Personal Information Management on World Wide Web
The World Wide Web as a global, interactive, dynamic, cross-platform, distributed, Graphical hypertext information system. The inventions of the internet and application of those technologies through the World Wide Web have revolutionaries the world of communication. It is now being used to education, business, research, administration and other fields, and has now encompassed all possible areas connected with each other.
Our concern and work diversified in every possible way that came before us. We were committed as best as we could to the quality maintenance and tried our best to make a professional robust system, we adopted the case study of real time data and mentioned it as secondary approach. For the implementation phase we followed the same approach.
Our designing and implementation phase were entirely superimposed by the proper interaction between existing systems and chronically tested with several demo and beta versions we hat exhibited many new features as we confronted anomalies with existing system. These efforts were entirely committed to maintain a professional standard of a system. Our best piece mind is sustained through the project.
1.0 Project brief
Project work help to increase ability of work and expand knowledge in respective field. Only text book can not satisfy thirst for knowledge. real life project makes a student effective and efficient. as a student of ISTT we have to carry out a project. selection of project work depends on student.we have decided to carry out a web based project on education sector.the abstracted project will be personal information management.
1.1 Reason for selecting this project
Personal information management (PIM) refers to both the practice and the study of the activities people perform in order to acquire, organize, maintain, retrieve and use information items such as documents (paper-based and digital), web pages and email messages for everyday use to complete tasks (work-related and not) and fulfill a person’s various roles (as parent, employee, friend, member of community, etc.). One ideal of PIM is that we always have the right information in the right place, in the right form, and of sufficient completeness and quality to meet our current need. Technologies and tools such as personal information managers help us spend less time with time-consuming and error-prone activities of PIM (such as looking for information). We then have more time to make creative, intelligent use of the information at hand in order to get things done or, simply, to enjoy the information itself.
For many people, this ideal seems far away. There are a bewildering number of tools available for managing personal information. But these tools can become a part of the problem leading to “information fragmentation”. Different devices and applications often come with their separate ways of storing and organizing information.
Interest in the study of PIM has increased in recent years. One goal in the study of PIM is to identify ways to introduce new tool support without, inadvertently, increasing the complexity of a person’s information management challenge. The study of PIM means understanding better how people manage information across tools and over time. It is not enough simply to study, for example, e-mail use in isolation. A related point is that the value of a new tool must be assessed over time and in a broader context of a person’s various PIM activities.
· To make visit pages to user more efficient.
· To introduce and connect people with the World Wide Web.
· To reduce the time and cost.
· Human interface will be minimized and thus more accuracy can be obtained.
· To keep personal information more secured.
2.0 Initial study
Initial study is carried out to collect information on working and activities as to know the problems so that the same may be solved which will speak about the importance of the project.
2.1 Investigation and information collection
We visit some office who wants to make this kind of project .all the senior officers of the office were found extremely busy with their work and most of them could not make time to talk us. Some of them allowed us to have formal discussion and invited us to visit them on a future date during off season. We also visit a lot of web sites to collect information how to make our project. the exam consultant of ISTT took the great interest in us.he inspired us to make this project.
2.2 Proposed solution
To reduce cost and to be more competitive in the world web, a web site is to be developed solving all possible problems and the same be launched.
Initial study has been carried out through investigation and information collection to know current method of working, usage of IT components and identification of problem so that new technology in the communication field may be selected and adopted to solve problems.
3.0 Feasibility study
A feasibility study is a comprehensive analysis of all aspects of proposed web site. It is a detailed and through study of the marketing, technical, organizational and financial information, as well as a careful examination of supply, personnel and risk considerations. The information is compiled to assure the entrepreneur that no problem will prevent the project becoming successful.
