Industrial Training Report on RENATA LIMITED

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Industrial Training Report on RENATA LIMITED


RENATA Limited (formerly Pfizer Laboratories (Bangladesh) Limited), also known as RENATA, is one of the top ten (in terms of revenue) pharmaceutical manufacturers in Bangladesh. RENATA is engaged in the manufacture and marketing of human pharmaceutical and animal health products. The company also manufactures animal therapeutics and nutrition products. RENATA currently employs about 2300 people in its head office in Mirpur, Dhaka and its two production facilities in Mirpur, Dhaka and Rajendrapur, Dhaka.


The company began its operations as Pfizer (Bangladesh) Limited in 1972. For the next two decades it continued as a subsidiary of Pfizer Corporation. However, by the late 1990s the focus of Pfizer had shifted from formulations to research. In accordance with this transformation, Pfizer divested its interests in many countries, including Bangladesh. Specifically, in 1993 Pfizer transferred the ownership of its Bangladesh operations to local shareholders, and the name of the company was changed to RENATA Limited.

At present, RENATA manufactures about 300 generic pharmaceutical products including hormones, contraceptives, anti-cancer drugs, oral preparations, cephalosporins, parenteral preparations as well as other conventional drugs. In addition, they also offer about 95 animal therapeutics and nutrition products.

In a gesture of corporate charity, Pfizer donated shares so that, along with a partial payment from the SAJIDA Foundation, 51% ownership of RENATA Limited would be held by the Foundation. Today SAJIDA’s microfinance and micro-insurance programs support over 107,120 members and their families; thus far cumulative loan disbursement totals BDT 5,750 million. Currently, SAJIDA’s health program covers over 1 million beneficiaries by delivering services through two 70 bed hospitals, panel doctors in SAJIDA’s micro finance branches, and mobile health teams. To date, the SAJIDA Foundation holds the majority ownership in RENATA Limited.



Section-7, Mirpur, Dhaka-1216.


Pharmaceutical Company.




Dry sirup


Products in sachet

Soft Gelatin etc.


One at Mirpur,Dhaka

Another one at Rajendrapur, Gazipur.



2.6MW Power Plant

Herbal Product Factory


Market volume- 520-536 Crore (2011 end)

5Th largest among Pharmaceutical Companies of Bangladesh

Entirely designed by internal engineers, not dependent on external consultants.


The Honorable Board Members of RENATA Ltd are-

  • Syed Humayun Kabir

Chairman of Board of Directors since 1972

Managing Director since 2002

Board Member since 1994

Board Member since 2000

Board Member since 2000

Board Member

Board Member

Company Secretary Since 2011


The Management Team of RENATA Ltd. is driven by the active contribution of following personnel:

· Syed S Kaiser Kabir

CEO & Managing Director

· M. Alamgir Hossain

General Manager, Operations

· Khalil Musaddeq

General Manager, Sales (Pharmaceutical)

· Md. Jubayer Alam

Company Secretary

· Dr. Sayma Ali

Head of Manufacturing

· Monowarul Islam

Marketing Manager, Pharmaceutical

· Misha Ali

International Business Manager

· Khokan Chandra Das

Head of Finance

· Md. Sirajul Hoque

National Sales Manager, Animal Health

· Safina Hasan

Human Resources Manager


The ORGANOGRAM of RENATA Ltd. is as follows:


RENATA Ltd. has two major departments. These departments are-

· Project Department

· Maintenance Department

Both the departments are working effectively for the benefits of the company. The Project department is mainly concerned with the planning and international dealings. The Maintenance department generally involves ensuring proper operation and control of engineering aspects.


The following are regarded as the core teams of the running company:

· Production Department:

This department determines the market demand and ensures that product is manufacture accordingly.

· Quality Assurance:

The function of this department is cross checking. The department also ensures quality of every product by quality control. It runs the laboratory for this purpose. QA is a batch process; rather than a continuous one.

· Engineering Department:

This department maintains the factory. It falls within the Maintenance Department.

