3rd generation mobile system
Definition of 3G
3G is an ITU specification for the third generation (analog cellular was the first generation, digital PCS the second) of mobile communications technology. 3G promises increased bandwidth, up to 384 Kbps when a device is stationary or moving at pedestrian speed, 128 Kbps in a car, and 2 Mbps in fixed applications. 3G will work over wireless air interfaces such as GSM,TDMA, and CDMA. The new EDGE air interface has been developed specifically to meet the bandwidth needs of 3G.
3G or 3rd generation mobile telecommunications is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunication services fulfilling the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication Union.<href=”#cite_note-0″> Application services include wide-area wireless voice telephone, mobile Internet access, video calls and mobile TV, all in a mobile environment.
Several telecommunications companies market wireless mobile Internet services as 3G, indicating that the advertised service is provided over a 3G wireless network. Services advertised as 3G are required to meet IMT-2000 technical standards, including standards for reliability and speed (data transfer rates). To meet the IMT-2000 standards, a system is required to provide peak data rates of at least 200 <href=”#Kilobit_per_second” title=”Data rate units”>kbit/s (about 0.2 Mbit/s). However, many services advertised as 3G provide higher speed than the minimum technical requirements for a 3G service. Recent 3G releases, often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s to smartphones and mobile modems in laptop computers.
The following standards are typically branded 3G:
- the UMTS system, first offered in 2001, standardized by 3GPP, used primarily in Europe, Japan, China (however with a different radio interface) and other regions predominated byGSM 2G system infrastructure. The cell phones are typically UMTS and GSM hybrids. Several radio interfaces are offered, sharing the same infrastructure:
- The original and most widespread radio interface is called W-CDMA.
- The TD-SCDMA radio interface was commercialised in 2009 and is only offered in China.
- The latest UMTS release, HSPA+, can provide peak data rates up to 56 Mbit/s in the downlink in theory (28 Mbit/s in existing services) and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink.
- the CDMA2000 system, first offered in 2002, standardized by 3GPP2, used especially in North America and South Korea, sharing infrastructure with the IS-95 2G standard. The cell phones are typically CDMA2000 and IS-95 hybrids. The latest release EVDO Rev B offers peak rates of 14.7 Mbit/s downstream.
The above systems and radio interfaces are based on kindred spread spectrum radio transmission technology. While the GSM EDGE standard (“2.9G”), DECT cordless phones and Mobile WiMAX standards formally also fulfill the IMT-2000 requirements and are approved as 3G standards by ITU, these are typically not branded 3G, and are based on completely different technologies.
A new generation of cellular standards has appeared approximately every tenth year since 1G systems were introduced in 1981/1982. Each generation is characterized by new frequency bands, higher data rates and non backwards compatible transmission technology. The first release of the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard does not completely fulfill the ITU 4G requirements called IMT-Advanced. First release LTE is not backwards compatible with 3G, but is a pre-4G or 3.9G technology, however sometimes branded “4G” by the service providers. Its evolution LTE Advanced is a 4G technology. WiMAX is another technology verging on or marketed as 4G.
The 3G (UMTS and CDMA2000) research and development projects started in 1992. In 1999, ITU approved five radio interfaces for IMT-2000 as a part of the ITU-R M.1457 Recommendation; WiMAX was added in 2007.<href=”#cite_note-2″>
There are evolutionary standards (EDGE and CDMA) that are backwards-compatible extensions to pre-existing 2G networks as well as revolutionary standards that require all-new network hardware and frequency allocations. The cell phones used utilise UMTS in combination with 2G GSM standards and bandwidths, but do not support EDGE.<href=”#cite_note-3″> The latter group is the UMTS family, which consists of standards developed for IMT-2000, as well as the independently developed standards DECT and WiMAX, which were included because they fit the IMT-2000 definition.
The first pre-commercial 3G network was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan, branded as FOMA. It was first available in May 2001 as a pre-release (test) of W-CDMA technology.<href=”#cite_note-13″> The first commercial launch of 3G was also by NTT DoCoMo in Japan on 1 October 2001, although it was initially somewhat limited in scope;<href=”#cite_note-14″><href=”#cite_note-15″> broader availability of the system was delayed by apparent concerns over its reliability.<href=”#cite_note-16″>
The first European pre-commercial network was an UMTS network on the Isle of Man by Manx Telecom, the operator then owned by British Telecom, and the first commercial network (also UMTS based W-CDMA) in Europe was opened for business by Telenor in December 2001 with no commercial handsets and thus no paying customers.
