width is controlled by stretcher and fabric is delivered by folding device.

Operational parameter:-
                     –Set the padder pressure as required (3-7bar)
-Set the speed as much as possible (30-80m/min).
Function of the Machine:

  • Used to remove excess water after pretreatment and dyeing
  • To slit the tube fabric by the knife for opening of the fabric and  ready for stentering
  • Delivered fabric in crease free state
  • Before squeezing balloon is formed with the help of compressed air passing by a nozzle or air sprayer
  • It can control the diameter of fabric and GSM and shrinkage by over feeding mechanism
  • To open the fabric from tubular form to open width form
  • Fabric is cut according to the needle drop.

 Stenter m/c – 01 :
Brand name                                         :           ORTHOMAT
Manufacturing country            :           Taiwan
Year of manufacturing            :           2007
Number of chamber                :           08
Maximum speed                                  :           80m/min
Minimum speed                                   :           04m/min
Production/day                        :           08tons/day
Maximum Temperature                       :           200˚C
Max Dia                                              :          98 inc
Stenter m/c – 02:
Brand name                                         :           Sunsuper
Manufacturing country            :           Korea
Year of manufacturing            :           2004
Number of chamber                :           08
Maximum speed                                  :           40m/min
Production/day                        :           08 tons/day
Maximum Temperature                       :           220˚C
Stenter m/c – 03:
Brand name                                         :           Tong yang
Manufacturing country            :           Taiwan
Year of manufacturing            :           2004
Number of chamber                :           08
Maximum speed                                  :           50rpm
Production/day                        :           08 tons/day
Maximum Temperature                       :           200˚C
Max Dia                                             :             90inc




Feed Roller

Delivery Roller


Chemical Tank

Softener Tank







 Six Chambers

Cooling Chamber




Working Principle:

  1. Stenter Machine is generally used to finish the open fabric.
  2. This stenter machine consists of eight chambers; each containsfour burners, two blowers, two ducting line, nozzles and suction fan attach with the suction line.
  3. The burner produces hot flow gases which guided though the ducting line by the help of blower.
  4. There are nozzles placed above and bellow the rail. When the fabric passed through the rail, then hot air is sprayed to the above and bellows the fabric with the help of nozzle. The hot air is circulating in the chamber and the moisture in the fabric is evaporated, which leave the chamber with the help of suction fan through the ducting line.
  5. Temperature of each chamber can control automatically by controlling the intensity of burner. Generally lower temperature is maintained the first and last chamber then other chambers.
  6. The speed of the fabric is maintained according to the moisture content of the fabric. After passing the fabrics to all the chambers, the fabric is collected for compaction.
  7. The performance of the stentering range depends on proper introduction of the cloth into the machine. The finer the fabric is being processed, the greater the significance of the correct, crease free and fault free fabric introduction.
  8. In stenter m/c the fabric first passed through different rollers including weft straightening device, uncurling device for proper feeding of the fabric into the machine. Then it passed through the selvedge detector which detect the selvedge and adjust the rail for proper gripping the fabric in the pin arrangement.
  9. This stenter m/c consists of both pin and clip arrangement. The fabric first grip by pin and gust before entering the chamber, pin are locked by clip arrangement. To maintain proper dimension of the fabric, length wise overfeed and width wise tension is given to the fabric.

Important parts:
– Burner
–  Exhaust air fan
– Over feed roller.
– Suction Fan
– Nozzle
– Chain arrangement
– Width Control Device
– Softener Applicator
– Folding Device

  • Drying
  • Shrinkage control
  • Heat setting in case of p/c & 100% polyester, Lycra, grey mélange fabric etc.
  • Width control
  • Finishing chemical application.
  • Loop control
  • Moisture control, etc.

Heating system:  Gas Burner

Gripping system of fabric edges:  pinning

Utilities used:

  • Gas
  • Steam

Controlling points:

  • Fabric speed
  • Fabric width
  • Temperature
  • Overfeed %
  • pH of fabric(pH=5-6)

Used chemicals in stenter:

  1. Acid(As required)
  2. Silicon base softener (4gm/L)

Open width compactor m/c: (machine -01)
Brand name                                      :  Lafer
Manufacturing country                      :   Italy
Year of manufacturing                       :   2004
Maximum speed                                  :   50m/min
Minimum speed                                   :   08m/min
Production/day                                   :  12 tons/day
Maximum Temperature                       :   150˚C
Overfeed%                                          :0.5% – 40.0%
Maximum dia                                      : 92-105
Important parts:-
-Over feed roller.                         – Steam sprayers.
-Expander.                                  – Cylinder
-Blanket                                        – Teflon covers.
Operational parameter:-
– Set the temperature at 110-1390C (as required)
– Set the overfeed % as required;
– Shrinkage control
– GSM control
– Width control
– Fabric’s dia
-Ironing of fabric

Utilities used:

  • Gas
  • Steam

Controlling points:

  • Fabric speed
  • Fabric width
  • Temperature
  • Overfeed %

Tube Line Finishing

Squeezer /De-watering machine: (01,02,03)

Brand name                                                     AKAB CALATOR
Manufacturing country                                       SWEDEEN
Year of manufacturing                                       2007
Maximum speed                                              59rpm
Minimum speed                                               44rpm
Normal working speed                                      35-40m/min
Production/day                                                   6 tons/day
Maximum Temperature                                   150˚C
Overfeed%                                                      0.5% – 40.0%
Maximum dia                                                 48inc

Special features of the m/c:
–    Single squeeze roller and single padder present.
–    One for squeezing and other for applying softener finished.
–    Above 80% water can be removed
–    Maximum 48 inch diameter can be extended.
–    Softener tank present.

Passage diagram of the Akab calator  squeezer machine:

Feed roller


Softener tank

Feed Fabric

Feed container                                               Padding rollers                           squeezed fabric

Figure: Passage diagram of the fabric squeezer machine

Maintenance during operation:
–    Proper balloon form by compressor air other wise crease mark                          appears.
–    Padder contract point adjusts perfectly according to the fabric construction otherwise accurate water will not remove.
–    Albatros must be clean every one or two hours lat

Operational parameter:

  • Speed: As much as possible (40-60 m/min). Higher the GSM lower the speed.
  • Over feed: As required. Higher the GSM higher the over feed.
  • Padder pressure: 3-7 bar as required. Higher the GSM lower the padder pressure.
  • Width: Fabric width is adjusted as per required width.