To be feasible the project is considered justified on the following grounds:
· Economic(cost and benefits)
3.1 Economic Feasibility
Cost can be broken down into three basic categories-
· One off costs
· On-going costs
· Intangible costs
22.214.171.124 One–off cost
One-off costs may be capital cost and revenue cost. One-off capital costs are as follows:
|Hardware purchase-computer,printer,peripherals etc.||35,000.00|
|Software purchase-php, MYSQL||0.00|
|Accommodation costs- to house computer and equipment||1000.00|
|Auxiliary equipment- desks, security system,etc||5000.00|
|Initial stock of consumables-paper, disk, etc||1000.00|
126.96.36.199 On-going running costs
On going running costs include the following:
|Renewal of hosting fee||4000.00|
|Operating staff salaries and overheads||5000.00|
|On-going training recruitment costs||500.00|
|Stationary and other consumable items||250.00|
|Depreciation of purchased capital items||500.00|
|Maintenance of hardware, software and other equipment||1500.00|
|Cost of security and backup arrangements||250.00|
|Financing costs, e.g. the interest paid on the capital employed.||2000.00|
188.8.131.52 Intangible costs
Intangible costs are other costs that cannot be quantified. These costs are:
· Staff dissatisfaction and dysfunctional behaviors may occur when any new system is developed.
· The learning curve .the staffs responsible for running the system need to become familiar with the way that the system operates. During the learning curve, staffs are likely to be slower and to make a greater number of mistakes the usual.
· Opportunity costs. Whenever money is invested in one area of the institute, the opportunity to invest in another is automatically foregone.
· Lock in costs. If the organization chooses to concentrate on a specific supplier or technology, the benefits and cost saving accruing from shopping around are lost.
· Incompatibility between other system operating within the organization and the new system will cost money. the old system may need to be replaced or a special data file conversion facility in.
Each system is unique in the benefits it offers. Better information and competitive advantage have improved the image of the project. Cost savings under the proposed system compared to the direct and indirect benefits of the proposed wed site.
184.108.40.206 Indirect benefits
The benefits stated below could not be quantified:
· Better and more in informed decision –making
· Improved exam systems, resulting in an increase in teacher and student satisfaction.
· Human interface error will be minimized.
3.2 Technological feasibility
Any organization has the technological ability to cope with the requirements of the project within the allocated budget. The hardware and software are capable of dealing with signification degradation in the existing systems required in response time without signification degradation in the existing systems. There is enough money available to upgrade the current facilities. It is possible to acquire the hardware and software.
3.3 Operational feasibility
The project fits in with the way that any organization runs its current system and plans to runs its (exam) system in the future. It is capable of providing each user with required information in a timely manner.
3.4 Social feasibility
The web site compatible with the social organization of any (institute),and the (institute) is sufficient sophisticated to be able to deal with the complexity of the proposed web site. It dose not threaten industrial and personnel relations and motivation and conflict with the corporate ethos and way of doing business. Necessary members of staff are to be recruited in the organization to offer high level of skill and experience to scope with the complexity of the project.
3.5 Disadvantage of Web Site
* Initial cost of implementation of this web site is moderately high.
* Web site based directly on Internet. The Internet provides various opportunities for hackers, crackers and competitors who may attempt to gain access to internal system via the web server.
* Information stored in the wed site is altered, considerable damage to reputations may
stored in the web site is altered, considerable damage to reputations may result to the
* Destroyed web site can provide a useful staring point to attack other system.
* Earlier version of main stream browser that are being used have serious bug or error To make system vulnerable.
* The risk from viruses is as strong as ever, despite the tools of the web site that are available to detect and remove them.
Feasibility study has been made to evaluate the technical, operational. Social and economic aspects describe and categorize the benefits and cost .Different investment appraisal techniques have been applied to determine the economic viability of the proposed project. It exhibits the opportunities and challengers and it appears from the analysis that advantages outweigh the disadvantage that can also be controlled and the (institute) will be more efficient by using the web site.