General Facility (Mirpur, Dhaka)

Area: 196,730 SFT or 18,277 m2

Manufacturing Capabilities: Tablet, Capsule, Soft Gel, Effervescent Tablet, Dry Syrup, Sterile Dry Fill, Sterile Liquid Fill, Large Volume Parenteral (Pilot), Lyophilisation (Pilot), and Premix

Packaging Capabilities: Blister pack, bottle dry-fill, pot-fill, and strip packaging

Potent Product Facility (Mirpur, Dhaka)

Area: 22,500 SFT or 2,090 m2

Manufacturing Capabilities: Tablet

Packaging Capabilities: Blister pack and pot-fill

Cephalosporin Facility (Rajendrapur, Gazipur)

Area: 50,500 SFT or 4,692 m2

Manufacturing Capabilities: Tablet, Capsule, Dry Syrup, and Sterile Dry Fill

Packaging Capabilities: Blister pack

Penicillin Facility (Rajendrapur, Gazipur)

Area: 27,500 SFT or 2,555 m2

Manufacturing Capabilities: Tablet, Capsule, Dry Syrup, and Sterile Dry Fill

Packaging Capabilities: Blister pack

Sachet Filling Facility (Mirpur, Dhaka)

Area: 11,300 SFT or 1,090 m2

Manufacturing Capabilities: Powder

Packaging Capabilities: Sachet (Dry Fill)


Services Groups Products
Anti-bacterial preparations Cephalosporins Polycef






Fluoroquinolones Levoking


Macrolides Azithromycin Zithrin

Erythromycin Erythrox

Broad Spectrum Penicillin Ampicillin Pen-A


Trimethoprim Co-trmoxazole Bactipront
Tetracyclines Doxycycline


Carbapenemes Iropen


Anti-ulcerant preparations Pantoprazole




Anti-hemorrhoidal preparations Diosmin & Hesperidin
NSAID preparations Naproxen



Anti-allergic preparations Allermine



Cardiovascular preparations Ostan plus


Pendoril plus





Cardioin plus


Hemostatics preparation Xamic
Expectorant preparation Honycol
Vita min &Hematinic preparations Kiddi







Bcosules Gold

Calcium Supplement preparation Calcin-D
Laxative preparation Titolax
Steroid preparation Dexatab


Anti-spasmodic preparation Algin
Anti-protozoal preparation MEZ IV


Anti-pyretic preparation Rapidol

Pyra p;us


Anti-diabetic preparation Pioglin


Glicron CR


Gastro-prokinetic preparation Domiren
C.N.S preparation Norry




Hormone preparation Regmen




Nandron 50









Ortho-musculoskeletal preparation Cartilage Plus
Anti-fungal preparation Lucan-R



Poultry Anrosin
Animal health Renamycin
Imported Bionix
Aqua Renaquine 10%

Rena Fish

Renamycin soluble powder



196,730 SFT or 18,277 m2


  • Tablet,
  • Capsule,
  • Soft Gel,
  • Effervescent Tablet,
  • Dry Syrup,
  • Sterile Dry Fill,
  • Sterile Liquid Fill,
  • Large Volume Parental (Pilot),
  • Lyophilisation (Pilot), and
  • Premix.


· Blister pack,

· Bottle dry-fill,

· Pot-fill, and

· Strip packaging


· The bottom floor is the ‘Commercial Floor’. All the production under General Plant-1 is carried out here. This building also accommodates the PPF-1.5 Facility. The generators and the majority of the electrical power distribution system are located here. This floor also has a small workshop.

· The upper floor is called ‘Service Floor’. The entire utility section is on this floor. The HVAC system including the ducts, water treatment plant and pipelines, boiler, air compressor electrical sub distribution boards etc. all are to be found on this floor.

· The laboratory under QA is on the second floor.

· The QA office is on the third floor.

· The cooling tower is on the roof of the General Plant building.


Serial # Type of machinery Numbers
1 Sealing Machine 9
2 Labeling Machine 5
3 Tablet Press 13
4 Blender 4
5 Dry powder Filling 4
6 Capsule Filling Machine 2
7 Powder Dryer 2
8 Bottle Wrapping 1
9 Bottle Dryer 2
10 Compactor 3
11 Granulator 5
12 Vibrator Shifter 1
13 Fitzmill 2
14 Dehumidifier 8
15 Bottle Inspecting Machine 3
16 Coating 5
17 Fluid Blade Dryer 2
18 Stirrer 2
19 Blister Packing 11
20 Film Sealing Machine 1
21 Auto Capsule Filling Machine 2
22 Capsule Polishing Machine 2
23 Washing Machine 7
24 Sterilizer 2
25 Powder Filling 3
26 Ampoule Filling Machine 3
27 Mixing Vessel 3
28 Ampoule Inspecting Machine 2
29 Vacuum Cleaner 10
30 Gelatin Melting Tank 2


The basic production procedure of the important products in the general plant was studied. The procedures can be divided into four major groups. These are:

· Tablet Production

· Capsules Production

· Dry Sirup Production

· Production of Injectable etc.


