Selecting Human Resources

Selecting Human Resources

Chapter Outline

•      The Selection Process

•      Basic Selection Criteria

•      Popular Selection Techniques

•      Selection Technique Reliability

•      The Selection Decision

•      Legal Issues in Selection

•      Evaluating Selection Activities

Chapter Objectives

•      Describe the steps in and responsibilities for the selection process in organizations.

•      Identify and summarize basic selection criteria that organizations use in hiring new employees.

•      Discuss popular selection techniques that organizations use to hire new employees.

Chapter Objectives (cont’d)

•      Discuss reliability and validity and note the importance of multiple predictors.

•      Discuss the selection decision itself.

•      Identify and summarize the basic legal issues in selection.

•      Discuss the importance to an organization of evaluating its selection activities.

The Selection Process

•      Is concerned with identifying the best candidate or candidates for jobs from among the pool of qualified applicants developed during the recruiting process

Steps in the Selection Process

Selection Errors

•      False positives

–  Applicants who are predicted to be successful and are hired but who ultimately fail

•      False negatives

–  Applicants who are predicted to fail and are not hired, but if they had been hired, they would have been successful

Selection Errors

Responsibilities for Selection

•      Responsibilities are shared by HR managers and operating managers.

•      HR managers design the selection system.

•      The HR department may screen out individuals who do not meet the criteria for the job opening.

•      Operating managers make subjective assessments about applicants’ qualifications.

•      Operating employees and potential colleagues may play a role.

Basic Selection Criteria

•      Education

–  The formal classroom training an individual has received in public or private schools and in a college, university, and/or technical school

•      Experience

–  The amount of time the individual has spent working, either in a general capacity or in a particular field of study

Basic Selection Criteria (cont’d)

•      Skills and abilities

–  The specific qualifications and capabilities of an individual to perform a specific job

Basic Selection Criteria (cont’d)

•      Personal characteristics

–  Big five personality traits

•   More behavioral than cognitive or emotional

•   Likely to be more important for job performance than are more traditional personality traits

•   Neuroticism

•   Extraversion

•   Openness to experience

•   Agreeableness

•   Conscientiousness

Basic Selection Criteria (cont’d)

•      Hiring for “fit”

–  Rather than hiring someone who is a good fit for a specific job, an organization might hire someone who is a good fit for the larger organization

–  Skills and abilities can be taught on the job; hiring someone based on personal characteristics, values, etc., may be more important

A Sample Selection System

Popular Selection Techniques

•      Employment application

–  Asks individuals for various bits of information pertaining to their personal background

–  Questions must relate to an individual’s ability to do the job

Popular Selection Techniques (cont’d)

•      Weighted application blank

–  Relies on the determination of numerical indices to indicate the relative importance of various personal factors for predicting a person’s ability to perform a job effectively

Popular Selection Techniques (cont’d)

•      Employment test

–  Device for measuring the characteristics of an individual

•   Personality

•   Intelligence

•   Aptitude

Popular Selection Techniques (cont’d)

•      Work simulations (or work samples)

–  Asking the prospective employee to perform tasks that simulate the work for which the person is being considered

–  In-baskets

•   Special forms of work simulations for prospective managers that consist of collections of hypothetical memos, letters, and notes that require responses

Popular Selection Techniques (cont’d)

•      Personal interviews

–  Face-to face conversations between prospective job applicants and representatives of the organization.

Interview Errors

•      First impression error

–  Making a decision early in the interview process

•      Contrast error

–  The interviewer is unduly influenced by other people who have been interviewed

•      Similarity error

–  The interviewer is unduly influenced because the interviewee is similar to the interviewer in one or more important ways

Interview Errors (cont’d)

•      Nonrelevancy error

–  The interviewer may be inappropriately influenced by an applicant’s posture, dress, or appearance

•      Inappropriate interviewer

–  The interviewer may know little about the job so is unable to appropriately assess the applicant

Popular Selection Techniques (cont’d)

•      References and recommendations

–  The applicant provides letters of recommendation or the names and addresses of individuals who may be contacted

–  Are often of little value

–  Growing concern about legal liability in the preparation of recommendation letters

Popular Selection Techniques (cont’d)

•      Physical examinations

–  Few organizations require physical exams of all applicants; they may ask only those finalists who are most likely to receive a job offer

–  A related type of physical examination is drug testing

Popular Selection Techniques (cont’d)

•      Assessment center

–  An approach to selecting managers based on measuring and evaluating their ability to perform critical work behaviors

–  Are costly

Selection Technique
Reliability and Validity

•      Reliability

–  The consistency of a particular selection device

•      Validity

–  The extent to which a measure is a real reflection of what it is assumed to measure

•      Single verses multiple predictor approaches

–  Since no single technique is perfectly reliable and valid, multiple techniques are often used

The Selection Decision

•      Banding

–  Creating clusters of job applicants who do not differ substantially from one another

–  Allows an organization to select an applicant from an underrepresented group in the organization while still ensuring high performance standards

•      The screening process

–  A series of decisions, each resulting in some candidates being eliminated and others being kept for continued consideration

Legal Issues in Selection

•      An organization faces the greatest legal liability in discrimination in selection.

•      It is critical that the HR manager understand the process of validating a selection instrument and carrying out the process in all cases.

Evaluating Selection Activities

•      Utility analysis

–  An attempt to determine the extent to which a selection system provides real benefit to the organization

–  An organization must consider the cost of the selection system and the cost of a selection error