4.0 Requirement Analysis
The aim of analysis the requirements is to be produces an accurate requirements specification for a project. Initial study and feasibility study, carried out earlier, throw some light. But those are inadequate and haphazard. As such current systems in operation are to be watched to gain extra data about the current operation are to be watched to gain extra data about the current operation are to be watched to gain extra data about the current operation are to be watched gain extra data about the current operation and develop a logical structure of the project. Dataflow diagrams show how data are maintained in a system, how the system interacts with the outside world. Requirement analysis is to be carried out on the basis of user, technical, legal and it components requirements.
4.2 Technical and Legal Requirements
The system should be so designed as to ensure that the continue to work efficiently that they comply with relevant legislation and to check that they are safeguarded from threats such as virus and hackers. The requirements are listed below:
· Data protection facilities
· Security data transmission facilities
· Protection facilities against logical and physical threats
· Password facilities
· Logical access system
· Protection facilities against hacker and cracker
· Also protection facilities against hacker and cracker
4.3 Hardware requirements
Since the company is well quipped with IT components, it requires to buy only one PC with other network devices and peripherals that will be used to develop the web site. This computer will also acts as server to control other PCs that are connected with the LAN.
The repaired configuration of the components is gives below:
|Processor||Intel Pentium/AMD processor(more than 500MHZ)|
|RAM||256 MB or more|
|LAN||Any 10/100 mbps|
|Hard Disk||40 GB|
|Floppy disk drive||1.44 MB|
|Monitor||Any colour monitor|
|Keyboard||Any 104 keyboard|
|HUB/Switch||Any 10/100 mbps|
4.4 Software requirements
Stated below the required software and their usage:
|Name of software items||Usage|
|Any version of Linux or Windows operation system||To start up computer and coordinate all hardware components, application and customized software and control other PCs that are linked within the network.|
|IIS(for windows only) or apache web server||To provide the web service for the project.|
|PHP 4 or later versions.||For Server side scripting.|
|MYSQL Database server||The database server.|
|*MS Office or Open(it is an integrated software, some kinds of software that are required to develop the web site are integrated with this)||Note pad and Text pad are used to write HTML and java script code|
|* Antivirus software if using windows operating system(with latest update)||To protect data from virus attack|
Requirement analysis under the heads requirement, technical and legal requirements, hardware and software requirements are include within the system. It focuses on the business processes that are taking place and how these requirements can be fulfilled more efficiently to accomplish the project.
5.0 System Design
System design provides an explanation of the design features for the human computer interface and the different reports that are produced by a system. Providing a good clear design is important to help users communicate with the system and to help them to understand the out puts being received. The system should be so designed as be able to run the system effectively and to interact with the world around it. It receives data in web form. It and to interact with the world around it. It sends the processed results to the user. It sore data in database file for later use.
Narrated below is structured system analysis and design (SSADM), adopted as standard for all British government projects from 1980. It represents a data oriented approach to systems development and is based on a three fold view of the system:
· data as modeled with entity relationship modes
· function, as modeled with data flow diagram
· events, as modeled with entity life histories
First one was described in previous page the second and the third are described below under logical system specification and physical design:
5.1 Logical systems specifications
A list of technical option drawn up as new hardware’s needed. After that the online functions are expanded so that the dialogues can be designed for the user interface. The logical processing for all inquiries and updated are designed below:
5.2 Data Flow Diagrams
Data flow diagrams (DFDs) are graphical representations of how data are moving through the system. Data flow diagrams are split up into a series of levels. The top level gives a general definition of how the data flow, and each further level gibes a more and more derailed description of the system. DFDs therefore use a top=down structured approach to understand system needs. Data flow diagrams use fewer symbols then flowcharts although there are a number of different symbol-sets in use today. The notation used by structured system analysis and design (SSADM) is very popular.
System design is carried out the help users to communicate with the web site and to understand how the output will be useful to them. Data flow diagrams an flowcharts were designed to analyze the logical activities. Then the logical data structure is converted into physical data design to achieve the objective of the project.