Tablets of a variety of groups and types and sizes are produced in the general plant. This is done on a number of tablet compression stations. The overall Tablet making process can be divided into four stages. These stages are:

· Granulation or Preparation of Material

· Compression

· Coating

· Blistering etc.

These processes are described below:


Before tablet compression, the raw materials are passed either in the wet granulation or dry mass process. For wet granulation, the raw materials are initially mixed for about 20 minutes and then a binder is applied in the mixer and a lump is obtained thereby. Common binding agents are:

· Mild Starch paste

· Probiton-K

The lump or crystallized raw material is then passed through the “Fitz Mill” for sieving and then to the dryer. Drying is done for about 20 -30 min at 60-70?C.

Some lubricants are used such as:

· Sodium Lauryl Sulphate

· Talcom Powder

· Magnesium Stearate

Dry mass production is done on the oscillating granulator, and the product is obtained directly.


Figure: Flow chart for Granulation


There are different tablet compression machines of varying capacities. The method incorporated by the machines is forming using die and punch. The machines available for this purpose are listed below:

· Cadmach 12

· Cadmach 25

· Cadmach 49

· Sejong 37(1)

· Sejong 37(2)

· Sejong 51

· Adept 25

· Adept 23 etc.

The number written after the manufacturer’s name indicates the number of dies or stations available in the machine. The more this number is the more is the production rate. One sample specification of a SEJONG 37 machine given below:


o Electrical specifications: 400V / 50Hz / 3Phase

o Number of station: 37

o Rpm of disk: 3-60 rpm

o Power of main motor: 15Hp (11KW)

o Machine floor space: 1150 * 1550 mm

o Weight of machine: 4000 kg


Figure: Flow chart for Compression.


These machines are designed for tablets, pillets, granule type object coating. It is done by compressed air fundamentally. Some machines are;

· Sejong(2 guns)

· Sejong(4 guns)

· Glatt(6 guns)

One sample specification of a SEJONG 37 machine given below:

· Pump Specification:

o Speed: 220 rpm

o Voltage: 100-120 V

o Frequency: 50 Hz

o Current: 1.25 A

· Spray gun Specification:

o Mach 1A HVL

o Air nozzle: Inlet: 2 psi Atomizing: 3 psi

o Fluid nozzle: Inlet: 5 psi Atomizing: 2 psi

o Control: PLC, touch screen.

o Power supply: 100 – 150 W


There are blistering machines of various capacities, models and control systems. Some are fully automatic, some requires human intervention.

Al-Al blistering and Al-PVC blistering is of same principle, but in case of PVC it needs two additional heating stations for sealing. This is due to the fact that two metal strips of Aluminum under sufficient pressure and machining process can get sealed without any additional high temperature provision.

For Blistering, at first PVC or Aluminum Sheet is taken which is then heated by a heater, known as a pre heater. An air pocket is created by injection of compressed air. The tablets are fed into the created packet, either manually or by an automatic process. After this operation, another strip of Aluminum comes from the other end and sequentially sealing, slitting, cutting etc are done by different heaters with appropriate temperature. This is the basic principle of operation, which may vary from machine to machine to a certain extent.

Some blistering machines are:

  • Ulmann (2 pcs)
  • Pampac
  • Langnan
  • Buchon

One sample specification of a BUCHON machine given below:

· Specification:

o Manufacturer: BUCHON Machinery Co.

o Model: WDER-A1V

o Type: UPS 300

o Electric: 415 V, 50 Hz, 3 phase

o Rated Current:9 A

o Main motor power: 1.1 kW

o Gross power for head: 2 kW

o Punching frequency: 10-30 times/min

o Stroke adjusting range: 40-110 min

o Preheat Temperature: 130.5?C

o Preheat Temperature: 130.5?C

o Sealing Temperature: 145.5?C

o Slitting Temperature: 100.2?C


Figure: Flow chart for Blister Machine.

