Merchantile Bank Limited
1.1 Background of Mercantile Bank Limited:
Mercantile Bank Limited was established in June 2, 1999 as a private commercial bank and started its operation. The then Prime minister Sheikh Hasina inaugurated the bank. The renowned 30 industrialists establish this bank with everybody’s consent Mr. Abdul Jalil elected as the chairman. Mercantile Bank Limited is a private commercial bank with Head Office at 61, Dilkusha C/A, Dhaka, Bangladesh started operation on 2nd June 1999. The Bank has 41 branches spread all over the country and introducing some braches. With assets of TK. 13078.93 million, the bank has diversified activities in retail banking, corporate banking and international trade.
Credit-Mercantile Bank is playing an important role while giving loan for the small and medium enterprises. In the terms of credit mercantile bank has introduced new schemes mostly for the business people in Bangladesh. Different categories of loan been provided to the businessman. The total amount of loan been provided was 26842.14 million BDT till 2006 its main investing projects are business, garments, micro credit, construction and others. Consumer Credit Scheme: Mercantile Bank has been providing loan to medium and low-income peoples. This policy has gained a great popularity among consumers.
1.2 Objectives of MBL
Mercantile Bank Limited (MBL) aims at excellence and is committed to explore a new horizon of banking and private a wide range of quality products and services comparable with those available with any modern bank in the world.
It is a bank for the common people including businessman and professionals. It intends to serve with quality at a price competitive to achieve in the financial market. It would constantly keep on exploring the needs of the clients. The management of the bank bears in mind the fact they are on the threshold of a new millennium, which will pose extra ordinary challenges to be faced and at the same time open up new opportunities and possibilities.
1.3 The Structure of MBL
The organization structure and corporate of Mercantile Bank Limited (MBL) strongly reflect its determination to establish, uphold and gain a stronger footing as an organization which is customer-oriented and transparent in its management.
Board of Directors
All routine matter beyond delegated powers of management are decided upon by or routed through the Executive Committee, subject to ratification by the Board of Directors.
All mater relating to the principles, policies, rules, and regulation, ethics etc. for operation and management of the bank are recommended by the Committee to the Board of Directors.
The management of the bank is vastly on a Board of Directors, for overall supervision and directions on policy matters by the board. The power of general supervision and control of the affairs of the bank is exercise by the president and managing director of the bank who is the chief executive officer. Above all, the bank will be manned and managed by a galaxy of talented professionals proficient in their individual fields and dedicated to the cause of the bank.
1.4 Divisions of MBL:
All policy formulations and subsequent executions are done in the Head Office. It comprises of nine major divisions namely Credit Division, International Division, Central Accounts Division, Human Resources Division, Information Technology Division, Marketing Division, Training Division, Research and Development Division, Audit and Compliance Division. Besides these main divisions, there are forty one branches all over the country to look after the Bank’s day-to-day operations. The structures and Sanctions of each of the divisions of MBL are described below:
The primary objective of this division is to evaluate the credit worthiness and debt payment capability of present loan customers and loan applicants. It is also responsible for keeping track of the credit portfolio by obtaining regular information from the branches. It sets prices for credits and ensures affecting it at the branches. This department also monitors the various loan accounts of the branches and prepares various statements for Bangladesh Bank.
Human Resources Division:
The employees are Mercantile Bank’s most valuable resource. Having competent and professional employees is becoming increasingly important in today’s competitive world, and MBL has a significant competitive advantage in this respect many of its employees have worked here since the BCCI area and therefore have vast experience in their respective fields. Also the new employees are recruited with sound academic background and given proper training after recruitment to groom up for their responsibilities. They plan to inculcate a high performance culture where the employees will work with fun and pride.
Audit and Compliance Division:
The main function of this division is to provide legal assistance to the branches and to ensure strict adherence of rules and policies by all concerned officials of the bank through routine and surprise inspection and audit.
Central Accounts Division:
Finance and Accounts division task is to maintain daily liquidity positions, treasury bills, call money, debentures, placement of funds etc. Monthly-accrued interest calculation of all interests bearing accounts, inter-branch calculation for Head Office, amortization of all fixed and other assets. It prepares statement of accounts and profit and loss account for the bank. Weekly deposit and advance analysis and Cost of fund analysis are the two major functions done by this department.
Information Technology Division:
Previously, Mercantile Bank had a very low level of automation. There was hardly any PC in the whole Bank before 2001. But when the new management took over in 2001, they gave huge emphasis on computerizing the bank’s operations. After 2 years, almost all the operations in the bank are now automated. The Bank is also shifting to a new IT platform, which aims at maintaining, operating and strengthening the technology base of the bank to enable error free production of information that ensures ongoing efficiency and profitability of operation, A world class banking software called Flex Cube has been installed which will centralize operations and provide Online Banking, Internet Banking, Automated Teller Machine, Telephone Banking, Point of sale dispenser, Credit Card facility etc. Last November, 05 Introduced New software called PC Bank 2000.