Dryer machine: 01 (Steam)
Brand name                                         :           TONG
Manufacturing country                        :           Taiwan
Year of manufacturing                        :           2006
Maximum speed                                  :           16rpm
Minimum speed                                   :           06rpm
Production/day                                    :           08 tons/day
Maximum Temperature                       :           1300C
Overfeed%                                          :           0%  to -25%
Maximum dia                                      :           92-105
No of Chamber                                    :           06

Dryer machine: 02 (Gash)
Brand name                                         :           TONG
Manufacturing country            :           Taiwan
Year of manufacturing            :           2006
Maximum speed                                  :           16rpm
Minimum speed                                   :           6rpm
Production/day                        :           08 tons/day
Maximum Temperature                       :           180 c
Overfeed%                                          :           -05% to +30%
No of Chamber                                    :           03
Machine Dia                                       :           96inc

Working principle of dryer:

After de-watering then the fabric through the dryer. The main function of the dryer is given below,
-To dry the fabric.
-To control the overfeed system.
-To control the vibration which increase the G.S.M.

This machine contains two chambers. Two mesh endless conveyors are placed lengthwise to the chamber named conveyor net and filter net, each chamber contain a burner, which supply hot air .This hot air is guided through the ducting line by suction fan .There are nozzles placed in between filter net and conveyor net. When the fabric pass on the conveyor net, hot air is supplied to the wet fabric to dry it. There are exhaust fan which such the wet air and deliver to the atmosphere through the ducting line.

The speed of the dryer depends on the temperature of the m/c & the G.S.M of the fabric. If the m/c high then m/c speed also high and the m/c temp. is low then m/c speed also low . The vibration speed of the m/c for heavy fabric is 730 m/min and normal fabric is 480 m/min.

The different chambers according to the shade of the fabric –

Shade Chamber-1 Chamber-2
Light 1200c 1300c
Medium 1350c 1400c
Deep 1500c 1700c

Operating parameters:-
– Temperature:-Set the temperature between 1200c -1300c for white and 1500c -1700c for     color fabric. GSM   temperature  Or, moisture content   temperature
– Set the over feed up to 10~20% or as required to get finish G.S.M.
– set the speed as much as possible (6~20m/min). GSM   speed

Special feature of Steam dryer:
—Steam dryer (two chambers)
—Vibration occurs in heating zone.
—Process air pressure switch present.
—Maximum temp. Increase up to 1700c.
—Steam control switch present.
—Two burners present.
—Two conveyor belts are present.

N.B: For Polyamide: Temp range is 1100C~ 1150C.Speed range16~18: Overfeed range- 5%. This Data’s are varied depending upon the Gray G.S.M and Finished G.S.M and also on the dia of the fabric. All this parameters are suitable for G.G.S.M range 140~160 to get Finish G.S.M 170~185 without Lycra Fabric.

Following tings are also considered incase of Dryer machine:
*  If fabric is redder than the standard one, then reduce the temperature.
*  If fabric is more Yellower than the standard one, then increase the temperature.
*  If fabric is more Bluer than the standard one, then increase the temperature.
All this data’s are practiced in mills which may vary factory to factory.

Tube compactor Machine:

Tube compactor Machine: 01 &02
Brand name                             : TUBTEX
Manufacturing country            : U.S.A
Year of manufacturing            : 2004
Maximum speed                      : 70 rpm
Minimum speed                       : 10rpm
Production/day                        : 6 tons/day
Maximum Temperature           : 108˚C
Overfeed%                              :15% to +36%

Passage diagram of fabric in Tub Tex tube compactor machine



Feed fabric

Guide Roller

Output fabric

Padding roller

Figure: Passage diagram of fabric in Fab-con tube compactor machine

Important parts:
-Over feed roller.
– Steam sprayers.
– Cylinder
– Teflon covers.
Operational parameter:-
Set the temperature at 50-60˚C (as required)
– Set the overfeed % as required; to increase GSM, overfeed need to    increase to a certain limit.
– Shrinkage control
– GSM control
– Width control
– Ironing the fabric
Special feature of Compactor:

  • Operating system is computerized.
  • Steam bar present which soften the fabric for compacting.
  • In compacting zone, edge & retard roller, compacting shoe and steel plates are present.
  • A pair of pulley present for fabric dia control.
  • Fabric G.S.M, shrinkage and dia control.

Raising machine

Brand Capacity/Day (kg) Origin Type Unit
Zematex   Germany   1

  • This m/c is used only for raising finishing which imparts a hairy surface to the fabric.
  • A layer of fabric fibers lifting from the body of the fabric is achieved by passing it over a no. of pile R/r and counter R/r.
  • It is mostly applied on Terry fabric, Polar fabric etc.


The RUPASHI  KNIT  WEAR Ltd is a well-equipped industry. It contains machinery of well known brands like Orthomat, Sunsuper Lafer, etc. The availability of these m/c’s are helpful to increase the productivity of the industry. The arrangement of machines is very beautiful and there is enough space for movement of the workers.

Printing Section

Printing System:

Hand screen printing
Screen Printing
                                        Automatic Flat (Revolving) screen printing

Image of Heating Process of Printing Process

Types of printing :

  • Pigment Printing
  • Rubber Printing
  • Discharge Printing
  • High density Printing

Curing Temp:
Pigment        -160-1700c
Rubber          -150-1700c
Discharge      -2000c
High density -1800c

Image of mesh fabric of Printing Penetrate board

Sequence of printing:

Count garment parts
Screen preparation
Printing paste preparation
Applied garment part on the printing bed by (adhesive) gum in the marked portion
Printing the garment part by using screen
Drying the printed portion by hard dryer applying hot air flow
Curing the printed portion by passing through the conveyor dryer at 1600 – 1800 c
                          Inspection is done in qualify control department

Image of spouse

Printing Machine:

Image of inserting rubber
Image printing board

Image of Printing Past

Image of Printing board sketching

Image printing past mixture machine

The garment production processing steps and techniques involved in the manufacturing garments for the large scale of production in industrial basis for business purposes is called garments manufacturing technology.
Figure: Garments Machine

Sections of Garment
There are major Four sections available at the Rupashi Knit composite Ltd are mentioned in the below:
1.      Sample section
2.      Computer Aided Design (CAD) Section
3.      Garments Production (Cutting, Sewing & Finishing)
4.      Garments merchandising section

Sample Section:
Before bulk production the sample section keeps role to manufacturing garments. It helps to make final garments for buyer.
Ø  It saves from loss of any production garments.
Ø  It ensures the quality of a garments
Ø  There have no any possibility to make production garments if the sample is approved.
Ø  It increases the confidence during making the production garments.