The first network to go commercially live was by SK Telecom in South Korea on the CDMA-based 1xEV-DO technology in January 2002. By May 2002 the second South Korean 3G network was by KT on EV-DO and thus the Koreans were the first to see competition among 3G operators.
The first commercial United States 3G network was by Monet Mobile Networks, on CDMA2000 1x EV-DO technology, but this network provider later shut down operations. The second 3G network operator in the USA was Verizon Wireless in July 2002 also on CDMA2000 1x EV-DO.<href=”#cite_note-17″> AT&T Mobility is also a true 3G UMTS network, having completed its upgrade of the 3G network to HSUPA.
The first pre-commercial demonstration network in the southern hemisphere[dubious – <href=”#Dubious” title=”Talk:3G”>discuss] was built in Adelaide, South Australia by m.Net Corporation in February 2002 using UMTS on 2100 MHz. This was a demonstration network for the 2002 IT World Congress. The first commercial 3G network was launched by Hutchison Telecommunications branded as Three or “3” in J June 2003.
Emtel Launched the first 3G network in Africa.
By June 2007, the 200 millionth 3G subscriber had been connected. Out of 3 billion mobile phone subscriptions worldwide this is only 6.7%. In the countries where 3G was launched first – Japan and South Korea – 3G penetration is over 70%.<href=”#cite_note-18″> In Europe the leading country is Italy with a third of its subscribers migrated to 3G. Other leading countries by 3G migration include UK, Austria, Australia and Singapore at the 20% migration level. A confusing statistic is counting CDMA2000 1x RTT customers as if they were 3G customers. If using this definition, then the total 3G subscriber base would be 475 million at June 2007 and 15.8% of all subscribers worldwide.
3G Mobile Phone System
Mobile telephony had the capacity to allow us to communicate whilst on the move. The internet converted raw data into supporting services that individuals found easy to use. These two technologies then merged together to produce third generation mobile services
Third generation mobile communications systems have several names such as 3G, UMTS and WCDMA they assure us that they will heighten mobile communications to better speed limits. Amongst the criteria set they plan to establish speedy Internet surfing, advanced value-added services telephony. 3G technology is an improvement upon 2G systems in two ways. The first being a step towards packet switching from circuit switching. Packet switching tends to use the communication system more effectively, consequently boosting the capacity of the system. Packet switching also permits users to always be online. This means elimination in the need for users to “dial up”. Through judicious use of the frequency spectrum and inventive coding methods, 3G technology is poised to achieve bit rates up to 2 Mbps.
Why 3G, Here are the features:
- Video Streaming that actually works.
- Video Streaming is possible even over GPRS or EDGE but its very slow.
- You will be able to watch a Cricket match Live on the road with live video and audio.
- Video Calling.
- Have you ever wondered why there is an additional camera above the display in some phones?
- The camera is meant to be used for Video Calling. You can actually see the other person face to face and talk.
- Faster Downloads and Browsing.
|Downlink &uplink frequency
This specific frequency bands originally defined by the UMTS standards are 1885-2025(uplink) and 2110-22000 MHz for the base to mobile(downlink)
US: There is Uplink and Downlink and both are on different Frequency
Ex – AT&T 850MHz uplink and 1900MHz downlink
Ex – T-Mobile 1700MHz uplink 2100MHz downlink
Asia: Both Uplink and Downlink is on the same frequency
Ex – Singtel 2100MHz
Modulation method of 3G
Wcdma 3G uses QPSK modulation.
QPSK-quardraphase shift keying
3G Mobile Broadband
Mobile Broadband is an existing new technology that allows you to connect to the Internet without the usual ADSL router and telephone line setup. What’s more, you are not limited to using your connection in the house – as the name suggests it allows you to connect while your mobile as it uses wireless technology, so you can access Internet and e-mail anywhere (as long as you have a signal). You could say it is like having your own person WiFi Hotspot following you!
Download at up to 7.2Mbps in some areas – Mobile Broadband compares to normal broadband*
No telephone landline or ADSL micro filters required for service activation
Mobile Broadband uses wireless technology so there are no cables to keep tidy
“Mobile” Internet connection – access the Internet from your laptop while you are out of your house*
For those who want to enjoy mobile connectivity without any long-term commitment, PAYG Mobile Broadband provides a good option
Important: Check 3G coverage before you buy, or you could find that you don’t have coverage in your area.