International Division is responsible for assisting the authorized branches to deal in foreign trades, that is, import and export businesses on account of the customers of the bank by giving approval for transactions and controlling them at various stages. It deals with all correspondents of foreign banks having arrangement with the bank. Every year new agents are added. The larger the number of correspondents and the wider the coverage area, the richer will be the international connections of the bank.
The main function of this division is to build relationship with the potential customers and strengthen the relationship with the existing customer. To inform and explain the potential customer about the facilities provided by the bank and searching for new area of business and collect information about the potential sector as well as to prepare strategy for getting competitive advantage.
Training and Development Division:
The main function of this division is to prepare the employee of the bank as competent and quality workforce. The function of this division is s follows:
- Arrange training and orientation program for the fresh bankers.
- Provide specific training program for the employee to make them more professional.
Research and Development Division:
Excellence in banking operation depends largely on a well-equipped and efficient Research and Development Division. Such activities require the investment of substantial money and a set of highly qualified personnel with multidisciplinary background. Although it is not possible at this stage to undertake R&D activities similar to those of the banks in the developed countries, Mercantile Bank has established a core Research and Planning Division comprising skilled persons from the very inception of the Bank.
2. CREDIT POLICY OF MBL
Mercantile Bank Ltd. is committed to provide high quality services to its constituents through different financial products and profitable utilization of fund and contribute to the growth of GDP of the country by financing trade and commerce, helping industrialization, boosting export, creating employment opportunities for the educated youth and encouraging micro-credit leading to poverty alleviation and improving the quality of life of the people and thereby contributing to the overall socio-economic development of the country.
With a view to achieving the aforesaid objectives of the bank, Credit operation is of paramount importance as the greatest share of the total revenue of the bank is generated from it. The success of a bank, therefore, depends on how efficiently and judiciously it makes use of its available resources. In other words, prudent and efficient management of its credit portfolio is very essential for the success of a bank. The Credit Policy of any banking institution is a combination of certain accepted, time tested standards and other dynamic factors dictated by the realities of changing situations in different market places.
In formulating a credit judgment and making QUALITY Credit Decision, the lending officer must be equipped with all information needed to evaluate a borrower’s character, management competence, capacity, ability to provide collaterals and external conditions which may affect his ability in meeting financial obligations.
The Credit Policy has been divided into the following categories:
a) Policy Guidelines.
b) Organizational Structure and Responsibilities.
c) Procedural Guidelines.
2.1 Policy Guidelines:
The Credit Policy guidelines of the Bank describes details fundamental credit risk management policies, outlines general principles that are designed to govern the implementation of more detailed lending procedures and credit risk analysis/risk grading system.
2.1.1 Lending Principles:
For sound lending inter-alia the following points should be kept in view:
Judicious selection of Customers
iii. Source of repayment
iv. Security & Liquidity
vi. Supervision & Diversity
vii. National/Social interest
Viii Bangladesh Bank guidelines
It should be remembered that selection of the appropriate borrowers, proper follow-up and end-use supervision through constant follow-up and monitoring are the cornerstone for timely recovery. These guidelines will be updated annually. Before selecting a customer / client and subsequent recommendation for financing, the Credit Officer / Relationship Manager must observe the following basics of lending:
2.1.2 Industry and Business Segment Focus:
As a general practice Mercantile Bank Limited definitely concentrates its business in Trade Finance / Export – Import business and all types of Commercial Loan, Industrial / Project Finance / Syndication and structured Finance / SME Financing and other specialized programs except otherwise restricted by the Government or indicated as unethical and banned items.
The Bank gives emphasis to diversify its business portfolio commensurate with economic and business trend, life cycle of the products, demand supply gap, social and national obligation etc. The Bank’s policies for financing in different major sectors are summarized as follows:
|1||Textile / Spinning/ Sweater/ Knitting/ Denims & Garments||To expand|
|3||Construction / Real estate / House building||To expand|
|6||Information Technology (IT) Project||To expand|
|7||Agro-based Industry||To expand|
|8||Hospital / Clinic / School / College / University||Selective basis|
|9||Healthcare / Pharmaceuticals / Medicine||Selective basis|
|10||Electrical / Electronic appliance||To expand|
|11||Finance to NBFI||Selective basis|
|12||Special Program: Consumer Credit Scheme, SME Financing Scheme, Doctor’s Credit Scheme, Woman Entrepreneurs Development Project, Personal Loan Scheme, Small Loan Scheme, Lease Finance Scheme, Earnest Money Financing Scheme, Car Loan, HBL (General) / Mortgage Loan, Employees House Building Scheme, ATM, VISA Credit Card, EEF, etc.||To expand|
|13||Plastic / Packaging||Selective basis|
|15||Steel and Engineering||To expand|
|16||Edible oil||To expand|
|17||Scrap Vessel||Restricted way|
|18||Paper / Pulp / Partex||To expand|
|20||Others||Based on merit|
SOURCE: Adapted from Mr. Fakruzzaman Chowdhury
The Bank’s policy is to handle the specialized business sectors / segments by setting up separate units in Head Office Credit Division. In view of this, Bank has already set up the following units in Head office Credit Division:
· Syndication and Structured Finance
· Project Finance
· Garments Sector
· Specialized Schemes such as Consumer Credit Scheme, Doctor’s Credit Scheme, Woman Entrepreneurs Development Project, Personal Loan Scheme, Small Loan Scheme, Lease Finance Scheme, Earnest Money Financing Scheme, Employees House Building Scheme, Car Loan, HBL (General) / Mortgage Loan, ATM, VISA Credit Card, EEF, etc.