Sampling Management System (Sample Section)
Ø  Measurement sheet by buyer
Ø  Development sample
Ø  Send to buyer
Ø  If approved, then orders
Ø  Size set sample is done (After approved)
Ø  Production sample is done (Approved sample)
Ø  Production start
Ø  Production is carried out.
Computer Aided Design (CAD):
The full meaning of CAD is Computer Aided Design. The marking is done by helping of computer. So it is names as Computer Aided Design (CAD).

Purpose of using CAD in garments unit:

  • To make marking on paper cutting fabric plies accordingly lay-wise.
  • To minimize the process loss(Sewing, Dyeing, Finishing, and washing losses)


  • Make perfect marking on paper.
  • Reduce wastage of fabric.
  • Maximum fabric utilization by minimizing losses.
  • Cost can be minimized.
  • Helps to minimize the process loss at last.

Procedure of CAD Management:

  •  Firstly required patters are spreaded on a digital table.
  • There are two computers where one is connected with the digital table and another is with main marking printer.
  • The patters are entered into 1st computer which connected with digital table. Here grading is done by the connected computer.
  • After that, the graded sheet is transferred to 2nd computer. In 2nd computer, Marking, dia, wastage etc are maintained.
  • Finally a required length of marker paper is feed to final printer and printed out. Then the printed marker paper is kept onto the plied fabric in cutting section.

Garments Production Section

Sequence of Garments manufacturing in Rupashi   garments
The whole sequence of garments manufacturing is completed by three following sections:

  1. Cutting section
  2. Sewing section
  3. Finishing section

The sequence of Garments manufacturing in Rupashi garments is mentioned in the below:

Operation (Side) Main Operation Operational Method
Stage at→ Cutting Section
  Sketch making/Design Both operational & Computerized
  Pattern design Basically computerized
  Sample making  
Pricing after Sample ok  
  Production pattern  
  Grading Grading is done generally manually
  Marker making /Lay plan CAD is used beside manually
Inspection is done Fabric spreading Generally manually done
  Fabric cutting(Lay wise)  
  Sorting & Binding  
Ironing and pressing Sorted fabric inspection Manually check the sorted fabrics.
  Send to Input room  
Stage at→ Sewing Section
  Sewing(Assembling) Automatic machine used generally
  Assembled fabric inspection  
Stage at→ finishing Section
  Fabric Trimmings  
  Fabric Pressing(Final Ironing) Generally steam press is done.
  Fabric inspection finally Generally manually completed.
  Fabric inspection finally It is generally done by manually.
  Packaging Packaging is completed manually.
  Finally send to buyer.  

Process Descriptions:
Stage at→ Cutting Section

No Main operation Function
01 Sketch making/Design n  Firstly a design is made which is don e basically with computerized.
02 Pattern design n  The copy of each part of garments is made by a board paper which is known as pattern.
n  Pattern is made for using the lining and interlining.
n  The pattern is made by two ways like block pattern and garments pattern.
n  It is executed by computer.
03 Sample making n  After pattern design a sample is made for checking purpose where the pricing depends on it’s approved from buyer.
04 Production pattern n  The production pattern is made after sample approved. It is not carried out without sample is not ok.
05 Grading n  Grading is done generally manually.
06 Marker making n  Marker making is carried out depends on length of cutting table, production planning etc.
n  It is one piece of paper where the required amounts of all pattern is drawn by a pencil or pen newly.
n  It helps to minimize the wastage amount.
n  CAD is used to make marker making but sometimes Marker master marks the paper if computer is failed.
n  “Allowance: (1.50 – 2.00)”
07 Fabric spreading

n  It is a process to spread the fabric on the cutting table lay wise. After spreading, the marker paper is set on the lays.
n  Spreading capacity generally: 60-100 ply. After cutting, the layout, the cut fabrics are numbered according to their size.
Spreading capacity according fabric type:

No Fabric type Ply capacity
01 Fleece 60 – 70
02 S/J 100
03 PK 60 – 70
04 Terry 60 – 70
05 Rib 60 – 70

n  After spreading the two sides’ edges are cut.

08 Fabric cutting n  The spreader fabrics are cut according to their marking by a knife bled.
n  Condition for Correct fabric cutting-
1.      Pressure of cut
2.      Clean edges
3.      Infused edge
4.      Support of the lay.
5.      Consistent cutting
n  Method of cutting: Generally straight knifes are used to cut the fabric.
n  Bled type: Straight Knife bled, Size: (8-10)”
09 Sorting & Binding n  After cutting the fabrics according to their marking then the sorting is done to sort all fabric according to their body parts.
10 Sorted fabric inspection n  After sorting the cut fabric the fabrics then inspected. Here the following faults are identified manually–

Audit the size according to sticker.
1.      Holes
2.      Color spot
3.      Oil spot
4.      Dirty spot
5.      Patta (Miss Pick)
n  After inspection the fabrics are send to input room
n  The Input room sends to cutting section.

Stage at→ Sewing Section

11 Interlining n  Sometimes to increase the beautification of a garment part and retain one of shape there a interlining is used between two plies.
n  For interlining there cotton, nylon, polyester, wool, viscose rayon etc or their mixture fabrics can be used.
n  Generally sandwiching type of interlining is used.
12 Sewing n  All part of a body is assembled by sewing. By sewing we can be able to get a garment. It is a very important subject for making a garment.
n  The machines used for sewing mentioned in the below:
1.      Single needle plain machine
2.      3-thread over-lock machine
3.      4-thread over-lock machine
4.      Flat Lock Cylinder Bed machine
5.      Flat Lock Flat Bed machine
Daily capacity: 1,00000 pieces.
13 Assembled fabric inspection n  After sewing of garments, then an inspection is carried out where the sewing faults are identified like miss pick, zigzag sewing, improper stitching etc.

Figure: Image of Swing Operation

Stage at→ finishing Section

14 Fabric Trimmings
  • The extra materials which are used in the garments without main fabric is mentioned as trimming.
  • Some trimming are used to increase the beauty of a fabric and some trimmings are used to maintain important activities.
  • The trimmings are as following :
  1. Label & Motif (Size level, Care level, Value level, Composition level etc.)
  2. Zipper
  3. Buttons
  4. Sewing thread
  5. Interlining(Between two fabric)
  6. Lining(different fabric than main fabric is attached with main fabric to increase shape, hang, comfort)
  7. Hook & Loop fastening
  8. Lace, braid,& Elastic
  9. Wadding Shoulder pad.
  • Quality of Trimmings-
    1. The life time
    2. Shrinkage
    3. Color fastness
    4. Rust
    5. Comfortability

15 Fabric Pressing(Final Ironing)
  • Generally steam press is done.
  • Purpose of Pressing :
  1. It helps to remove of unwanted crease & Crinkles.]
  2. To apply creases where necessary.
  3. Shaping
  4. Under pressing
  5. Final pressing
16 Fabric inspection finally Generally manually completed. And try to find out the finishing faults.
18 Packaging Packaging is completed manually.
19 Finally send to buyer. At last the packaged product sends to buyer.