· Flow chart for tablet manufacturing from the Batch Manufacturing Record (BMR):

Figure: Overall Procedure including QC check and others of Tablet production


The capsule making process has both similarity and dissimilarity compared to that of tablet from many aspects. The process is same up to dispensing stage. The rest of the process can be sub-divided into three main stages. These can listed as below:

· Sieving and Blending (material preparation)

· Encapsulation

· Blistering etc.

The entire granulation step required for tablet making is replaced by sieving and blending only. The final stage or blistering is similar to that of tablets. The intermediate stage or encapsulation is described below:

The mixed powder for capsules is taken into the encapsulation station which similarly produces capsules. The shells of all the capsules are not manufactured in the factory; rather they are bought from outside reliable sources as raw materials.


Figure: Flow chart for Encapsulation

There are several capsule processing machines. Some of these machines are automatic, rests are manual. Such as:

· PTAM SA9, India

· HUADA, China etc.

· Flow chart for capsule manufacturing from the Batch Manufacturing Record (BMR):

Figure: Overall Procedure including QC check and others of Capsule production


Production is done according to the market demand. A fully automatic machine (CVC, Taiwan) is used in this purpose.


Figure: Flow chart for Dry Sirup Production


The glass bottles are fed manually into the machine first. Also the metallic cap and plastic gaskets are fed into separate stations. The dry syrup powder is fed into the machine by creating a vacuum.

The bottles are taken into the line automatically at six stations simultaneously. Desired amount of dry powder is filled into each bottle in an automatic process. The bottles also vibrate here to avoid any lump creation. Little amount of Air is sprayed to move away the outside and dry powder dust from the outer periphery of the bottles.

After filling the bottles pass on a conveyor belt for the next process. There are sensors on the belt to avoid jamming.

The filled bottles then move to be sealed with plastic gaskets. The gaskets fell from top and seal each bottle automatically and sequentially move to the next station, which is Capping.

After capping is done by twisting and sealing the bottle completely, they move through the conveyor belt for next stages as labeling, primary and secondary packaging etc.

This is to be noted that there are a number of sensors at each stations, each important points on the machine to ensure that the process is running properly and if not it can reject the individual item and in fact in some cases of severe errors, the machine stops by itself to ensure highest accuracy and quality.

· Maximum of 6 bottles are operated simultaneously.

· Capacity of bottles: 130, 70, 35 ml

· Each filling station has separate sensors.

· Powder is lifted by vacuum.

· There are a number of dampers, vacuum pumps and sensors.

· The machine is made in Taiwan, by the CVC Technology Co Limited. But it uses an overall USA technological aspects and standards.


The products of injections are:

· Liquid ampoule

· Liquid vial

· Dry vial

These injectables are produced with maximum precaution in the sterile area. Various ampoule washer, cleaner, sterilizer and inspection machines are used in this process. Due to entry restrictions, we could not enter them thoroughly, but yet got an overall clear idea of the entire process.


Figure: Flow chart for Injection production.

· Flow chart for tablet manufacturing from the Batch Manufacturing Record (BMR):

Figure: Overall Procedure including QC check and others of Injection production


In pharmaceutical industry an essential utility is the electric power distribution to the whole industry. Electric power is distributed from the service floor according to the demand. In Reneta Limited the main power source is either from the generators or Dhaka Electric Supply Company (DESCO).

It has two generators. The power capacity of smaller one is 0.7MW and the bigger one is 1.2MW. The ON/OFF process of small generator and DESCO IS done with a separate control board. The controlling system is manual with hand lever. When the DESCO line is ON the small generator is OFF and vice versa. The big generator is controlled directly by the switch.

When the DESCO line is ON then current is passed from the transformer it goes to the main distribution board (MDB) through Low Tension Panel (LTP). If the generator is ON, the current will be passed through circuit breaker to the LTP. At last reaches the MDB from where the power requirement for the industry is maintained.

Power Source DESCO


Figure: Flow Chart showing Power distribution from DESCO source.


DESCO supplies current to the different parts in the Dhaka city. The voltage of DESCO current is 11KV. But in industry the voltage requirement is 380-400V.


A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors –the transformer’s coil. A varying current in the primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformers are and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding.

