The Planning Process

Negotiation: Strategy & Planning


The Planning Process

Why Plan?

The Planning Process

The Planning Process

ICE Model:  Three Key Perspective-Shaping Factors

Identifying Interests

Identifying Concerns

Identifying Emotions

Relationship between key steps in planning process

Goals, Strategy & Planning

Goals – The Focus That Drives Negotiation Strategy

•     Determining goals is the first step in the negotiation process

•     Negotiators should specify goals and objectives clearly

•     The goals set have direct and indirect effects on the negotiator’s strategy

The Direct and Indirect Effects of Goals on Strategy

•      Direct effects

–   Wishes are not goals

–   Goals are often linked to the other party’s goals

–   There are limits to what goals can be

–   Effective goals must be concrete/specific

•      Indirect effects

–   Forging an ongoing relationship

Strategy versus Tactics

•      Strategy: The overall plan to achieve one’s goals in a negotiation

•      Tactics: Short-term, adaptive moves designed to enact or pursue broad strategies

–   Tactics are subordinate to strategy

–   Tactics are driven by strategy

•      Planning: The “action” component of the strategy process; i.e. how will I implement the strategy?

Approaches to Strategy

•      Unilateral: One that is made without active involvement of the other party

•      Bilateral: One that considers the impact of the other’s strategy on one’s own

Strategic Options

•      Per Dual Concerns Model, choice of strategy is reflected in the answers to two questions:

–   How much concern do I have in achieving my desired outcomes at stake in the  negotiation?

–   How much concern do I have for the current and future quality of the relationship with the other party?

The Dual Concerns Model

The Nonengagement Strategy: Avoidance

•      If one is able to meet one’s needs without negotiating at all, it may make sense to use an avoidance strategy

•      It simply may not be worth the time and effort to negotiate

•      The decision to negotiate is closely related to the desirability of available alternatives

Active-Engagement Strategies

•      Competition – distributive, win-lose bargaining

•      Collaboration – integrative, win-win negotiation

•      Accommodation – involves an imbalance of outcomes (“I lose, you win”)

Understanding the Flow of Negotiations:  Stages and Phases

•     How does the interaction between parties change over time?

•     How do the interaction structures relate to inputs and outcomes over time?

•     How do the tactics affect the development of the negotiation?

Understanding the Flow of Negotiations:  Stages and Phases

Negotiation proceeds through distinct phases or stages

•      Beginning phase (initiation)

•      Middle phase (problem solving)

•      Ending phase (resolution)

Key Steps to an
Ideal Negotiation Process

•      Preparation

–    What are the goals?

–    How will I work with the other party?

•      Relationship building

–    Understanding differences and similarities

–    Building commitment toward a mutually beneficial set of outcomes

•      Information gathering

–    Learn what you need to know about the issues

Key Steps to an
Ideal Negotiation Process

Key Steps to an
Ideal Negotiation Process

•      Information using

–    Assemble your case

•      Bidding

–    Each party states their “opening offer”

–    Each party engages in “give and take”

•      Closing the deal

–    Build commitment

•      Implementing the agreement

Getting Ready to Implement the Strategy:  The Planning Process

•      Define the issues

•      Assemble the issues and define the bargaining mix

–   The bargaining mix is the combined list of issues

•      Define your interests

–   Why you want what you want

Getting Ready to Implement the Strategy:  The Planning Process

•      Know your limits and alternatives

•      Set your objectives (targets) and opening bids (where to start)

–   Target is the outcome realistically expected

–   Opening is the best that can be achieved

•      Assess constituents and the social context of the negotiation

The Social Context of Negotiation: “Field” Analysis

Getting Ready to Implement the Strategy:  The Planning Process

•      Analyze the other party

–   Why do they want what they want?

–   How can I present my case clearly and refute the other party’s arguments?

•      Present the issues to the other party

Getting Ready to Implement the Strategy:  The Planning Process

•      Define the protocol to be followed in the negotiation

–   Where and when will the negotiation occur?

–   Who will be there?

–   What is the agenda?

Summary on the Planning Process

“…planning is the most important activity in negotiation.”