Fabric consumption (Basic T-shirt, Trouser) and Thread consumption
It is very important for calculating the fabric consumption because the booking of fabrics is dependent on consumption. Mentioned that the accuracy of fabric and thread consumption can reduce the excess fabric which helps to reduce cost of fabric.

Consumption formulas

No Consumption type Formula


Fabric consumption for Basic T-Shirt

Formula in Centimeter:
Fabric consumption =
Formula in Inch:
Fabric consumption =

No Consumption type Formula


Fabric consumption for Basic Trouser

Formula in Inch:
Fabric length =
Fabric width = Thai×4
Total Fabric consumption =

Fabric consumption for Basic T-shirt
Calculation – 01: Formula in Centimeter:

Suppose one of T-shirt’s Body length (72+4) cm, Slib length (23+2) cm, Chest length (Dia) (53+2) cm and G.S.M 180. Determine the fabric consumption for the basic T-Shirt.

Here,                Body Length                = 76 cm
Sleeve Length  = 25 cm
Chest Length                = 55×2=110 cm (For both side)

Figure: A basic Trouser ad his measurement

We get,
Fabric consumption =
= 0.19998 kg

The amount of fabric is just for 1 piece. Generally 12 pieces are counted with one.
Fabric consumption for 1 Dozen     = 12×0.19998 kgs
= 2.399 kgs

Fabric consumption for 1 Dozen 2 kgs and 399 gms.

Calculation – 02: Formula in Inch:

Here,                Body Length                = (28+ 1) inch
Sleeve Length              = (9+1) inch
Chest Length                = (21+1) inch   =22 inch×2
= 44 inch
G.S.M                          = 180

According to formula,
Fabric consumption =

= 0.199920 kgs

The amount of fabric is just for 1 piece. Generally 12 pieces are counted with one.
Fabric consumption for 1 Dozen     = 12×0.199920kgs
= 2.391 kgs

Fabric consumption for 1 Dozen 2 kgs and 391 gms.

Fabric consumption for Basic Trouser
Calculation: Formula in Inch:

Suppose one of Trouser’s Front rise (12.5+1) inch, Back rise (15.5+1) inch, Thai (Dia) (12+0.5) inch, In-seam (27+1) inch and G.S.M 180. Determine the fabric consumption for the basic Trouser.

Here,                Front rise                     = (12.5+1) inch,
Back rise                      = (15.5+1) inch
Thai (Dia)                    = (12+0.5) inch
In-seam                        = (26.5+1) inch
G.S.M                          = 180

Figure: A basic Trouser ad his measurement
According to formula–

Fabric length =
= 42.50 inch

Fabric width = Thai×4
= 12.50×4
= 50 inch
Total Fabric consumption = kg
= 0.246774 kg

The amount of fabric is just for 1 piece. Generally 12 pieces are counted with one.
Fabric consumption for 1 Dozen     = 12×0.246774kgs
= 2.961 kgs

Fabric consumption for 1 Dozen 2 kgs and 961 gms.

Thread Consumption for garments sewing:

Figure: A Double Needle and 1/8 Distance sewing.

Sewing Tread Consumption Chart (For Per Inch Basis)

No Sewing machine type Consumption amount (Inch)
01 S/N Lock Stitch 3
02 D/N Lock Stitch 6
03 4 thread Over Lock 22
04 3 thread Over Lock 14
05 F/ L S/N chain stitch 8
06 F/L D/N 1/8 Distance 14
07 F/L D/N 1/4 Distance 18
08 F/L B/N Zigzag 1/4 Distance 30
09 F/L D/N Zigzag 1/8 Distance 20
10 3 thread O/L Blancet stitch 20
11 3 thread O/L Litus 20
12 Kansai S/N chain stitch 12
13 Pecoding Double Thread 24
14 Bartack 1 cm 12
15 Bartack 1.5(Distance) cm 18
16 BTN Hole ¾ knife 30
17 B/A 4 eye BTN (BTN=Button) 10
N#B: Stitch Per Inch = 11-12(According to buyer requirement.
1 m = 100cm     1 inch= 2.54 cm
1 m = 39.37 inch
1cm= 10mm
1 yard (Gauge) = 36 inch

The defects identified in garments finished fabric:
1.      Bed selvedge
2.      Broken ends
3.      Broken picks
4.      Reed marks
5.      Broken pattern
6.      Thick and thin place

8. Mixed weft
9. Stains
10.  Iron stain
11.  Mil-dew
12.  Holes in the cloth
13.  Shading
14.  Shuttle marks

Rough surface cloth


The quality of garments is very highly qualified because of 100% export oriented. Here five garments units are working where five merchandising and marketing section also involved. Here the working environment is very well. So the employees of the garments are getting there comfortable environments.

Quality Assurance System

Quality Control: Mainly this factory follows ISO Standard. But testing Standard depends on buyer requirements.

List of Equipments:

  • Computer
  • Light box
  • Electric Heater
  • Sample Dyeing M/C
  • Electrical Balance
  • pH meter
  • G S M Cutter
  • Washing M/ C
  • Shrinkage & Spirality  measurement instrument

Quality Assurance Procedure: Quality assurance Procedure may be divided two major Parts:

  1. Online quality Control
  2. Offline System Control

Objects of quality control:

  • Research.
  • Selection of raw materials.
  • Process control.
  • Process development.
  • Product testing.
  • Specification test

Scope of Quality Control, Quality Assurance and Testing:

  • Testing Lab
  • Machine-Auditing System
  • A good Training System
  • Technical Expertise

 On Line test:

  • G S M of the fabric
  • Exact Diameter and Width
  • Grey Fabric Inspection
  • Shade Check
  • Bias and Bowing
  • Visual Appearance (Enzyme Performance)

Off Line Test:

All the off line tests for finished fabrics can be grouped as follows –

  • Physical Test and
  • Chemical Test

Physical Test:

  • Finished Fabric Dia
  • G S M of Fabric
  • Rubbing Fastness
  • Pilling Test
  • Diameter and Width
  • Light Fastness test
  • Course Per inch
  • Wales per inch

Finished Fabric dia: In Knit, dyeing finishing, finished diameter is Very important factor. It should be kept as the buyer requirements. Simply a measuring tape measures it. Finished diameter is controlled at compacting m/c.

