The Basics of Information Systems

The Basics of Information Systems

Purpose of Information Systems

•      Information systems

–  Collects, stores and organizes information

–  Retrieves value from data

–  Harness many types of data

–  Computer’s reason for existence

Purpose of Information Systems

•      Components of an information system

–  Physical means of storing information

–  Procedures for ensuring data integrity

–  Rules regarding data use and distribution

–  Means of distributing the data

–  Tools to organize the data

Types of Information Systems

•      Office automation systems

–  Performs various office tasks

–  Allows users to efficiently handle data

–  Tedious tasks become simple

–  Built using off-the-shelf systems

–  Allow seamless integration of data

Types of Information Systems

•      Transaction processing systems (TPS)

–  Transaction is a complete event

•   Completed in a series of steps

–  Tracks and processes transactions

–  Each step is monitored

•   Details sent to the appropriate person

–  Errors must be remedied immediately

Types of Information Systems

•      Management information systems (MIS)

–  Tools for managers and decision makers

–  Organizes and evaluates information

–  Summarizes reports based on need

•   Managers require different views of data

Management Information System

Types of Information Systems

•      Decision support system

–  Organizes information for better decisions

–  Different data and criteria are evaluated

–  Often based on spreadsheet software

–  Provides tailored and structured reports

Types of Information Systems

•      Expert systems

–  Perform tasks done by a person

–  Analyze data and suggest an action

–  Requires a large knowledge base

–  Inference engines

•   Analyze the data

•   Make the decisions

Expert System

Information Systems Technology

•      Intranets

–  Private network using internet technology

–  Employees use to access data

–  Databases are stored on the Intranet

–  Access to outside users is blocked

Information Systems Technology

•      Extranets

–  Outside access to an intranet

–  Goal is to simplify a process

–  Just-in-time inventory

•   Manufacturer keeps little material in stock

•   Arranges to have stock delivered daily

Information Systems Technology

•      Virtual Private Networks

–  Secure connection over the Internet

–  Tunneling provides security

•   Data transmitted in an encrypted packet

–  Employees use to work from home

–  Networks use to connect securely

–  Once established, the VPN is transparent

Virtual Private Network

Information Systems Technology

•      Electronic data interchange (EDI)

–  Electronic transfer of data

–  Data transferred in a precise manner

–  Networks often share an information system

–  Over time can save organizations money

Information Systems Technology

•      Data warehousing

–  Provides 24×7 access to data

–  Fault tolerant

–  Data security

Information Systems Technology

•      Data scrubbing

–  Provides for data consistency and validity

–  Compares data to a set of rules

•   Failures are repaired or removed

–  Should be performed at all levels

•   Data entry

•   Storage

–  As rules change data is rescrubbed

Information Systems Hardware

•      Server farms

–  Collection of servers and mainframes

•   Servers work together

–  Servers are either distributed or collected

–  Uses of server is critical

Information Systems Hardware

•      Enterprise storage

–  Methods and technologies to store data

–  Efficiently store large amounts of data

–  Data is accessible at all times

–  RAID and NAS are two types

Information Systems Hardware

•      RAID

–  Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks

–  Links a number of hard drives

–  Provides data redundancy

–  Can speed access to data

–  RAID 0

•   Disk striping

–  RAID 1

•   Disk mirroring

–  RAID 3, 4, and 5

•   Disk striping with parity

RAID 1 Multiple Disk Mirror

Information Systems Hardware

•      NAS

–  Network Attached Storage

–  Disk storage connected to network media

–  Disk system processes and delivers data

–  Storage Area Networks (SAN)

Information Systems Hardware

•      Backup

–  Protects files and settings

–  Can restore data to an earlier point

–  Crucial to any information system

–  Transaction rollback

•   Logs changes to a file

•   Changes are undone when necessary

–  Tape backup

•   Copies files to a tape

•   Files need recopied when necessary

Information Systems Hardware

•      Nonstop and redundant systems

–  Mission critical system

–  Must run 24×7

–  Most information systems mission critical

–  Redundant systems are backup computers

•   Backup takes over when necessary

Information Systems Hardware

•      Scalable and interoperable systems

–  Scalability

•   Defines a systems ability to grow

•   Software and hardware grows

–  Interoperable systems

•   Work with other systems

•   Little configuration is needed

Information Systems Department

•      Integral part of any organization

•      Maintains equipment, software and data

•      Enables other employees to function

•      Requires highly trained employees

•      Various names

–  Information Systems (IS)

–  Information Technology (IT)

–  Management Information Systems (MIS)

Chapter 12A

End of Chapter