ITU has not provided a clear definition of the data rate users can expect from 3G equipment or providers. Thus users sold 3G service may not be able to point to a standard and say that the rates it specifies are not being met. While stating in commentary that “it is expected that IMT-2000 will provide higher transmission rates: a minimum data rate of 2 Mbit/s for stationary or walking users, and 384 kbit/s in a moving vehicle,”<href=”#cite_note-26”> the ITU does not actually clearly specify minimum or average rates or what modes of the interfaces qualify as 3G, so various rates are sold as 3G intended to meet customers’ expectations of broadband data.
Applications of 3G
The bandwidth and location information available to 3G devices gives rise to applications not previously available to mobile phone users. Some of the applications are:
3G technology is the latest in mobile communications. 3G stands for “third generation” — this makes analog cellular technology generation one and digital/PCS generation two. 3G technology is intended for the true multimedia cell phone — typically called smartphones — and features increased bandwidth and transfer rates to accommodate Web-based applications and phone-based audio and video files.
3G comprises several cellular access technologies. The three most common ones as of 2005 are:
· WCDMA (UMTS) – Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
· TD-SCDMA – Time-division Synchronous Code-division Multiple Access
3G networks have potential transfer speeds of up to 3 Mbps (about 15 seconds to download a 3-minuteMP3 song). For comparison, the fastest 2G phones can achieve up to 144Kbps (about 8 minutes to download a 3-minute song). 3G’s high data rates are ideal for downloading information from the Internet and sending and receiving large, multimedia files. 3G phones are like mini-laptops and can accommodate broadband applications like video conferencing, receiving streaming video from the Web, sending and receiving faxes and instantly downloading e-mail messages with attachments.
Of course, none of this would be possible without those soaring towers that carry cell-phone signals from phone to phone.
3G is a cell phone network protocol. Click here to learn about network protocols for Smartphones
Does anyone have an explanation on why the 3G implemented in the US is different from the one that is implemented from Asia?
Advantage and disadvantage of 3G
· Third-generation, or 3G, technology is a wireless network technology that is commonly utilized in smart phones like iPhones and Blackberries. While its predecessor, second-generation (2G) technology, was formulated around voice applications (like talking, call-waiting and voicemail), 3G technology puts a strong emphasis on Internet and multimedia services, such as web browsing, video conferencing and downloading music. And while there are several advantages to 3G, the technology also comes with its disadvantages.
· High bandwith—the measure of transmission capacity—is one of the selling points of 3G. This allows you quick and easy access to all of your favorite online multimedia and Internet tools, just like you were at home on a computer. You can pay bills, book dinner reservations, update social networking pages and check emails, all on-the-go. While the maximum bandwidth for a stationary 3G device—according to Silicon Press—is 2.05 megabytes (MB), when you are moving slowly (such as walking), this drops to 384 kilobytes (KB). When you and your device are moving at high speeds (such as in a car), the maximum bandwidth drops to 128 KB. However, Silicon Press notes that this is still 10 times faster than the maximum bandwidth of moving 2G devices.
· Another advantage of 3G technology is that it can utilize packet-based Internet protocol connectivity. This means your mobile device will always be online and ready for Internet access. However, you will not actually pay for the connection until you start sending or receiving data packets, such as sending an email or looking at a webpage. Some 3G devices are also designed to automatically pick up the closest, free-to-access Wi-Fi signals, in which case, you won’t have to pay anything for Internet.
· To support 3G technology, updates need to be made to the current cellular infrastructure. According to 3G Internet, this means installing new 3G equipment at—ideally—every current cellular base station and acquiring new frequencies for 3G transmissions. Both of these undertakings are extremely expensive and could take a long time to complete fully. In addition, in order to utilize all of the new features 3G technology has to offer, customers must purchase 3G-compatilible handsets, which are generally more expensive than their 2G counterparts.
· In addition to being more expensive, 3G handsets also require more power than most 2G models. According to Silicon Press, this extra power requirement can translate to larger batteries, shortage usage periods between recharging and more bulky handsets overall.
.3G networks offer greater security than their 2G predecessors. By allowing the UE (User Equipment) to authenticate the network it is attaching to, the user can be sure the network is the intended one and not an impersonator. 3G networks use the KASUMI block crypto instead of the older A5/1 stream cipher. However, a number of serious weaknesses in the KASUMI cipher have been identified.<href=”#cite_note-27″>
In addition to the 3G network infrastructure security, end-to-end security is offered when application frameworks such as IMS are accessed, although this is not strictly a 3G property.
At last we can say that 3G is very need for us with respect to modern technical world. It has many advantage, we discussed it, and disadvantage also. Everything has this. but we are human being so we should avoid this. Its bandwidth is high, always is online. no separate bill for 3G and we can play videogamesalso. Main merits of this is mobile broadband. this will bring us in a different world.