G S M Test: G S M is the most important factor. There is a G S M Cutter. The Sample cut by this weighted in the electronic balance. The reading (gm) from the balance multiplied by 100 to get Value of G S M.

Rubbing Fastness test:
Purpose: The fastness test to rubbing is used on a Variety of fabrics to evaluate the transfer of surface from the test fabric when it applied surface friction or rubbed against a rough surface.
Rubbing fastness test is determined by Crock meter. The test fabric is clamped in the plate of the crock meter. A standard fabric is used for rubbing the test sample. `0 cycles are given manually by a handle. Then the standard fabric is assessed with the help of the grey scale. The scale is graded from 1 to 5, being the Poorest and 5 being and 5 being the best.

Pilling Test: Generally, pilling test is applicable for fabric with synthetic fabric. This test is carried out in pilling box. A Sample of 10 cm x 10 cm is sewn round a rubber tube. Then the tube in the Pilling box and the door of it is closed. Then the meter is set for 14400 cycles. After the cycle is completed, the fabric is assessed by a special grey scale. The grey scale is provided Pilling box.

Light fastness test:
Purpose: Light fastness is the test design to evaluate the laundering fastness test of dyeing, Pigment which re to be made in comparison of result obtained on many test pieces treated under light.
Method: ISO

  1. Light  fastness tester & blue scale
  2. scale
  3. scissor
  4. hard paper
  5. 11cm X 4.5 cm

Procedure: At first, we took the blue woolen cloth & test sample. The blue woolen clothes were dyed with acid blue, 104,109 etc. Then we cut the woolen cloth & sample according to template. The blue woolen cloth is cut to make standard & sample is cut to test light fastness. Then we put the holder of woolen cloth and sample in the set of machine and set the time, which was 24 hrs. After completing the process we get the slandered test result. Then we compared with the standard rating.

Standard Rating
8 Fast
7 Fast
6 Average
5 Average
4 Average
3 Average
2 Not fast
1 Not fast


  • Shrinkage and Spirality or Twisting
  • Fastness to wash
  • Fastness to Perspiration
  • PH test

Wash fastness Test:
Purpose: The resistant of color of my dyed or printed material to washing is known as Wash fastness.
The test fabric is sewn with multifibre such that two multifibre strip remain at the both side of the test fabric. Then they are washed with the following recipe:
Liquor Ratio: 1:50
5 gm fabric + 250 cc water + 4 g/l detergent + 1 g/l sodium perborate +10Steel balls.

Washes with: 40º c x 30 min

Then the multifibre is detached from the test fabric. It is dried and wash fastness is assessed by grey scale.

Color Fastness to Perspiration:

Purpose: To assess the degree of change of shade or cross staining due to Perspiration.
Method: ISO
Reagent: Acidic Solution:

  • L Histadine monohydrochloride monohydrate                    0.5 g/l
  • NaCl                                                                                     5g/l
  • Sodium Di– Hydrogen Orthophosphate dehydrate             2.2 g/l

Reagent: Alkaline Solution:

  • L Histadine monohydrochloride monohydrate                         0.5 g/l
  • NaCl                                                                                                        5g/l
  • Di – Sodium Orthophosphate dehydrate                                   2.5 g/l

Temp                                                                   37º C
Time                                                                    4hr
Multifibre                                                            4cm
Water                                                                   1000ml

  • Test Specimen: Fabric (4x 10) cm
  • Procedure: (Alkaline Perspiration)

  • Keep the specimen in contact with S.D.C multifibre stripe of (4×10) cm
  • Allow the Specimen to soak for 4hr min
  • Place the specimen glass slide and lightly scrap of with a glass rod.

           Place the specimen indicator for hrs at 37º C. Then remove from incubator
Open out keep sometime in open air.

  • Repeat the same process with another specimen using the acid solution.

Assessment: Assess the change in color of each specimen and the staining of the multifibre strip using the grey scale.
Report: Record the change in color of each specimen and & the staining of the individual components of the multifibre adjacent fabric separately for both the acid alkaline test.

PH Check:
Purpose: To fulfill the buyer requirements to keep the pH of the fabric as Per standard.

Method: ISO

  • Take many Pieces of 10 gm sample
  • Take 250ml of distilled water (pH – 5.5 to 7.5) in Conical Flask.
  • Shake them for 10 min in normal temperature.
  • Temp:95 º C

            Standard pH range for colored fabric 6 to 8
Standard pH range for colored fabric 5 to 8.

Shrinkage and Spirality Test: Shrinkage and Spirality both are very important for
Control the quality of fabric.

Buyer’s requirements:

Template size: 50cm & 50cm
Shrinkage:   length wise— 5%
Width wise—-5%

 Spirality:     Left    ——– 5%
Right ——– 5%

At first take two ply of fabric & put the template (50cm) on to the fabric. The template has 8 holes. Both length & width wise the template holes can measure 50 cm at 3 places.
Then we mark the 8 holes by permanent marker & also at the edges of the template.
Then sewn the fabric & it is given to the washing m/c for run at 60°C for 60minutes with water. After that dry the sample & then measure the fabric

Spin speed — 500rpm
Drum speed–500rpm

Shrinkage Test:

After wash – Before wash
=    ———————————-×100
Before wash

Width wise:
After wash – Before wash
=   ———————————-×100
Before wash

  1. Spirality test:  

= × 100 %
Quality Control: Mainly this factory follows ISO Standard. But testing Standard depends on buyer requirements.

Remarks: Quality Control is the most important department in every Textile industry. It is strongly recommended that the Quality should be maintained as exactly the buyer’s requirements.

Utility Service

Water Treatment Plant

Introduction of W.T.P 
Water Treatment Plant is very essential now-a-day. The sea water or submerged water is not always fresh or sometimes not suitable for textile processing or even drinking. By this plant there can be possible to make qualified water where it can be used to dye house or any other required areas.  Water is remained as hard in nature generally. So there need to remove hardness of  water. So the water treatment plant is carried out.

Purpose of W.T.P

  1. To remove hardness from submerged water.
  2. To supply hard free water for dye house.
  3. To make soft water.
  4. pH maintain

The process flow chart of W.T.P

The process flow chart of W.T.P is mentioned in the below diagram-ally:

Raw water from submerged pump

Raw water housing (Storing)

Filtered by pump
MgF filter—–à AcF filter —–à Softener filter

Soft water storing house

Send to production by boaster pump

Functions of the three filter pipes:

No Filter name Function
01 MgF Filter Iron is controlled by this filter.
02 AcF Filter Carbon can be controlled by this filter.
03 Soft Filter Helps to make soft water after AcF filter if stays some of residual hardness.