6.0 Introduction to Database
Database design is most important part to store data of a company into computer. Here we have designed a database that store the student information and question database of an institute. for designing the database we use MYSQL at the back end.
6.1 Database Knowledge
Database systems are designed to manage large boodles of information. The database system must provide for the safety of the information stored, despite, system crashes or attempts at unauthorized access. If data are to be shared among several users, the system must avoid possible anomalous results.
Database management system (DBMS) is a collection of interrelated data and a set of programs designed and developed to access those data. The collection of data is usually referred to as the DATABASE. A database contains information about one particular enterprise (a specific area of operation an environment so that retrieval of data from the database and storage of data into the database can be accomplished in a convenient and efficient manner).
6.1.1 Table / Entity
To represent this information one can use DBMS modeling, in a DBMS a group or similar information or data which is of data which is of interest to an organization is called Entity. Entity information is stored in an object called Table. The table must have a name via which it can be referred to another its creation. Each entity can have a number of characteristics. A client can have characteristics on an entity are called attributes. The values for these characteristics are called attributes values. Multiple fields placed in horizontal plane, is called a Recorded or Row or Tuple.
A Super key is a set of one or more attributers that, taken collectively, allows us to identify uniquely an entity in the entity set.
The concept of a super key is not sufficient for our purpose, since, as we saw, a super key may contain extraneous attributes, if is a supper key, then so any superset of key. We are often interested in super keys for which no proper subset is a super set key. Such minimal super keys are called candidate keys.
Use the term primary key to denote a candidate key that is chosen by the database designer as the principal means of identifying entities with in an entity set, rather than of the individual entities.
We can use a given set of functional dependencies in designing a relational database in which most of the undesirable properties (Repetition of information Inability to represent certain information) do not occur. When design such systems, it may become necessary to decompose a relation into several smaller relations. Using functional dependencies, we can define several normal forms that represent “good” database design. There are many normal forms. The ones that we shall cover here are BCNF and 3NF. sql,-structured query Language: Standard Query Language or SQL is the de facto language standard for relational database management system. Almost all RDBMS systems support SQL and in most of times it is the only mechanism through which they are accessed. SQL is powerful language tool for querying, updating and managing relational database.
SQL as a language is different from other common languages in the sense that while other common language are procedural and/or object oriented, SQL is a non-procedural language it means that in SQL , never define the way jobs are to be done. We just define what we want to do and it is the job of RDBMS to be done. Define what people want to do and it is the job of RDBMS to do the job for us. To accomplish the task every RDBMS server has an SQL engine, which takes input from user in SQL language syntax and performs the directed job.
The Create Table Command
CREATE TABLE table name
(Columnname datatye (size), columnname datatype (size));
Insertion of data into Tables:
INSERT INTO table name (columnname, columnaname) VALUES (expression, expression);
All Rows and All Columns:
Global data extract:
SELECT (columnname1……………………..columnname n) FROM tablename;
SELECT* FROM tablename;
Selected Rows and All Columns:
SELECT* FROM table name; WHERE search condition
Selected Rows and Selected Columns:
SELECT (columnname, columnname) FROM tablename
WHERE search condition;
Database pim1: [root@localhost:3306]
Table name: email
|tum||tum||——————-||how are you||Mon, 10 Dec 2007 19:01:54 0600 ||
|abc||abc||subject||how are you||Mon, 10 Dec 2007 19:19:09 +0600 ||
|abc||abc||——————-||how are you||Mon, 10 Dec 2007 19:20:13 +0600 ||
|nahid||nahid||ddddddddddddddddd |||————————–+||Mon, 10 Dec 2007 19:01:54 +0600 ||
|s||s||aaaaaaaaaaaa||message |||Mon, 10 Dec 2007 19:19:09 +0600 ||
|s||s||dddddddddd||————————–+||Mon, 10 Dec 2007 19:20:13 +0600 ||