If a load is connected to the secondary an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from primary circuit through the transformer to the load. In an ideal transformer the induced voltage in the secondary is proportional to the primary voltage and is given by the ratio of no. of turns in the secondary (Ns) to the no. of turns in the primary (Np) as follows

· Specification of Transformer:

Input : 11KV

Output : 440V

Primary winding : Del -connection

Secondary winding : Y- connection

Vector Group : DYn11


The transformer steeped down the voltage. The low voltage is distributed from low tension panel. The bus-bars are used in RENATA limited to meet the continuous current rating and short circuit levels desired. The three phase vertical bus-bars provided are of high-conductivity, electrolytic grade copper as standard. These vertical droppers provided with round edges for ease of contact insertion. They are provided in an enclosed chamber which is located behind the feeder compartment.

The chamber is totally enclosed to prevent the entry of dust and vermin. The vertical bus-bars are accessible only after the removal of the feeder trolley and the front guard. The vertical bus-bars are free of bolts, holes etc. For connection and hence are maintenance free.FRP vertical bus-bar support are provided within the bus chamber at a distance of 100mm from each other.

Figure: Low Tension Panel


It is a board from which the power is distributed to the whole industry. The location of MDB is selected very carefully. It should be located in the dry place. The main distribution board LVMD is the central switch cabinet within a hospital. In it the basic network structure for the general supply (GS) and the safety power supply (SS) are established. Due to their great importance, there are strict requirements on the operational reliability and person and system protection. Accordingly, the system must be configured as a type-tested low-voltage switchgear and control gear assembly (TTA) according to DIN VDE 0660 Part 500, IEC 60439-1 and DIN EN 60439-1.

· The solution:

The main distribution boards consist of:

o Incoming/Outgoing feeders general supply (GS)

o Incoming/Outgoing feeders safety power supply (SS)

· Benefits:

o Modular design of distribution, function systems and devices

o Individual planning, project management and execution for every individual situation

o Arc-fault safe insulation between common rail space, device space and connection space

o High operational reliability, personal safety, and availability

o Construction upon request, type-tested according to DIN VDE 0660 Part 500, IEC 60439-1 and DIN EN 60439-1

o Secure separation between the systems (GS and SS)

Figure: Main Distribution Board

Power Source Generator


Figure: Flow Chart showing Power distribution from GENERATOR source.


Electricity generation is the process of generating electric energy from other forms of energy. For electric utilities, it is the first process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. The other processes, electricity transmission, distribution, and electrical power storage and recovery using pumped storage methods are normally carried out by the electric power industry.

In electricity generation, an electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. A generator forces electrons in the windings to flow through the external electrical circuit. It is somewhat analogous to a water pump, which creates a flow of water but does not create the water inside. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crank, compressed air or any other source of mechanical energy.

Before the connection between magnetism and electricity was discovered, electrostatic generators were invented that used electrostatic principles. These generated very high voltages and low currents. They operated by using moving electrically charged belts, plates and disks to carry charge to a high potential electrode. The charge was generated using either of two mechanisms:

o Electrostatic induction

o The triboelectric effect, where the contact between two insulators leaves them charged.

Because of their inefficiency and the difficulty of insulating machines producing very high voltages, electrostatic generators had low power ratings and were never used for generation of commercially significant quantities of electric power. The Wimshurst machine and Van de Graff generator are examples of these machines that have survived.

An engine-generator is the combination of an electrical generator and an engine (prime mover) mounted together to form a single piece of self-contained equipment. The engines used are usually piston engines, but gas turbines can also be used.

Synchronous Generators are the primary source of all electrical energy and commonly used to convert the mechanical power output of steam turbines, gas turbines, reciprocating engines, hydro turbines and wind turbines into electrical power for the grid. They are known as synchronous generators because they operate at synchronous speed, which is the same principle of operation as a synchronous motor. The speed of the rotor with a constant magnetic field always matches supply frequency of the stationary winding. The constant magnetic field of the rotor is produced by the persistent magnetic field of a rotor permanent magnet assembly or by controlling direct current to a rotor field winding (i.e., electromagnet) fed through a slip-ring assembly or a brushless means.

Two synchronous generators are used in RENATA Limited. They are combined with engine. Generators run by diesel fuel. It has 12 V-cylinder and cooling system is provided with a radiator

o The rotor is mounted on a shaft driven by mechanical prime mover

o A field winding (rotating or stationary) carries a DC current to produce a constant magnetic field.

o An AC voltage is induced in the 3- phase armature winding (stationary or rotating) to produce electrical power.

o The electrical frequency of the 3-phase output depends upon the mechanical speed and the number of poles

· Specifications of Synchronous Generator:

Manufacturer North Ireland/UK
Model P800
Serial No. GACL000390
Year of Manufacture 2001
Rated Power continuous: 800 KV

640 KW

0.8 cos?