The Policies for the above specialized segments / sectors have been / to be circulated to all concerns from time to time.
2.1.3 Discouraged business types:
The Bank will discourage lending to following areas of business:
§ Military Equipment/Weapons Finance & Tobacco sector
§ Companies listed on CIB black list or known defaulters
§ Highly Leveraged Transactions & Finance of Speculative Investments
§ Logging, Mineral Extraction/Mining or other activity that is Ethically or Environmentally Sensitive
§ Counterparties in countries subject to UN sanctions.
§ Share Lending (Not more than 60% of share value of last 6 (six) months market average or maximum 35 lac whichever is lower or as per guidelines of Bangladesh Bank)
§ Taking an Equity Stake in Borrowers (except under Islamic Banking Operation)
§ Bridge Loans relying on equity/debt issuance as a source of repayment.
§ Lending to Holding Companies.
2.1.4 Loan Facility Parameters:
The Loan facility parameters for the Bank have been set as under:
§ The Bank in general will approve / renew trade finance facility for the period of 01 (one) year from the date of approval / last expiry date.
§ The Bank will extend medium term loan for 3(three) years period.
§ The Bank will extend long term loan for maximum period of 7 (seven) year including grace period of 6(six) months to 18(eighteen) months.
§ House Building Loan to Bank’s employee shall be governed as per policy guidelines of “Employees House Building Loan” scheme.
§ The rate of Interest / Commission / Charges / Fees etc. would be as per the approved schedule of charges with variation permissible as per Bangladesh Bank guidelines and with the approval of competent authority.
§ The interest rate to be charged and to be paid out on quarterly basis except the especial schemes and unless otherwise specified in the approved terms.
§ Repayment of term loan would be fixed preferably on monthly/quarterly basis.
§ In general, the cash margin for L/C would be 10% of the L/C amount or on the basis of Banker – Customer relationship subject to the minimum requirement of Bangladesh Bank whichever is higher.
§ For the import of Capital machinery, the cash margin for L/C would be 25% – 30% or on the basis of Banker – Customer relationship subject to the minimum requirement of Bangladesh Bank whichever is higher.
§ Any exception, as mentioned above, would be specifically approved by the competent authority of the Bank.
§ Valuation of the landed property / Building / Machinery / Stock of Raw materials / finished products shall be done by the Bank’s enlisted professional surveyors duly checked by the Bank officials.
§ The value of the mortgage property shall be preferably double of the facility to be extended depending upon other security coverage.
The security condition may be relaxed depending upon the Credit worthiness of the customer / Banker-Customer relationship / potentiality of the business of the client.
Any exemptions of the parameters mentioned above are subject to be approved by the competent authority as per delegated power approved by the Board of Directors
2.1.5 Credit Assessment And Risk Grading:
All financial activities involve a certain degree of risk and particularly, the financial institutions of the modern era are engaged in various complex financial activities requiring them to put proper attention to every detail.
A thorough Credit and Risk assessment shall be conducted for all types of credit proposals. The results of this assessment to be presented in the approved Credit Appraisal Form that originates from the Credit Officer / Relationship Manager (RM) and is to be approved by the Credit Committee / Executive Committee of the Board of Directors / Board of Directors. The Credit Officers / RM are the owner of the customer relationship and must be held responsible to ensure the accuracy of the entire credit application / proposal submitted for approval. The Credit Officer / RMs must be familiar with Bank’s Lending Guidelines and should conduct due diligence on new borrowers, principals and guarantors in line with policy guidelines.
Credit Appraisal should summarize the results of Credit Officers / RMs risks assessment and includes, as a minimum, the following details:
§ Amount and type of loan(s) proposed
§ Purpose of Loan(s)
§ Results of Financial analysis
§ Loan structure (Tenor, Covenants, Repayment schedule, Interest)
§ Security Arrangements
§ KYC concept
Risk Management / Credit Risk Evaluation / Assessment – Lending Decision:
A comprehensive and accurate appraisal of the risk in every credit proposal of the Bank is mandatory. No proposal can be put on place before approving authority unless there has been a complete analysis. In order to safeguard Bank’s interest over the entire period of the advance, a comprehensive view of the capital, capacity, integrity of the borrower, adequacy, nature of security, compliance with all regulatory /legal formalities, condition of all documentation and finally a continuos and constant supervision on the account are called for. While making lending decisions, particular attention shall be given to the analysis of credit proposals received from heavily leveraged companies and those dealing in non-essential consumer goods, taking special care about their debt servicing abilities.
