• Descriptive in nature.
• Enables marketers to “predict” consumer behavior.
• Research methods include experiments, survey techniques, and observation.
• Findings are descriptive, empirical and generalizable.
• Consists of depth interviews, focus groups, metaphor analysis, and projective techniques.
• Administered by highly trained interviewer-analysts.
• Findings tend to be subjective.
• Small sample sizes.
The Consumer Research Process
• Six steps
– defining the objectives of the research
– collecting and evaluating secondary data
– designing a primary research study
– collecting primary data
– analyzing the data
– preparing a report on the findings
Developing Research Objectives
• Defining purposes and objectives helps ensure an appropriate research design.
• A statement of objectives helps to define the type and level of information needed.
Secondary Versus Primary Data
• Secondary data: data that has been collected for reasons other than the specific research project at hand
• Primary data: data collected by the researcher for the purpose of meeting specific objectives
Data Collection Methods
• Helps marketers gain an in-depth understanding of the relationship between people and products by watching them buying and using products.
• Helps researchers gain a better understanding of what the product symbolizes.
• Widely used by interpretivist researchers.
• Can be used to test the relative sales appeal of many types of variables.
• Only one variable is manipulated at a time, keeping other elements constant.
• Can be conducted in laboratories or in the field.
Survey Data Collection Methods
• Likert scales: easy for researchers to prepare and interpret, and simple for consumers to answer.
• Semantic differential scales: relatively easy to construct and administer.
• Rank-order scales: subjects rank items in order of preference in terms of some criteria.
Customer Satisfaction Measurement
• Customer Satisfaction Surveys
• Gap Analysis of Expectations versus Experience
• Mystery Shoppers
• Customer Complaint Analysis
• Analysis of Customer Defections
Sampling Plan Decisions