Rated voltage 400/230 V
Phase 3
Rated frequency 50 Hz
Rated current 1154.7 A
Rated RPM 1500
Maximum Altitude 152.4 m
Maximum Ambient Temperature 27?C
Sensor PT100 (Thermal)


Circuit breaker is used as switchgear in this industry. The term switchgear, used in association with the electric power system, or grid, refers to the combination of electrical disconnects, fuses and/or circuit breakers used to isolate electrical equipment. Switchgear is used both to de-energize equipment to allow work to be done and to clear faults downstream. This type of equipment is important because it is directly linked to the reliability of the electricity supply.

The very earliest central power stations used simple open knife switches, mounted on insulating panels of marble or asbestos. Power levels and voltages rapidly escalated, making open manually-operated switches too dangerous to use for anything other than isolation of a de-energized circuit. Oil-filled equipment allowed arc energy to be contained and safely controlled.

By the early 20th century, a switchgear line-up would be a metal-enclosed structure with electrically-operated switching elements, using oil circuit breakers. Today, oil-filled equipment has largely been replaced by air-blast, vacuum, or SF6 equipment, allowing large currents and power levels to be safely controlled by automatic equipment incorporating digital controls, protection, metering and communications.

High voltage switchgear was invented at the end of the 19th century for operating motors and other electric machines. The technology has been improved over time and can be used with voltages up to 1,100 kV.

Typically, switchgear in substations is located on both the high voltage and the low voltage side of large power transformers. The switchgear located on the low voltage side of the transformers in distribution type substations, now are typically located in what is called a Power Distribution Center (PDC). Inside this building are typically smaller, medium-voltage (~15kV) circuit breakers feeding the distribution system. Also contained inside these Power Control Centers are various relays, meters, and other communication equipment allowing for intelligent control of the substation.

For industrial applications, a transformer and switchgear (Load Breaking Switch Fuse Unit) line-up may be combined in one housing, called a unitized substation or USS. Different switchgear equipments are given below

o Circuit breaker

o Isolator

o Earthing switch

o Lighting arrestor

o Current transformer

o Voltage transformer

· Functions

One of the basic functions of switchgear is protection, which is interruption of short-circuit and overload fault currents while maintaining service to unaffected circuits. Switchgear also provides isolation of circuits from power supplies. Switchgear is also used to enhance system availability by allowing more than one source to feed a load.

· Safety

To help ensure safe operation sequences of switchgear, trapped key interlocking provides predefined scenarios of operation. For example, if only one of two sources of supply are permitted to be connected at a given time, the interlock scheme may require that the first switch must be opened to release a key that will allow closing the second switch. Complex schemes are possible.

Indoor switchgear can also be type tested for internal arc containment. This test is important for user safety as modern switchgear is capable of switching large currents.

Switchgear is often inspected using thermal imaging to assess the state of the system and predict failures before they occur.

The working process of low tension panel and main distribution boards is same as previously discussed when the power source is DESCO


A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal. Wires are used to bear mechanical loads and to carry electricity and telecommunications signals. Wire is commonly formed by drawing the metal through a hole in a die or draw plate. Standard sizes are determined by various wire gauges. The term wire is also used more loosely to refer to a bundle of such strands, as in ‘multi-stranded wire’, which is more correctly termed a wire rope in mechanics, or a cable in electricity.

Although usually circular in cross-section, wire is also made in square or flattened rectangular cross-section, either for decorative purposes, or for technical purposes.

In industry cable size selection is the most essential task. If the material from which wires are made had zero resistance, then any size wire could carry any amount of current. Considering the formula of power



From equation (1) the current is determined. The value of ecal and length is obtained from cable selection chart. Using the value of current from equation (1) permissible voltage is calculated. The maximum allowable voltage drop is 5%. If the voltage drop is below or equal to 5% then the design is ok.


The daily energy consumption of this industry is approximately 1.6 MW. Energy consumption is dependent on the production capacity. The production process is continuous. So the monthly energy consumption is 48 MW.


The cost of electricity generated by different sources measures the cost of generating electricity including initial capital, return on investment, as well as the costs of continuous operation, fuel, and maintenance.