Emphasis shall be given on the following several credit principles:
§ Present and future business potentiality for optimum deployment of Bank’s fund to increase return on assets
§ Preference for self liquidating QUALITY business
§ Avoiding marginal performers.
§ Risk depression is basic to sound credit principles and policies. Bank shall be careful about large and undue concentration of credit to industry, one obligor and common product line etc.
Basics of Credit Risk:
The following risk areas shall be considered for analyzing a credit proposal.
§ Borrower Analysis (Management/Ownership/Corporate Structure Risk)
§ Industry Analysis (Business and Industry Risk)
§ Supplier/Buyer Analysis/Market Risk
§ Adherence to Lending Guidelines
§ Interest Rate Risk
§ Foreign Exchange Risk
§ Cost overrun Risk & Mitigating Factors
§ Loan Structure & Security
Risk grading is a key measurement of a Bank’s asset quality and as such, it is essential that grading is a robust process. All facilities should be assigned a risk grade.
Presently the Bank is following/conducting the Lending Risk Analysis to assess the risk grade. The concerned Credit Officer / RM must clearly indicate the risk grade (as per the finding) in the specific column of credit appraisal form so that the authority can take decision on the matter. A standard Risk Grading Matrix is depicted as under based on the Risk Grade Scorecard attached as an Appendix-1.2.
|1||Facilities are fully secured by cash deposits, government bonds or a counter guarantee from a top tier International Banks / Local Banks. All security documentation’s are in place and in order.|
|2||The repayment capacity of the borrower is strong. The borrower should have excellent liquidity and low leverage. The company must demonstrate consistently strong earning and cash flow and have an unblemished track record. All security documents are in place. Aggregate Score of 95 or greater based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.|
|3||Adequate financial condition though may not be able to sustain any major or continued setbacks. These borrowers are not as strong as Grade 2 borrowers, but should still demonstrate consistent earning, cash flow and have a good track record. A borrower should not be graded better than 3 if realistic audited financial statements are not received. These assets would normally be secured by acceptable collateral (1st charge over stocks/debtors/equipment/property). Borrowers should have adequate liquidity, cash flow and earnings. An Aggregate Score of 75-94 based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.|
|4||Grade 4 assets warrant greater attention due to conditions affecting the borrower, the industry or the economic environment. These borrowers have an above average risk due to strained liquidity, higher than normal leverage, thin cash flow and/or inconsistent earnings. Facilities should be downgraded to 4 if the borrower incurs a loss, loan payments routinely fall past due, account conduct is poor, or other untoward factors are present. An Aggregate Score of 65-74 based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.|
|Special Mention||5||Grade 5 assets potential weaknesses that deserves management’s close attention. If left uncorrected, these weaknesses may result in a deterioration of the repayment prospects of the borrower. Facilities should be downgraded to 5 if sustained deterioration in financial condition is noted (Consecutive losses, negative net worth, excessive leverage), if loan payments remain past due for 90 days or more, or if a significant petition or claim is lodged against the borrower. Full repayment of facilities is still expected and interest can still be taken into profits. An Aggregate Score of 55-64 based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.|
|Substandard||6||Financial condition is weak and capacity or inclination to repay is in doubt. These weaknesses jeopardize the full settlement of loans. Loans should be downgraded to 6 if loan payments remain past due for 180 days or more but less than 270 days, if the customer intends to create a lender group for debt restructuring purposes, the operation has ceased trading or any indication suggesting the winding up or closure of the borrower is discovered. Not yet considered non-performing as the correction of the deficiencies may result in an improved condition and interest can still be taken into profits. An Aggregate Score of 45-54 based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.|
|7||Full repayment of principal and interest is unlikely and the possibility of loss is extremely high. However, due to specifically identifiable pending factors, such as litigation, liquidation procedures or capital injection, the assets are not yet classified as Loss. Assets should be downgraded to 7 if loan payments remain past due for 270 days or more but less than 360 days and interest income should be taken into suspense (non-accrual). Loan loss provisions must be raised against the estimated unrealizable amount of all facilities. The adequacy of provisions must be reviewed at least quarterly on all non-performing loans and the bank should pursue legal options to enforce security to obtain repayment or negotiate an appropriate loan rescheduling. In all cases, the requirements of Bangladesh Bank in CIB reporting, loan rescheduling and provisioning must be followed. An Aggregate Score of 35 – 44 based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.|
|Bad and Loss
|8||Assets graded 8 are long outstanding with no progress in obtaining repayment (in excess of 360 days past due) or in the late stages of wind up/liquidation. The prospect of recovery is poor and legal options have been pursued. The proceeds expected from the liquidation or realization of security may be awaited. The continuance of the loan as a bankable asset is not warranted and the anticipated loss should have been provided for. This classification reflects that it is not practical or desirable to defer writing off this basically worthless asset even though partial recovery may be affected in the future. Bangladesh Bank guidelines for timely write off of bad loans must be adhered to. An Aggregate Score of 35 or less based on the Risk Grade Scorecard.|
SOURCE: Adapted from the Database of MBL
2.1.6 Approval Authority:
§ Mercantile Bank Ltd. believes in decentralization of powers. With a view to ensuring prompt and efficient services to its multitude of clients spread far and wide, the Bank envisages delegation of optimum powers to its Executives and Officials at different levels of operations. .