N.B # One grain of hardness equals 17.1 mg/L or ppm of hardness.
Parts per million = ppm
Hardness of water:
Water described as “hard” is high in dissolved minerals, specifically calcium and magnesium. Hard water is not a health risk, but a nuisance because of mineral buildup on fixtures and poor soap and/or detergent performance. Generally,

  • The bi-carbonate of Ca, Mg, Al, Fe etc and
  • The salts like SO4 and Cl of Ca, Mg are basically responsible for hardness.
  • Mentioned that, the Na, K, NH4 salts are present in water but they don’t make any hardness in water.

Water Hardness test system
For testing of water hardness the following chemicals are used:

No Chemicals name
01 Hardness buffer
02 Indicator- Calmazin
03 Amunia(NH3)

Hardness test procedure:

Take 50cc water
Take 3 drops of buffer chemical in that water
Penetrate is done for few second
Now Indicator Calmazin is mixed little amount in that water solution
A color will show


No If the color is – Result
01 Blue No Hardness
02 Red Hardness present

Problem of Hard water in Textile Wet Processing:

  1. Scale formation in boiler

If hard water is used in boiler there has a possibility to form scale inside the boiler. As a result there requires higher temperature for heating it. So there need additional cost and rapidly face to erection.
The (CaCO3), [Mg (OH) 2] are produced from temporary hardness of boiler which are combinely creating scale inside the boiler. The reactions are—

Ca(HCO3)2       ↔ CaCO3           +          CO2                  +          H2O
Mg (OH) 2          ↔ MgCO3        +          CO2                  +          H2O
MgCO3 +          H2O     ↔        Mg (OH) 2        +          CO2
[ CaCO3 + Mg (OH) 2] are scale which are deposited inside the boiler.

  1. Hard water is responsible to make insoluble soap.
  2. Deposited insoluble compound on fabric during scouring
  3. Some dye stuffs are deposited as precipitated because of hardness.
  4. Reduce the heat conductivity of boiler.
  5. Red spot formation on fabric.

If Fe(HCO3) is present in hard water , then it reacts with soap. As a result the viscous (Gluey) and brown color of Fe (OH) 3 are precipitated.
4 Fe (HCO3)2    + 8C17H35COONa + 10H2O + O2 = 4 Fe (OH) 3 + 8 C17H35COOH + 8NaHCO3
The brown colored gluey Feric Hydroxide is precipitated on the blank place of fabric’s yarn. As a result, the red color spot is made on fabrics.
The capacity of water is not available according to required amount for dye house and others. So there needs to construct more submergible pump. The W.T.P capacity is 120m3/hour.But there need about 150m3/

Boiler: Steam generator or boiler is usually a closed vessel made of steel. There are Two boiler.

Function: Boiler function is to the heat produced by the combustion of fuel (Gas) to water and ultimately to generator steam. The steam produced may be supplied in wet processing department for –

  1. Heating cylinder dryer
  2. Steaming during dyeing

Objects: For supplying steam.

Types of steam:

  1. Wet steam
  2. Dry saturated steam, and
  3. Superheated steam.

In wet steam is used for the relevant processes.

Boiler No                  : 01
Brand Name                : LONG CHUAN
Origin                          : Taiwan
Type                            : Fire tube boiler
Capacity                      : 9.5 ton per hour
Pressure                       : 5 bar
Temperature                : 188º C
Fuel                             : Natural Gas

Boiler No                    : 02
Brand Name                : DL-A
Origin                          : KOREA
Type                            : Fire tube boiler
Capacity                      : 4 ton per hour
Pressure                       : 5 bar
Temperature                : 180º C
Fuel                             : Natural Gas

Pretreatment of the boiler water:

Boiler feed water needs special standard. Any deviation from the required standard may result in scale formation, which eventually reduces the efficiency of the boiler. This ultimately affects the cost of steam generation and makes the production cost high. To maintain the required standard of the water, there should be some means to pretreatment that the boiler feed water. To protect scale formation of boiler, NELCO is used as chemical in water feed tank. 200 gm NELCO is injected per 12 hrs. In Radiance fashion & jeans Ltd(Radiance Group). there are water softeners that act before the water enters the boiler.


Compressed Air:
The compressed air is supplied from air condition from air compressor. There are two air compressors in Radiance fashion & jeans Ltd(Radiance Group).

Compressor No: 01
Origin: INDIA
Serial No: PNA503246
Maximum working pressure: 10 bar
Average working pressure: 6-7.5 bar
Free air delivery: 54 liter / second
Normal shaft power: 34 Kw
Rotational Shaft speed: 3000 r pm
Gross weight: 480 kg
Year of Construction: 2000

Compressor No: 02
Origin: INDIA
Serial No: PNA503246
Maximum working pressure: 10 bar
Average working pressure: 6-7.5 bar
Year of Construction: 2000
Volt: 400
Frequency: 50 Hz


Generator house is the main Power Producing Plant of Radiance fashion & jeans Ltd(Radiance Group). there are two Generators in Generators house. Specifications of two Generators are given below:

Generator                      : 01
Equipment Name            : Gas generator
Nos.                                : 02
Manufacturer                 : Caterpillor
Model                            : G35116
Volts                               : 415/24 hr
RPM                               : 1000

Generator                   : 02
Equipment Name            : Gas generator
Nos.                                : 02
Manufacturer                 : Caterpillor
Model                            : G35116
Volts                               : 415/24 hr
RPM                               : 1000

For smooth running of factory main utilities like gas, electricity or steam is very essential. Sometimes gas pressure is low than required pressure. When the gas pressure is low, then diesel generators run. Government should have to ensure proper gas supply for Industry.

The act which is done to Keep the factory plan equipments machine tools etc. in an optimum working condition, minimize the break down of m/c’s  to improve Productivity of existing m/c tools and avoid sinking of additional capacity and to Prolong the useful life of the factory plant & machinery is called Maintenance.

Objectives of Maintenance:

  • To Keep the factory Plants, equipments, Machine tools in an optimum working condition.
  • To ensure specified accuracy to product and time schedule of delivery to customer.
  • To keep the downtime of Machines to the minimum thus to have control over the production Program.
  • To Keep the Production cycle within the stipulated range.

Maintenance systems

  1. Breakdown maintenance
  2. Schedule maintenance
  3. Planned maintenance
  4. Routine maintenance
  5. Preventive maintenance

Breakdown maintenance:
Breakdown maintenance is done when any electrical or mechanical problem is informed by respective division where the problem is occurred. In the mean time maintenance people reach to the spot and try their best to solve the problem. Maintenance divisions have spare parts of most common instruments and immediately they change the part. Since still now all equipments & instruments of AKH knitting 7 Dyeing Ltd. Have the one year warrently. So, the supplier engineers are called to solve the very complicated problems.