Source of energy Cost (lakhs)
Boiler (gas) 26
Generator (diesel) 12.5
Total = 64.5


Following steps can be taken to reduce the cost of energy:

· Bus-bar trunking system

Busbar trunking system (BBT) performs the function of transporting current form one point to the other. Traditionally cables were used for this function. BBT goes beyond what cables do. BBT can tap off power to switchgear for further distribution using tap of boxes. In comparison to cables, BBT can thus serve as distribution panels at different stages (at floors of a building). BBT thus continues as a single system to replace cables as well as distribution boards at floor level for building.

· Effective lighting

Many LED lamps can become available as replacements for screw-in incandescent or compact fluorescent light bulbs, ranging from low-power 5–40 watt incandescent bulbs, through conventional replacement bulbs for 60 watt incandescent bulbs (typically requiring about 7 watts of power), and as of 2010 a few lamps were available to replace higher wattage bulbs, e.g., a 16-watt LED bulb which is claimed to be as bright as a 150W halogen lamp. A standard general-purpose incandescent bulb emits light at an efficiency of about 14 to 17 lumens/W depending on its size and voltage. According to the European Union standard, an energy-efficient bulb that claims to be the equivalent of a 60W tungsten bulb must have a minimum light output of 806 lumens.

· Rearranging wire system

Heavy industries have more demanding wiring requirements, such as very large currents and higher voltages, frequent changes of equipment layout, corrosive, or wet or explosive atmospheres. In facilities that handle flammable gases or liquids, special rules may govern the installation and wiring of electrical equipment in hazardous areas.

UTILITY: Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning (HVAC)

In pharmaceutical manufacturing, how space condition impacts the product being made is of primary importance. HVAC systems assists in ensuring the manufacture of quality products and also results in operator comfort. HVAC systems design influences architectural layouts, with regard to items such as airlock positions, doorways and lobbies. International guidelines are available which are approved by various organizations in the respective field. Every pharmaceutical company must choose and strictly follow any of these guidelines. Being a pharmaceutical company itself, RENATA Ltd is no exception.


HVAC systems perform the following four basic functions.

· Control airborne particles, dust and micro-organisms: Of all the design goals, it is the quality of air, cleanliness of the space and prevention of contamination which are of utmost importance. Externally generated particulates are prevented from entering the clean space through the use of proper air filtration.

· Maintain room pressure (?P): Areas that must remain “cleaner” than surrounding areas must be kept under “positive” pressurization, meaning that air flow must be from “cleaner” area towards the adjoining space (through doors or other openings) to reduce the chance of airborne contamination. This is achieved by the HVAC system by providing more air into the “cleaner” space than is mechanically removed from the same space.

· Maintain space moisture (relative humidity): Humidity is controlled by cooling air to dew point temperatures or by using desiccant dehumidifiers. Humidity can affect the efficacy and stability of drugs and is sometimes important to effectively mould the tablets. While most of the areas could have a RH of 50 ± 5%, facilities designed for handling hygroscopic powders need to be at 30 ± 5%.

· Maintain space temperature (T): Temperature can affect production directly or indirectly by fostering the growth of microbial contaminants on workers. Yet this is the least critical parameter. Lower temperature may be required where workers are very heavily gowned and would be uncomfortable at “normal” conditions.


The design of HVAC systems should be considered at the concept design level. The efficacy of the system design is based on the proper consideration of the following factors:

· Building construction and layout design

· Defining the HVAC requirements system-wise and room-wise

o Cleanliness level

o Room temperature, relative humidity

o Room pressure

o Air flow pattern

· Cooling load and air flow compilation

· Selection of air flow pattern

· Pressurization of rooms

· Air handling system

· Duct system design and construction

· Selection, location and mounting of filtration system

· Defumigation required

· Commissioning, performance qualification and validation

· Testing and validation

· Documentation


The HVAC Utility in RENATA Ltd. is operated and maintained by the Engineering Department under Maintenance. It has an overall capacity of 700 tons and the whole HVAC utility is situated on the service floor (above production floor) except the cooling tower, which is placed on the roof of the general plant building.

· Guideline followed by RENATA ltd.: Currently RENATA Ltd. is following the ISO-14644 Cleanroom Classification Class 8 and BS 5295 for HVAC system design. The ISO 14644 Class 8 deals with the molecular contaminant restrictions. The ISO Classification of Cleanroom doesn’t include the operating condition