§ The Bank intends to make it crystal clear to all concerned that the powers are delegated to serve the greater interest of the institution.
§ The credit approval function has been separated from the marketing/relationship management function.
§ All credit risks must be authorized by executives within the authority limit delegated to them.
§ Any credit proposal that does not comply with Lending Guidelines, regardless of amount, has to be referred to Head Office for Approval.
§ Any breaches of lending authority to be reported to Managing Director & CEO, Head of Internal Control and Head of CRM.
Time Requirement for Approval of Credit Proposals:
§ At Branch level : Branch Authority as per their business delegation must take decision within maximum of 3 – 7 days
§ At Head Office level : The Head Office Credit Committee(HOCC)/ Executive Committee of the Board of Directors/Board of Directors shall take decision within maximum of :
Ø 5 – 7 days for simple type of facility
Ø 15 – 30 days for Project Loan
Ø 30 – 60 days for Loans under Syndication / Club Finance etc.
§ Sanction letter to be issued within 1 – 2 days time from the date of approval.
§ In case of Large Loan, it must be reported to Bangladesh Bank.
§ In case of the specific loans like Director’s loan, prior approval from Bangladesh Bank to be obtained as per requirements / guidelines of Bangladesh Bank.
2.2 Organizational Structure and Responsibilities:
The appropriate organizational structure must be in place to support the adoption of policies described in Chapter-I of these guidelines. The key feature is the segregation of the Marketing / Relationship Management function from Approval / Risk Management / Administrative Functions.
2.2.1 Organizational Structure:
The following chart represents the management structure:
2.2.2 Key Responsibilities:
There are various responsibilities that done by various concerned. The key responsibilities that have been vested upon them as follows:
A) Head of Credit Risk Management :
§ Oversight of the Bank’s credit policies, procedures and controls relating to all credit risks arising from corporate/commercial/institutional banking and treasury operations.
§ Oversight of the Bank’s asset quality & Ensure that the lending executives have adequate experience and / or training in order to carry out job duties effectively
B) Head of Credit :
§ Promote strong asset quality.
§ Updating the Bank’s lending guidelines/credit policies as and when required but at least annually.
§ Ensure credit recommendations/approvals are taken in a timely manner & Ensure compliance with internal policies and external regulatory requirements.
§ Provide input/advice to the MD & CEO/Board of Directors regarding the formulation of strategic operating plans.
C) Head of Credit Administration Division (CAD) :
§ Ensure loan documentation and securities are duly completed and in place prior to disbursement of loans.
§ Ensure compliance with all formalities regarding large loans and loans to Directors as per Directives of Bangladesh Bank Circulars & rules and regulations of Banking Companies Act.
§ Ensure that adequate insurance is in place on all pledged assets, all approval conditions have been met and exceptions, if any, are approved prior to disbursement of loans.
2.3 Procedural Guidelines:
This chapter outlines the main procedures that are needed to ensure compliance with the policies contained in chapter 1 of these guidelines.
2.3.1 Approval Process:
The concerned Executive at Zonal Office on receipt of the proposal will prepare a credit appraisal memo as per the prescribed format and within the purview of the set policy and then place it to Zonal Head who will make Judgment (qualitative and quantitative) and if found viable then he will approve the facility, if it is within his business delegated power otherwise he may reject it or forward it to the Head of Corporate / Commercial Banking at Head Office along with his recommendations.
Figure 2.2: Flow Chart of Approval Process
SOURCE: Adapted from MBL database
2.3.2 Delegation of Power:
Delegation of approval of Credit facilities shall be as per policy guidelines that all proposals where credit facility/facilities are upto 15% of the Bank’s Capital shall be approved by CRM level, facilities upto 25% of the Capital shall be approved by the Managing Director and CEO subject to the limit approved by the Board of Directors. Credit facilities in excess of 25% of the Bank’s Capital shall be approved by the Executive Committee of the Board of Director or Board of Directors on recommendation of CRM, Corporate Banking and Managing Director & CEO. While exercising the business delegation powers, the following general guidelines shall be followed meticulously:
- The Managing Director can exercise all the powers vested in other Executives/Officers of the Bank.
- Other than the Managing Director, the Delegation of Powers shall be exercised by the Additional Managing Director / Deputy Managing Director / Executives/Officers only to whom such schedule of powers is issued by a separate letter by or under the order of the Managing Director as approved by the Board/Committee.
