- Loui Rhey C. Irang
- Problem Identification
In order to truly understand the development of the policy, problem should be identified. In the setting of policy analysis, the idea of problem definition has long been introduced as the most critical and demanding task fronting the experts. The ÂÅ½ first concern of problem definition is acknowledgement that problems do not exist in the workplace. The second concern suggests that definitions of problems in the setting of practice must meet the standards of feasibility and worth for improvement thus policy analysis is explained as identifying and shaping problems worth solving.
Agenda setting considers policy change as a way to policymakers changing their inclination based on observation and needs of improvement and policies to be discontinued also are observed from time to time. Political model tend to discuss policy development as the product of changes in the arrangement of main interests. It states that somewhat the implied understanding that policy improvements are the product of the combination between power and ideas and adapting their objective to new circumstances. Learning is part of the policy making process in a way that policy assessment follows implementation and leads to correction and termination.
- Policy formation
The definitive policy that is selected to resolve a certain issue at hand is reliant on two influences. First, the policy must be a legal way of solving the certain issues in the most effective and feasible way probable. Efficient formulation involves investigation and identification of alternative ways to solving issues. Secondly, policies need to be politically feasible so in other words policy should be plausible. Acceptable formulation must come in a political part that involves the approval of policies by genuine decision makers. This is typically accomplished through standard building in a negotiating or bargaining process. Policy formulation therefore is, composed of investigation that recognizes the most acceptable and effective policies and political agreement.
After formulation of policies, it should have to be adopted by significant organisations of government in directive to be put it into effect. Adoption can be influenced by the similar issues that affect what factors move into the earlier point of agenda building. For example, policies that address the improved situations crises often carried on and can often be adopted immediately. Temporarily, influential interest organisations can use their political impact to regulate what policies are to be adopted.
The media also plays an important key role in adaption of policy. When journalism and reporting are balanced, it can deliver an opportunity where discussion over numerous cases for policy adoption comes into place. When the media shows a favourable preference, it can improve a policy proposal’s chance of adoption. And on the other hand, an unfavourable media preference may weaken a policy proposal.
- Policy Implementation
The next step after putting policy adoption into effect is the implementation of the policy. Effective implementation is dependent on three elements:
First, policies must be approved by the government and local government officials to the proper assistance within the government administration. Therefore, a policy intended to impose traffic safety by limiting on the quantity of drunk drivers would be first submitted to law enforcement officials for approval then for implementation. If there is no present agency that has the abilities to carry out a certain policy, new agencies must be recognized and operated.
The second element vital to efficient implementation of policy is a clear interpretation. Legislative objective must be expounded into operational rules and guidelines. Vagueness in this period can lead to participation by the judiciary that will lead the legislators to explain their conclusions and worth for policy implementation. Judiciary may override the policies’ implementation where legislative commitment cannot be effectively rendered into appropriate operating guidelines and rules
The final element required in effective implementation of policy is difficult to accomplish. The commitment of resources under the first element must be combined with coordination of the policy to implement the policy with on-going operations. A new edge or agency must not cause extreme competition or disagreement with current agencies.
Policy implementation should be on great deal of direction to avoid further complication when policies are being submitted to the agencies. Policy formulation is frequently the result of cooperation and representative use of politics. Implementation executes a large amount of both decision and confusion in initiatives or agencies that implement policies. Bureaucracy should be competent enough to help in the policy implementation process.
- Policy Evaluation
The last policy process is policy evaluation. Policy evaluation can happen at different times. Organisation Administrators pursuing to develop operations may assess policies as they are in implementation. Policies can be further evaluated to understand their overall effectiveness after policies have been implemented.
There are many ways policies may be evaluated but they can be often not evaluated at all. Scientific and formal research consume a lot of time, costly and complicated to design and to implement. Policy evaluation also tends to be contaminated with unfairness unlike more informal evaluations concentrated on stories and feedbacks are more manageable.
As a healthcare professional I might advocate to influence policies with regards to workplace culture. Workplace culture is centred on the shared attitudes and values including belief towards work outlooks within the organisation and business. It is important to give respect to organisation and workforce culture. It is vital to develop a workplace culture that redirects organisation’s own values as the administrator or business owner. It is why in this case hiring the right staff is such an important element in the on-going success of the business. Setting out clear lines of communication is important as you introduce policies to the business or organisation, it is significant to set out a plan for communication ensuring each new policy is presented and introduced to the workforce in the similar way. It’s also significant to take note that communication comes in two ways as both the owner and the management workforce should encourage the staffs to share their input to the process. Best ideas sometimes come from staff who usually facing customers
Government and professional organisation
As number of aged people is constantly increasing in the country, it is important for the Government to allocate enough funding to healthcare facilities that will address needs in the Aged care. As a healthcare professional, I will advocate these needs through convincing professional organisation for the Aged, who are recognized by the government, to promote this advocacy to the government. Professional organisations for aged care may have the proficient knowledge of the issue in promoting the idea of government funding as their organisation or group is related to the healthcare promotion trying to rise. They can direct the point right way to the legislators.
