Community facilities is the important element in one neighbourhood area because this kind of facilities is the place where the resident used to reach their living needs so this makes the community facilities provision is important in give good living environment to the neighbourhood especially is term of location and accessibility. Other than that, community facilities also are the building or place that provides a particular service such as school, neighbourhood shop and playground. Community facilities also must be located at the strategic place and easy reachable to the people live in the neighbourhood.
1.2 Problem Statement
Nowdays, the provision of community facilities in Malaysia is still standardize for all type of neighbourhood area whether in high cost houses, medium cost houses or low cost houses because the guideline used to development the community facilities is based on the guideline for public facilities which is produced by JPBD Malaysia. This provision of community facilities using this guideline for today situation is not suitable because of nowday different neighbourhood area have different kind of living condition such as people in low cost area tends to have different lifestyle compare to medium cost people, this situation will influence the use of community facilities in the neighbourhood area itself because of its location and accessibility to the community facilities. This causes some problem to occurs such as:
- People in the neighbourhood area feel hard to reach the community facilities by walking especially the medium cost houses area.
- People in the medium cost housing area take longer time taken to reach the community facilities from the residential area compare to low cost housing area.
- Some of the neighbourhood lack of community facilities.
- Climate affects the walking behaviour of resident to community facilities.
- The community facilities that provided in neighbourhood area are not well used and maintain.
1.3 Aim and Objective
The aim of this study is to produce the recommendation for guideline in improving the provision of community facilities towards a walkable neighbourhood.
In order to achieve the study aim, there are a few objectives stated, such as:-
- To investigate and compared the walking behaviour in low cost housing area and medium cost housing area to reach the community facilities.
- To investigate safety factors that influence the walking experience in low cost housing area and medium cost housing area.
- To investigate the convenience factors that influence the walking experience in low cost housing area and medium cost housing area.
- To propose the recommendation of guidelines to increase the walkability to reach the community facilities in neighbourhood area.
1.4 Scope of Study
In order to achieve the objective that is mention above, the scope of study need to be identified. The important aspect that must be considered will determine the limitation of this study. The scopes are as follows:
- Walking behaviour of people from residential to the community facilities is compared between the low cost housing area with medium cost housing area.
- From residential to neighbourhood shop
- From residential to playground
- From residential to elementary school
- The accessibility of community facilities is determined by investigated the respondent opinion on how to reach the community facilities from residential area.
- The location of community facilities from the house in low cost housing area and medium cost housing area is quantify by walking distance within 0.4 km and the time taken to reach the community facilities.
- The household profile of people in low cost neighbourhood and medium cost neighbourhood area is analysed and the respondent are only people age within the range between 18 years old and above.
- The safety aspect that influence the walking experience is analysed in term of security, motorist behaviour and crossing exposure between the low cost housing area and medium cost housing area
- The convenience aspect that influence walking experience is analysed in term visual appeal, pedestrian amenities and coverage and connectivity between the low cost housing area and medium cost housing area.
1.5 Research Methodology
Methodology is a guideline and that can describe the process in obtaining all of the information of the study. It also can determine the suitable method in how the research will be conducted. In this study, there are mainly four stages involved which starts from the exploratory study stage, follow with the data collection and data analysis stages and lastly the new proposal stage.
Stage 1: Background Study and Literature Review
This is the stage where the background of the study and the literature review is being prepared because it is important to understand the topic that has be chosen. Other than that, it is important to investigate the problem of the study area so that it can help in create the aim and objective of the study and also to make the early logical hypothesis. This theoretical study stages also is important because it can help in enhancing the knowledge and get a lot of information for this study. Usually the theoretical study is present materials and secondary data source which can be in form of books, document, report, journal, thesis, magazine, newspaper and internet sources. The source of the secondary data also can be found from library, executive agency office and internet.
Stage 2: Field Survey
Data collection is stage where the field work study is being done. Usually the data that can be produce is the primary data. Primary data is the raw data acquired through observation, interview, questionnaire and perception to the study area. In this study, the questionnaire is distributed using certain number of sample that has been calculated.
The method used in calculating sample for the questionnaire and the technique used in distributed the sample is well done to produce more accurate data. The sample is calculating based on the variable used for calculating sample involved the total population and interval error. The formula used are n = N/ (1+Ne²).
The technique used in distributing the sample for this study is known as proportionate sampling and simple random sampling. The proportionate sampling is the techniques using the ratio of the population in determine the number of sample need to be used in low cost housing area and medium cost housing area with the total population. The simple random sampling is the technique using the number of population and pick in the random direction.
Stage 3: Data Analysis and Finding
At this stage, all the data will be analyse and finding is the product of the study. This stage is clear defined to determine the weaknesses of the site. Moreover, the issues and problem of the site area also can be identified. Finding of this study is very important and useful to me to make the study proposal successful.
Stage 4: Proposal
A proposal is made based on the finding of the study. At this stage also, the proposal can be design and proposed based on the output of the analysis and the summary that have been done earlier.
1.6 Significant of Study
This study is done because to know what is the implication of public facilities provision toward the walking behaviour of the people in the neighbourhood area. Analyse the walking behaviour in the neighbourhood area is important in determine are the people actually walk to reach their community facilities and how far are they willing to walk to reach it. This is important because when people tend to walk to reach the community facilities in the neighbourhood, this show that the community facilities is well used and not be abundant.
Other than that, this study is important because it can determine the walkability of the neighbourhood between different neighbourhood area because usually people in low cost housing area are more likely to walk compare to people in medium cost housing area. This happen because the density of the people and the availability of automobile of the people in the area.
Moreover, this study also helps in making environment of the neighbourhood become the walkable environment because it can make people living in the neighbourhood walk in order to reach their living need, increase the safety and security aspect in the neighbourhood and make people more convenience and pleasant while walking.
Other than that, the significant of this study is that it can help in improving the guidelines for neighbourhood concept. It also probably can help in upgrade the neighbourhood concept by Clarence Perry become new neighbourhood concept for the future because even in the modernize era, the neighbourhood concept by Clarence Perry still been used for developing the neighbourhood area for housing development.
1.7 Study Limitation
Basically there are limitation in doing the research and primary and secondary data collecting during the survey. The limitations that have to be taken into consideration are:-
- The total number of sample cannot be completed as it hard to find respondent because people are working and not in their house.
- The bigger interval error needs to be used in calculating the sample because limited time available.
- Rainy day makes going to survey need to be postponed .
1.8 Case Study
The study area is located in Section 7, Shah Alam and under the local authority of Shah Alam City Council. The study area covers 1080 unit of low cost houses and 566 unit of medium cost houses. The total population for the low cost housing area is 5400 people and the total population for medium cost housing area is 2830 people. The type of houses for low cost housing area is flat while the medium cost housing is the terrace houses. The area is chosen as the site area because Section 7 is has one of the biggest and newest low cost housing schemes in Shah Alam and Section 7 is the only section that consist both type of houses which is the low cost housing area and the medium cost housing area located in one section. Other than that, this site area also is chosen because the community facilities in most of the area are adequate and available.