- The Managing Director may suspend exercise of delegated Powers of any Executive/Officer or any category of Executive/Officer through specific or general order with the prior approval of the Board/Committee.
- Delegated Powers may be reduced, suspended or withdrawn at the discretion of the Board of Directors /Committee.
2.3. 3 Sanctioning Authority:
The business powers can be exercised by the following when posted as under:
Additional Managing Director/Deputy Managing Director shall exercise business power delegated to them. Senior Executive Vice President / Executive Vice President / Senior Vice President whenever posted as In-charge of Credit Division shall exercise business power delegated to them. The Managing Director is however, authorized to allow composite credit facilities within the delegation as per delegation allowed for individual nature of loan. But Composite limit (funded and non-funded) so allowed shall not exceed Tk 10 crore, out of which under no circumstances funded facility shall exceed Tk. 5 crore.
Disbursements under loan facilities are made when all security documentation is in place. CIB report should reflect/include the name of all the lenders with facility, limit and outstanding. All formalities regarding large loans and loans to Directors are guided by Bangladesh Bank circulars and related section of Banking Companies Act. All Credit Approval terms must be met. The check list certificate is to be signed by Credit In-charge and Head of Branch. In order to cope with the revised policy, the disbursement authority will be vested to the Head of Credit Administration Division up to Tk. 5.00 Core above which will be vested to the Deputy Managing Director. In the absence of the Deputy Managing Director, the power may be exercised by the Senior Executive Vice President.
2.3.5 Legal Action:
Legal proceeding are lengthy and time consuming as well as having an element of negative publicity and as such effort must made to settle a defaulter’s outstanding out of court. However, if situation compels the Bank to take legal action for recovery of stuck up loans and advances; the same shall be done with prior approval of Head Office.
2.3.6 Write Off Of Loans / Advances:
Loans / advances which are recommended for write-off must be accompanied by a memo summarizing the circumstances necessitating the current write-off as well as recovery efforts to date. Under no circumstances should the fact that all or any portion of a loan / advances that has been written-off be revealed to the borrower, nor should the borrower be informed that the loan / advances is on a non-accrual basis. Despite, the loans and advances being written-off, the recovery process will be continued for those loan and advances.
3. CREDIT PRACTICES OF MBL
3.1 Extent & Restrictions
It is applied to all the Branches of Mercantile Bank Limited in Bangladesh. Extension of Credit facilities are subject to Credit Policy of the Bank and credit restrictions, margin restrictions, stipulations regarding security, period of repayment and other instructions and restrictions imposed from time to time in this respect by Head Office, Bangladesh Bank rules and regulations and overall Government policy of Bangladesh.
3.2 Credit Department & its Function
The Credit Risk Management Department is assisted by the Credit Administration Department, which is mainly concerned with the post-approval functions of the Credit Division. The aspects that are critically tracked and monitored by Credit Admin are
§ Credit expiry
§ Past dues
§ Excess over limit
§ Document deficiency
Credit Division is involved in basically 2 broad functions:
The important aspects of this part are:
- Follow approval terms
- Proper loan disbursement
- Monitor interest payments and principal repayment
- Balance with general ledger
The important functions of this part are:
§ Look at sanction terms and Fill up loan documentation checklist,
§ Ensure Proper loan documentation and Obtain client sign off
§ Filing with the Registered Joint Stock Corporation ( RJSC)
§ Registered mortgage deed execution
3.3 Business Powers:
All powers of the Bank are vested in the Board. They are the source of all powers, and any person or body can exercise only the powers delegated by the Board in ways and manners specified by them. Mercantile Bank Ltd. believes in decentralization of powers. With a view to ensuring prompt and efficient services to its magnitude of clients spread far and wide, the Bank envisaged delegation of optimum powers to its Executives and officials at different level of operations.
§ The Board can delegate the authority, not its responsibility.
§ The evil of dual Subordination may creep in the chain of command if authority is not well defined and properly implemented.
§ Exercise of the delegated authority must commensurate with the shouldering of the responsibility.
§ Head Office is responsible for formulating Credit Policy for the Bank, for the proper conduct of the advances in the Branches and for the system of control over them. Head office delegate business powers of Branch-in-charges, devise method of forwarding credit proposals to Head Office for sanction and instructions regarding submission of periodical returns.
§ Branch-in-Charges are primarily responsible for all advances at their Branches. They must exercise common sense, wisdom, prudence and judiciousness in the use of powers delegated to them and in recommending proposals to Head Office for sanction. In all cases, they must ensure that Bank’s interests are fully safeguarded..
3.4 Processing of Credit Proposals:
§ A secured credit facility may be allowed to a customer only after getting a limit sanctioned by the authorized officials.
§ The customer seeking a credit facility against acceptable security must make an application in bank’s printed form “Request for Credit Limit” PF-146 (Annexure-l) enclosing necessary papers/documents to his nearest Branch of the Bank where he maintains his operative account.