Volunteering in a local community can be tempting to think that national policy creates slight difference to what people do. As a healthcare professional, I would like to advocate to the homicides connecting mental disability. It is safe to the country to be free from discrimination and crime rates. In terms of discrimination, mentally ill individuals should have fair and therapeutic way of treatment. In terms of crime rate, government should implement strict policy in thorough assessment of mentally ill individuals. Further research in diagnosing, assessing and treating should be done. In this case, mentally ill individual will not be released in the mental health services if not properly rehabilitated and treated. Follow-up observation after discharge should be included in the policy. In this case, crime rates relating mental illness will decrease.
Garbage can model
The garbage can model, talking about the uncharted field of organizational chaos which is categorized by problematic preference, technology that is not clear and fluid participation, tried to develop organizational decision theory. The theoretical development of the garbage can model is it disconnects organisational problems, decision makers and solutions from each other, unlike the traditional decision theory. Definite decisions do not entail a methodical process from problem to resolution, but are results of numerous reasonably independent streams of measures within the organization.
Political Bargaining model
The political bargaining model sees organisations as screaming and alive political arenas that involve a multifaceted variety of entities and interest groups. An organisation is considered as an association of dissimilar interest, it sees the organisation as having conflicting and multiple goals which change as the balance of changes in power. In this system, decisions and outcomes are the product of the bargaining behaviour. Interest groups and individuals come in into bargaining circumstances in a way to affect decision making and goals in the system. Bargaining is continued as long as they believe that they will get benefit from resuming on participating in the process. Individuals not need to settle on values and goals. Bargaining is only they agreed on.
Structured Decision Making is an organized method to recognizing and assessing resourceful options and building selections in complex decision circumstances. SDM is planned to bring understanding to decision or judgment makers about how well their goal and objectives may be contented by probable substitute courses of action. It more focuses and helps find ‘win-win’ resolutions across groups, illuminates the complicated interchanges that are present and may exist between different potential sequences of action and aids to communicate how individuals perspective on these various options.
Key Ideas includes Structured Decision Making uses laborious methods established in the decision and healthcare sciences. Structured Decision Making is predominantly useful for decisions concerning the combination of technical investigation with value-based discussions. Structured Decision Making has been amended for spot decisions and is accommodating for assisting multiple disciplinary stakeholder involvement and technical planning.
The unstructured decisions are the unexpected and non-programmed decisions that are happening for the first time for example, dealing with a labour strike in the company. At the other finale of the range are unstructured decisions. Unstructured decision may have the same mechanisms as structured decision components like process, data, and evaluation. There is little agreement on their nature. Unstructured decisions, for instance, each decision maker may use dissimilar processes and data to grasp an assumption. The organization qualified to evaluate the decision may only have a limited number of people because of the nature of the decision.
It is therefore concluded that unstructured decisions are prepared through instances in which all components of the organisation’s business environment customer, competitor response expectations, cost of obtaining raw materials and others are not totally assumed. Unstructured decision systems usually focus on the persons who or the group that will mark the decision and judgement. These decision makers are typically trusted with decisions that are unstructured because of their expertise and experience; it is their distinct ability that is of worth.
Chosen substitute that influence significant factors which conclude the achievement of an organization’s decision strategy. To compare it, a strategic decision influence the daily implementation of steps required to reach the goals of a strategy.
Strategic decisions are those which influence the long term presentation of the business and which are directly related to its purposes and objectives. They are commonly taken at the uppermost levels of management and bring higher levels of risk. The advantage However, effective strategic decisions bring high levels of reward.
Operational decisions happen and take place on a day to day basis and are made in perspective or view of the risk to the organisation business. More often these decisions are in nature administrative in a way and can be done and implemented rapidly and tend to bring tiny risk. Talking about an organisation that all employees at different level yield and do operational decisions daily, an instance might be when to arrange and re-order a specific thing of stock and another could be to define number of how many operative staff will be compulsory to complete a certain task.
Operational administrative decisions scale may be small, but are however still important selections that individuals have to make to achieve their roles. As other employees are working in an open culture, where there is also discussion of information and communal trust, they sense empowerment to take and do decisions. This sense and feeling of empowerment mean that the organisation paybacks from speed nature of decision or judgement. Open lines of communication inspire coming in and free flow of accurate and reliable information. These things lead to better together, learned decision-making at all levels.
- Boundless. “Policy Formulation.” Boundless Political Science. Boundless, 03 Jul. 2014. Retrieved 18 Nov. 2014 from https://www.boundless.com/political-science/textbooks/boundless-political-science-textbook/domestic-policy-15/policy-making-process-95/policy-formulation-514-6174/