Schedule maintenance:
Schedule maintenance is done by maintenance division are as follows:

  • Daily
  • Monthly
  • Weekly
  • Yearly

Daily maintenance
Daily maintenance report contains following terms:

  • Status of m/c
  • Problems

Maintenance people check all the machine and equipment status is it running or not. If there is any problem of any equipment or instrument they solve it and write down the problems & its solution details in log resister.

Monthly maintenance:
Monthly maintenance jobs are done maintenance departments as follows:

  • Check pump housing oil
  • Check all bearing, valve, sensor etc.
  • Check all electrical & electronics appliances
  • Cleaning all dyeing machines
  • Replace air filter element
  • Change the lubricating
  • Check power transmission

Monthly maintenance report is given in appendix. I think this is a good & profitable maintenance programmed which is giving the additional facilities of the factory production & smooth running of the factories machinery.

Preventive Maintenance:
Preventive maintenance is a predetermined routine actively to ensure on time inspection / checking of facilities to uncover conditions that may lead to production break downs or harmful description.

Routine Maintenance:
Maintenance of different machines are prepared by expert engineer of maintenance department. Normally in case of dyeing machine maintenance after 30 days complete checking of different important parts are done.

Maintenance Procedure:
Normally preventive maintenance should be done. During maintenance procedure following    points should be checked:

Maintenance of knitting machine/flat knitting machine:

SL. Parameters to be checked
Checking and tightening all motor terminals.
Checking and cleaning pressure sensor and tightening terminals
Cleaning the ventilation fans of panel board and circular fan on top of machine.
Checking and cleaning the interfacing and data cables.
Checking and tightening the proximity switch terminals.
Inspection, cleaning and tightening all the terminals in the panel.
Checking and tightening limit switch, safety door guard and the emergency switch.
Functional testing of the yarn detector.

Maintenance of Dyeing machine (mechanical)

SL. Parameters to be checked
1 Greasing the m/c bearing.
2 Complete cleaning of machine.
3 Cleaning of drain valves, replace seals if required.
4 Checking air supply filters, regulators auto drain seals
5 Cleaning filters element and blow out.
6 Greasing of unloading roller bearing.
7 Checking of oil level and bolts of unloading roller gearbox.
8 Checking of unloading roller coupling and packing.
9 Checking & cleaning (if required) of main vessel level indicator.
10 Checking the oil level of pump bearing and refill if required.
11 Checking the function of heat and cool modulating valves
12 Checking all door seals.

Maintenance of Dyeing machine (electrical)

SL. Parameters to be checked
Checking & cleaning fluff and dirt at dirt at all motor fan covers.
Checking all motor’s terminals
Checking main panels (by using compressed air)
Checking panel cooling fan & clean its filter
Cleaning main pump inverter and its cooling fan.
Checking all circuit breaker, magnetic conductors and relays.
Checking current setting of all circuit breaker & motor over load.
Visual checking of all power & control cables.
Checking all pressure switches
Checking calibration of main vessel & all addition tank
Checking all pneumatic solenoids
Checking setting of tangle sensor.
Checking setting & operation of lid safely switches.
Checking all emergency switches
Checking all indicating lamps
Checking all on/off switches
Checking all signal isolators.

Maintenance of Dewatering Machine

Sl. Parameters to be checked
1. Cleaning of softener application unit
2. Checking of rotating device of rotating trolley unit
3. Checking of pneumatic pressure valves
4. Checking and replacement (if necessary) of rubber pads of stretching unit
5. Checking of plaiting device
6. Checking of speed regulating unit

Boiler maintenance

Sl. Parameters to be checked
1. Checking of gas pressure and gas supply line
2. Dosing of softening chemicals to supply water
3. Checking of all steam lines
4. Cleaning of burner tank (after six month interval)
5. Checking and replacement of valves
6. Cleaning of feed water tank
7. Checking and replacement of filters
8. Cleaning of sight glass

Maintenance Tools & Equipments:

  • Combination tools / spanner
  • Socket ratchet set
  • Slide range
  • Pipe threat cutting tools
  • Bearing puller
  • Pipe range
  • Pipe cutting tools
  • Hole punch
  • Divider
  • Easy opener
  • Heavy scissor
  • Oil can
  • Drill machine and drill bit
  • Grease gun
  • Grinding m/c
  • Welding m/c
  • Hammer
  • Hacksaw blade
  • Handsaw (wood)

The maintenance department of The Rupashi Composite Knitting Industries Ltd. is well equipped. It has sufficient maintenance manpower including mechanical and electrical engineers. To increase the lifetime of the machineries and ensure the proper running of the machines, the task of this department is very important
Store & Inventory Cost

Inventory is the stock of goods. It is a vital part of business. It protect against stock outs. The type of inventory carried in this factory as follows-

  • Gray fabric                  :          Own knitted or imported
  • Dyes and chemicals     :          Local or Imported
  • Spare parts                   :          Local or Imported
  • Packing materials         :          Local or Imported
  • Finished fabrics           :          Good or Rejected

Policy of store keeping: Normally first come first out policy can maintain in the company. Some case supposes according to needs of the company decide their opinion according to buyers wants.

Cost Analysis
Cost analysis is the important feature of our garments production. Its starts from yarn producing period. It’s include with yarn dyeing, knitting, dyeing, garments manufacturing cost, transportation cost, personnel cost. Then we are service a production of a company.

There are some points are include of a garments production. These are given below:

  1. Name of Buyer
  2. Style no.
  3. Fabrication
  4. Gsm
  5. Full Description of item
  6. Yarn Price
  7. Knitting charge per unit
  8. Dyeing per unit
  9. Process loss (During Dyeing)
  10. Measurement consumption element

T-shirt/Polo Shirt:

  • Body Length
  • Chest/bottom width which more wide is the accept
  • Sleeve length


  • Total length/out seam
  • Half thigh

Costing rule of a garments which are giving below:

Rules of Measurement of a T-shirt/polo shirt:
{Body length + Sleeve + 10 × (Chest + 4) × 2 × Gsm} ⁄ 10,000 ⁄ 1000 × Process loss%

Rules of Measurement of a Pant/trouser:

Total length + 10 × (Thigh + 4) × 4 × Gsm / 10,000 / 1,000 × 12 × Process %


Merchandising is the methods, practices and operations used to promote and sustain certain categories of commercial activity. This is the art or buying or selling the products or merchandise.
In Bangladesh, the concept of merchandising mostly refers the apparel clothing merchandising. Here the merchandise is the finished packed garment which could be tops or bottoms in formal wear, casual wear or intimate wear, also keep in consideration for home textiles, terry towels etc.