§ Arranging an interview with the intending borrower to know on the following points: Present and future prospect of the customer’s business
1. Before finally selecting the borrower, bank is satisfied that ;
§ The customer possesses character, capacity and capital & The account is remunerative one & Repayment arrangement is satisfactory.
§ Dealing items and primary security of the customer possess the quality of easy marketability, durability and storability
§ Collateral security offered possesses the quality of easy marketability and is not encumbered and its valuation is judiciously assessed so as to leave sufficient margin after covering the advance and belongs preferably to the borrower.
§ Means, standing and respectability of the applicant and the guarantor (if any) are satisfactory.
§ Credit worthiness of the applicant is reasonable
§ Location of the business is good.
The following Papers/documents are to be submitted by the Branch Managers along with the proposals:
a) Request for Credit limit of customers -PF-146 (Annexure-l)
b) Project Profile / Profile of Business
c) Copy of Trade License duly attested
d) Copy of TIN Certificate
e) Certified copy of Memorandum and Articles of Association, Certificate of Incorporation, Certificate of commencement of business, Resolution of Board of Director, Partnership Deed, (where applicable)
f) Personal Net worth Statement of the Owner/Director/Partner/Proprietor in Bank’s Format.
g) Valuation Certificate in Bank’s Format along with photograph of collateral security with detail particulars on the back duly authenticated by the Branch Manager.
h) 3 years Balance sheet and profit and loss A/C
i) CIB Enquiry Form duly filled in (For proposal of Tk.10.00 lac and above)
j) Lending Risk Analysis for Credit facilities of Tk.50.00 lac and above
k) Inspection/Visit Report of Factory/Establishment/Business premises of the customer-Annexure-5
l) Statement of NC (CD/SB/CC) for the last 12 months. In case the customer maintaining account with other Bank, Statement of Account for the last 12 months of the concerned Bank should be furnished.
m) In case of renewal/enhancement of credit facility, Debit Turnover, Credit Turnover, highest drawing, lowest drawing, and Total income earned detailed position of existing liabilities of the customer i.e. Date of sanction, Date of expiry, Present outstanding, Remarks, if any.
n) Declaration of the customer of the name of sister/allied concerns and liabilities with other Banks, if any, and an undertaking to the effect that they have no liability beyond those declared-Annexure-6
o) In case of UC proposal, detailed performance of L/C during the last year i.e. No. and date of L/C opened, commodity, L/C value, Date of creation of PAD, date of retirement, mode of retirement etc.
p) In case of BTB UC proposal-
q) Detailed list of machinery, production capacity, working capital (BTB UC) assessment, existing export UC in hand mentioning date of shipment, detailed position of outstanding BTB L/C/Accepted Bills, progress of production and expected date of shipment, statement of outstanding FDBP/IDBP, if any, Quota Position, Inspection Report, Copy of valid Bonded Ware House License, Customs Clearance or dispute, if any.
r) Whether the applicant is Shareholder/Director of Mercantile Bank Ltd. as per definition of Banking Companies Act.
s) Financial Analysis to be prepared by the Branch Manager based on the financial performance of the company & should shows trends in sales/profitability, liquidity, leverage etc. It should also contain an assessment of the competence and quality of the business management, the general economic & competitive environment of the borrowers industry and any other pertinent factors which is relevant for our credit decision.
t) Justification/consideration for the facility.
2. The sanctioning authority on receipt of the proposal shall scrutinize the same and ensure that:
§ All necessary papers and documents have been enclosed.
§ The proposal has been duly signed by the members of the Branch Credit Committee including the Manager.
§ The proposal has been duly recommended.
§ The proposal does not fall within the existing credit restriction
§ Minimum margin requirement against the credit facility has been proposed.
§ The primary security has got easy marketability, durability and storability
§ The property offered as collateral security is judiciously assessed
§ The proposal is viable and stands all credit tests
§ The proposed borrower is not defaulter (classified) of any Bank/Financial Institution
§ There is no request from other Bank/Financial institution for not allowing/stoppage of facility to the proposed borrower.
§ Where the proposed accommodation in the form of working capital may be considered on the project financed by any other Bank including DFI, favorable status report and No Objection Certificate (NOC) from the financing Institution is obtained.
§ Where 2nd charge on the fixed and floating assets (in case of a limited company) or 2nd mortgage on real estate is offered, clearance in respect of creation of 2nd charge on the property together with confirmation that documents will be held by them on behalf of the Bank and that they shall not part with the same without consent of the Bank, is obtained from the 1 is mortgagee.
3. Check list of action to be taken by the Branch Manager/Second Officer/Credit Officer before disbursement of Credit facilities
§ Acceptance of customers to be obtained of the terms & conditions on the duplicate copy of sanction advice.
§ They will thoroughly examine and ensure that the subject credit facility does not contradict to any law, rules and regulation of the country, Bangladesh Bank and our Bank.
§ They will obtain NOC from Bank where the customer has existing liability.
§ CIB Report on the borrower through Head Office.