|s||S||s||dkfjd |||Mon, 10 Dec 2007 19:20:38 +0600 ||
|sam||sam||s||how are you\? |||Mon, 10 Dec 2007 19:24:09 +0600 ||
||nahid|||nahid||s||gfgf |||Mon, 10 Dec 2007 19:25:07 +0600 ||
|b||b||jdflkds||fasdfads |||Tue, 11 Dec 2007 02:14:41 +0600 ||
|fa||fa||jfkldsa||fasdfads |||Tue, 11 Dec 2007 02:16:26 +0600 ||
|fa||fa||a||fasdfads |||Tue, 11 Dec 2007 02:17:52 +0600 ||
|fa||fa||fasfd||fasdfads |||Tue, 11 Dec 2007 02:18:26 +0600 ||
Database pim1: [root@localhost:3306]
Table name: links
Database pim1: [root@localhost:3306]
Table name: new entry
7.0 Software level specification
PHP, Apache, and MySQL are all part of the open source group of software programs. The open source movement is a collaboration of some of the finest minds in computer programming. By allowing the open exchange of information, programmers from all over the world contribute to make a truly powerful and efficient piece of software available to everyone. Through the contributions of many people to the publicly available source code, bugs get fixed, improvements are made, and a good software program becomes a great one over time
7.1 Why using PHP
· A low smooth learning curve.
· Broad functionality for database,strings,network connectivity, file system support ,java,COM,XML,COBRA,WDDX.
· Platform compatibility with UNIX ,WIN 32(NT/95/98/2000),MacOS,OSX.
· Server compatibility for Apache module(UNIX<WIN32),CGI/Fast CGI,thttpd,fhttpd,phttpd,ISAPI(IIS<Zeus),NSAPI(Netscape iplanet).
· A rapid development cycle. New version with bug fixes, additional functionality, and other improvements are released every few months.
· A variant and supportive community. Code examples and free code abound. the php group has done an excellent job of providing new users with resources and support.
· Easy extensibility. We can easily roll out our own extensions to the language.
7.2 Why using MySQL
Now a day, the success or failure of a website doesn’t depend entirely on the attractiveness of the webpage. The content of information that your web page provide also determines the success of failure of your site. This is the reason why a majority of organizations want dynamic web pages. The use of java and DHTML may facilitate the creation of dynamic WebPages, but using dynamic content in these webpage’s is a different issue. With the rapid growth of the internet, more and more users are visiting web sites. These users expect the web sites to always have the latest information.
If the users do not find the latest information on a site, they normally do not return to the site.therefore, constant updating of the web site required. The question that arises is who is responsible for changing the content of the web site. The responsibility can rest neither with the people who provide the content for the website nor with the developers who create the HTML web page.
7.3 page view
Testind is an integral part of the system development process.the main standard for software testing is contained in the ANSI/IEEE standard 8291983-standard for software testing documentation.some software testing may also be performed by CAST (Computer Aided software Testing).the whole website must be tested and the result documented.it is not only the software that is evaluated during the system testing process, it is also important to test operating procedures,etc.
8.1 Unit test
Each page of the web site is tested to ensure that the detailed design is correctly implemented. it has been carried out to ensure that each part of the system works as per requirements.
8.2 Integration test
A hierarchical method is used to check the integration of the pages within the website.it is viewed that it is possible for the user to navigate to and from the pages of the web site.
8.3 System test
System testing has been carried out prior to installation and it is observed that the system works according to requirements and there is no problem.
8.4 Implementation test
The above tests were also carried out at the time of system development and implementation(online testing).the live operation performed all the operations as per requirements. the users of the system are involved at the last stage to ensure that the system is usable for them.
8.5 Usability test
Usability tests were carried out by the users. These verify that the system provides the required business functionality and correctly products the expected business information.
Necessary tests were carried out to ensure that system of the web site is error free and all operation processor work as per requirement. The stages of testing also correspond to the website development. Problem of illogical data, unclear field, inconsistent movement and performance were detected, tackled and eliminated through different tests.