In merchandising, your role could be buying the merchandise or selling it to your buyer to keep live the supply chain.

  • Merchandisers are serious in the success of any garment retail business.
  • They provide the right products at the right time, enabling a company to match with latest market trends and meet the market demand. In the merchandising concept, time management is a gig to manage one’s time properly, so s/he can focus on value adding actions.

The Merchandiser
An individual, who acts as a coordinator, follows-up and takes total responsibility of an order form booking to shipment and beyond, for the customer who placed it and for his company’s management.
Duties & Responsibilities of Marketing Officer:
Dealing with the buyer & convincing the buyer is the main duty of marketing officer. A marketing officer also has some other duties.
The main duties & responsibilities of a marketing officer are given bellow-

  • To prepare cost sheet by dealing with the buyer.
  • To take different steps by discussing with the high officials & merchandisers.
  • To maintain a regular & good relationship between commercial officers & merchandisers.
  • To maintain communication with the buyers and buying houses.
  • Communicate with better knowledge of the products.

Actually the responsibilities & duties of marketing officer begin from getting order of buyer & ends after receiving payment by the buyer. So, he should be always smart, energetic & sincere.
Merchandising Management system:

  1. Buyer sends an order copy by e-mail or sometimes swatch also.
  2. E-mail is taken hand from (Order copy)
  3. The measurement of various parameters are inserted by coding number in the order copy like-
    • Quantity of garments,
    • Yarn type,
    • Count,
    • Fabric type,
    • Color,
    • Body measurement,
    • Shipment date etc.
  4. Before ultimate order a development sample is sent to buyer.
  5. Then OK the sample then price is executed.
  6.  After getting the order then a color lab-dip is done
  7. Lab-dip is approved
  8. Sampling is carried out.
  9. The sample is sent to buying house to check.
  10. After approved the sample then accessories and fabrics are booked.
  11. Finally shipment is done after all clearance.
  12. The merchandiser basically follows up with all concern production departments for their ordered products.

The major functions/steps of a merchandiser:

  1. Procuring the garments order.
  2. Procuring the raw materials.
  3. Production of garments.
  4. Shipments of garments.
  5. Receiving of payment for garments.

The steps are shown as diagramacally:

01. Order Receive

02. Raw material Collection

03. Garments Production

04. Garments Shipment

05. Payments receive


Figure: The steps are completed by a merchandiser.

Buyer Confirms an order to a Factory

Production planning and pre production meeting:

  • Initial planning is prepared by the merchandising department when the order confirmed.
  • Based on the sample approval and shipment date, the production department makes the planning of the production only.
  • The planning is done following the styling of the product and the machine lay out to calculate the number of pieces production per hour.
  • Before production commence, pre production meeting is necessary with all concerned departments to get the correct productions.

Production: sample development, planning, quality control and inspection (AQL)

Quality Control and Inspection [AQL]:

  • Customer wise the quality requirement will get vary and merchandisers are responsible to communicate with customers to get the correct quality requirements and need to co-ordinate with factory quality control department so that they will well understand the requirement and can take care of the bulk productions.
  • Inspections are done during production which is called in line inspection. Later the final inspection done by the factory QC as well as buying office QC to make sure that the final products is shipping with right quality.
  • Mentioned that, the right quality not good quality as the ‘quality’ refers to customer’s requirement.


  • Costing is the principal task of any merchandisers.
  • Methods of Pricing:
  • Calculate the fixed and variable costs associated with the product.
  • Also below cost elements need to consider during costing.
    ~    Pricing for Fibers & Yarns
    ~    Pricing for fabric manufacturing
    ~    Pricing for garment manufacturing
    ~    Cost of accessories
    ~    Commercial cost
    ~    Break even point
    ~    Consumption of fabric and accessories with wastage percentage.
    ~    Total cost analysis [how much does it cost to provide merchandise to end      customer

Standard, Measurement spec sheet/Product pack

  • Standards are provided by the customer and it could get vary from customer to customer.
  • Merchandisers need to study the standard very carefully.
  • If any issues with any part of customers standard, this need to be share with customer before order confirmation
  • Each style will be briefed with a product pack and all necessary information will be mentioned there along with measurement sheet.
  • Example: If the tolerance limit in measurement specs is too low compare to production feasibility, merchandisers need to inform this to buyer before order confirmation and need to settle down the acceptable tolerance limit by both parties.


  • LC: Letter of Credit- Once the order is confirmed, buyer’s bank issues a Letter of Credit (LC) to the manufactures Bank.
  • With this LC, manufactures can start procurement of yarn, fabric, accessories etc necessary for particular order execution.
  • If the LC delayed from buyers end, it will impact on the delivery date and merchandisers need to follow this up with buyer to get the LC for on time delivery.
  • Back to Back L/C: To procure the yarn, fabric and accessories, suppliers need to open another LC for secondary suppliers bank based on the master LC. This secondary suppliers LC is called back to back LC.

UD [Utilization declaration]

  • UD-[Utilization declaration] suppliers need to submit master LC, back to back LC, bank certificate, BTMA certificate of yarn, Invoice of the yarn to get the UD from BGMEA/BKMEA. And to get the GSP form A, suppliers need to submit the UD and other necessary documents to EPB.
  • This UD is mainly for the yarn procurement to show that the suppliers have procured the yarn for those particular orders.

The Rupashi Knit wear Industries Ltd. has an energetic and motivated marketing & merchandising team. There are five strong merchandising units are working. The particular unit works for particular buyer. They are always in communication with the buyers. The marketing section also looks after the quality & quantity requirement of the buyers.


There is large difference between the theoretical knowledge and practical experiences. This is truer in case of the study of Textile Technology. Industrial attachment or, Industrial training is an essential part for textile education because it minimizes the gap between theoretical and practical knowledge. This Industrial training increases our thought a lot about textile technology. It also helps us to know a lot about industrial production process, machineries, and industrial management and made us suitable for industrial life. Besides it gives us the first opportunity to work in industry. So we can say industrial attachment prepare us for the expected destiny of practical life.

This factory does not compromise in case of quality. So, they have established on-line and off-line quality control of each product. Besides, they also use the good quality yarn, dyes and chemicals in their production process.

Due to this, it has earned a “very good reputation” in foreign market for its quality product over many other export oriented textile mills. It has very well educated and technically experienced manpower to get rid of any defect in production process. It has also a good organizational hierarchy.