§ Lending Risk Analysis as per FSRP Formula in case of credit of Tk.50 lac and above.
§ No objection certificate of Bangladesh Bank in case the credit facility exceeds 15% of Capital Funds of the Bank.
§ Regularization/Adjustment of classified/overdue credit of the customer/their sister/allied concerns with our Bank/other Banks, if any.
4. Rules of sanctioning loans:
§ Sanction advice will be communicated by Head Office to the Branches and by the Branches to the customers under Double signatures authorized by the Bank.
§ No Executives/Officers shall exceed prescribed limit of delegated business powers under any circumstances.
§ Valuation of goods/produces/hypothecated to the Bank to secure any advance shall in no case exceed. The landed cost at the port of entry is assessed by the custom authority in case of imported goods.
§ Goods and produces against which advances are made should be readily marketable.
§ Loans & Advances allowed against FDRs, PSPs, MBDRs, and DBDRs etc. shall be adjusted immediately before the face value of the instruments and outstanding advance amount becomes equal or upon maturity, whichever is earlier.
§ In case of advance against mortgage of property, original Title Deed and chain of documents i. e. C. S Parcha, R. S. Khatian, Mutation Certificate, Non-encumbrance Certificate, Municipal Tax Receipt, Approved plan, Rent Receipt (Upto date) etc. should be checked by a paneled lawyer or by the Bank’s Law Officer..
§ Money suit/court cases against any defaulting borrower are to be filed by the branches after obtaining prior approval from Head Office.
3.5 Credit Categories:
As initiated by Bangladesh Bank different kinds of lending were subdivided into 11 categories, and again to 7 prime sectors for fixation of rates of interest by the individual banks on competitive basis depending on the cost of funds, prevailing market condition and monetary policy of the country.
Loans and advances have primarily been divided into two major groups:
a) Fixed term loan: These are the advances made by the Bank with fixed repayment
Schedules. The terms of loan are defined as follows:
Short term : Up to 12 months
Medium term : More than 12 and up to 36 months
Long term : More than 36 months
b) Continuous credits: These are the advances having no fixed repayment schedule, but have an expiry date at which it is renewable on satisfactory performance.
Further all categories of loans have been accommodated under the 7 prime sectors as under as:
Credit facilities to the agricultural sector falls under this category .It is subdivided into two major heads:
a) Loans to primary producers: This sector of agricultural financing refers to the credit facilities allowed to production units engaged in farming, fishing, forestry or livestock. Loans to processors or traders of agricultural products are not to be categorized as agricultural loans.
Loans to tea gardens for production are treated as agricultural loan, but loans to tea gardens for export should be treated under the category “Export Credit”. Similarly medium and long term loans to tea gardens are categorized as industrial term lending.
b) Loans to input dealers/distributors: It refers to the financing allowed to input dealers and (or) distributors in the agricultural sector. Agricultural loans may include short, medium and long term loans as well as continuing credits. As such, it may fall under the head. (a) Loans (General), (b) Hire Purchase or (c) Lease Financing.
c) Rural & Micro credit: The bank will provide rural credit through rural branches and other rural institutions engaged in rural up liftment through credit delivery. Small loan particularly micro credits will be extended without collateral security through proper supervision and monitoring. Individual supervising agency may be appointed for supervising such micro credits.
3.5.2 Term Loan for Large & Medium Scale Industry:
This category of advances accommodate the medium and long term financing for capital structure formation of new Industries or for BMRE of the existing units who are engaged in manufacturing goods and services. Term financing to tea gardens may also be included in this category depending on the nature and size.
As the financing under this category has fixed repayment schedule it falls under the head
Loan (General), Hire purchase or Lease Finance.
3.5.3 Term Loans to Small & Cottage Industries:
These are the medium. and long term loans allowed to small & cottage industries Small Industries are presently defined as those establishments whose total investment in fixed capital such as land, building, machinery and equipment (excluding taxes and duties) does not exceed 30 million taka and investment in machinery and equipment (excluding taxes and duties) does not exceed 10 million taka. Cottage industries also fall within this definition.
Bangladesh Bank gives interest subsidy @3% to the Banks on loans extended under this category. No short term or continuing credits are to be included in this category. Medium & Long term weaver credits are also included under this category .Like the Large & Medium Scale Industry it is also allowed in the form of “Loan (Gen), Hire-Purchase or Lease Financing”.
3.5.4 Working Capital:
Loans allowed to the manufacturing units to meet their working capital requirements, irrespective of their size -big, medium or small, fall under the category. These are usually continuing credits and as such fall under the head “Cash Credit (Hypothecation)
3.5.5 Export Credit:
Credit facilities allowed to facilitate export of all items against Letter of Credit /and/or confirmed export orders fall under this category. It is accommodated under the heads “Export Cash Credit (ECC)”, Packing Credit (PC), Foreign Documentary Bills Purchased (FDBP), Local Export Bills Purchased etc.
3.5.6 Commercial Lending:
Short term lo