The implementation of a new system can take place to determine the success of the system. Implementation stages of a system of a system provide user confidence. These procedures have been designed so that most problems can confidence. These procedures have been designed so that most problems can be managed. The tasks involved in implementation process are given below:
- Premises are to be allocated to establishment of new system.
- Necessary hardware and software components are to be arranged.
- Members of the staff are to train up to operate the new system.
- A writing instruction manual is to be furnished to operate the system.
- Production of a complete set of systems documentation is needed.
- Method of changed over is to be planned
- Overall system is also to be tested.
Even after the system have been implemented, systems will need to be modified and adopted to make sure that the continue to satisfy user needs. The process of modifying existing systems is termed system maintenance. It is essential that maintenance is strictly controlled and effectively carried out. Maintenance can be defined, as the redoing of certain aspects of the systems development process, which implies that documentation and control procedure, should be as carefully carried out as in the initial development of the system.
10.1 Types of system maintenance
Systems maintenance is often put into four basic categories:
- Corrective maintenance
- Perfective maintenance
- Adaptive maintenance
- Preventive maintenance
10.1.1 Corrective maintenance
The elimination of bugs from a system is termed corrective maintenance. Although most of the faults in the system should be identified and eliminated during the testing process problems may be revealed during the operation of the system.
10.1.2 Perfective maintenance
Perfective maintenance is carried out to improve efficiency or effective. It may be prompted by the availability of new technology, the development of new techniques, or by a request for system enhancement from the user.
10.1.3 Adaptive maintenance
Adaptive maintenance enables a system to adjust to changes in its environment. User information needs change; organization structure may be altered, legislative changes may impose new obligation on the software.
10.1.4 Preventive maintenance
Preventive maintenance is carried out in advance of problem occurring, to reduce the risk of problem. It is same as having a care regularly serviced in order to reduce the risk of breakdowns. In theory, more preventive maintenance means less corrective maintenance. This is good because preventive maintenance can be carried out at a time most convenient to the organization, where corrective maintenance always seems to required during the busiest periods
10.1.5 Other forms of maintenance
Sometime system updates do not fit neatly into the categories that have been defined. The errors caused by incorrect procedure may need perfective maintenance to avoid recurrence, as well as corrective maintenance to eliminate their effect. The change require making a system user-friendlier, many also require the system to be adapted.
10.2 Maintaining computer systems
The systems must make sure that set-up will work well in practice. All aspects of the system must be considered, not only how the programs link together and data is stored, but also that the physical security is appropriate.
10.3 Security Procedures
The design of the system will also involve the specification of operating procedures, these must take into account the need to protect all of the threats in the fields.
Systems have to be maintained in order to continue working efficiency and effectively.
Describe above the reasons for different types of maintenance and how appropriate support can be provided to user to help them use the systems correctly
11.0 Limitations and Future plan
Time construct did not allow designing and developing the web site according to requirements of the logical view. It is possible with availability of necessary time.
Inadequate information did not allow us to structure the whole system necessary to over come the all the problems of the Group. In future we cherish a desire to dig further to structure a site with more facilities and information to be of more use to the user.
* Unavailable information could not be designed.
* Scope for online fund transfer has not been included in the web site.
* Hit counter is not added in this web site. So it is not possible to determine how many
Users visit this web site.
11.2 Future plan
*Total information abut all faculties will be collected and the site will be designed to
to meet the requirements of the group.
*Necessary facilities will be included so that anyone cane know the status of the
. Course and about a particular student using this web site
*Hit counter function will be added in this web site, so that it becomes possible to determine how many users visit this web site
The web site, designed, developed, launched and implemented, will be of great use to the company in saving time, energy and money result ion in higher profitability. If get time and work further on this project, lunch a more developed and more useful web site that will cover solutions to all problems.