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Sales And Merchandising: A Study of NORTHERN FASHION LTD.
CHAPTER – I
Northern Fashion Limited (NFL) will be to give much priority to the buyer’s demands and supply best quality knitting product. This factory with the latest state of the art technologies and as a result, the factory will have the capacity of producing large volume of knitting product maintaining optimum quality.
The factory of Northern Fashion Limited (NFL) will be situated at saver near by Dhaka EPZ .It will be a 100% export oriented knitting manufacturing company. Every year large volume of knitting product will be exported to different countries like Europe, America, Canada, Australia, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Spain and other countries.
There are several sections in this factory such as knitting, dyeing, cutting, swing, finishing section. Northern Fashion Limited (NFL) is committed to provide quality products and smooth finishing. All the machineries and accessories will be imported from Korea, Turkey, and Japan.
The factory will be run highly trained and skilled manpower, which will be very much capable to keep continuing the production process with utmost accuracy and flawless finishing and as a result, the company will be able to guarantee uninterrupted production and timely supply of product as per schedule and time frame of buyers.
Manufacturing of knitting product is being carried out in a five stored building with a floor space 1, 70,000 square feet.
Our employees are specialized in the production of all types of knitting product. We will manufacture T-Shirt, Polo-Shirt, and Tang-Top, Jacket for children, men and women. The production units will have its own high powered generator that will be used as back-up source of electricity.
A wide array of indoor and outdoor facilities along with safety measures will be one of the prominent features, which will make the factory pretty good suitable environment for knitting manufacturing, and will give more exceptional and diversified characteristics over its king among the knitting industries.
LOCATION OF THE MILL
NORTHERN FASHION LTD. is situated at Savar, Kashimpur, Gazipur. It is located at the northeast corner of Nabi Nagar-Kaliachair road and about 50 k. m. Away from Prime University Dhaka.
Site location of N.F.L.:
NORTHERN FASHION LIMITED – MANAGEMENT
The entire management process comprises the following units:
The Managing Director, the CEO is the head of the Executive Management Team which comprises senior members of the Management Apparatus. Within the limits of delegated authority and responsibility by the Board of Directors, Executive Management operates through further delegation of authority at every echelon of the line management. The executive Management operates within the framework of Policy & Planning strategies set by the Top Management with periodic performance reporting for guidance. The Executive Management is responsible for preparation of segment plans / sub – segment plans for every profit centers with budgetary targets for every items of goods & services and are held accountable for deficiencies, with appreciation for outstanding and exceptional performances. These operations are continuously carried out by the Executive Management through series of Committees, sub – Committees, Committees & standing Committees assisting the line management.
Comprising top executives, deal with entire organizational matters.
Standing Committee comprises the following committee:
• Internal Audit Committee
• ISO Audit Committee
• Social / Environment Committee
• Performance Evaluation Audit Committee
Employment Relations Committee:
• Remuneration Committee
• Work Environment Committee
• Performance Evaluation Audit Committee
• Product Planning & Development Committee
• Quality Control & Research Committee
• Production & Inventory Management Committee
• Export Promotion Committee
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF NFL
Sales & Merchandising Section
There are three shifts per day in NFL. So each shift contain eight hour.
|A||6 am – 2 pm|
|B||2 pm – 10 pm|
|C||10 pm – 6 am|
But there is another shift called general shift, which is applicable for some officers.
JOB DESCRIPTION of P.O:
Controlling the production parameter of every order and also determine yarn order.
Setting the different parameters of machines, using correct yarn for order, controlling machine state, controlling process quality system.
The organization and management system are good for mill environment and as the job description is classified, so duties are done honestly and sincerely.
The target market for products produced in Northern Fashion Ltd. Northern Fashion Ltd Export Oriented Readymade Garments Industry. Readymade Garments exporter that is Knit Fabrics manufacturer. Target market for products produced in Northern Fashion Ltd is Europe and U.S.A. Northern Fashion LTD sales their product in France, Canada, USA, Italy, Germany & other countries .
- Denmark : Dahetra A/s, Company House Helslngor A/S
- Germany : D’ Anzo S.R.L, Euro trade America S.R.L
- France : Rhonetex SA, Les Mintors
- Norway : Dahetra Norge A/S
- Netherlands : Simcon International BV
- UK : Michael Davis & Associates
- Canada : T.F.C Clothing Inc/
- Sweden : NH Industri
- Finland : New wave Group
· Spain : Ragdi S.L
· Itali : Olimpia
SIZE & GROWTH OF MARKET:
The Company’s marketing operations continued its emphasis on export sales over the years as depicted below:
|Year – 2009||Year – 2008||Year – 2007|
The above figures show that the export sales increased by 19% in 2007over the previous year with greater exposure to international market scenario and risk.
PRODUCTION PLANNING SEQUENCES AND OPERATIONS
PROCESS FLOW CHART OF NFL
Yarn in cone form
Feeding the yarn cone in the creel
Feeding the yarn in the feeder via trip-tap positive
feeding arrangement and tension device
With draw the rolled fabric & weighting
Dyeing & Finishing
Fashion is the interlocking of one or more yarns through a series of loops. The length wise columns of stitches, corresponding to the warp in woven cloth, are called WALES; the cross wise rows of stitches, corresponding to the filling in woven cloth, are known as COURSES, FILLING KNITS (WEFT KNITS) are those fabrics in which the courses are composed of a single strand of yarn, while warp knits are those in which the Wales are composed of single strands of yarn. GAUGE Corresponds to the yarn count in a woven fabric, and is defined as the number of needles or yarns in ½ inches of cloth. The higher the gouge, the more compact and finer the cloth.
In Northern Fashion Ltd. 3 types of machines are used for producing knitted fabric.
1. Circular Fashion Machine (Single Jersey Machines)
2. Circular Fashion Machine (Double Jersey Machine)
CIRCULAR FASHION MACHINE:
Circular Machine is widely used throughout the Fashion industry to produce fabric. This machine can be built in almost any reasonable diameter and the small diameter of unto 5 which are used for wear.
M/C’s for outer wear and under wear may vary from 12” to 60” in diameter according to requirement. This m/c. can be used either as fabric or for making Garments section completely with fancy stitch. Latch needles are commonly employed in all modern circular m/c. because of their simple action and also their ability to process various types of yarn.
Plain circular m/c. uses only one sets of needles, circular Rib m/c uses two sets of needle i.e. cylinder needle and dial needle, the inter lock circular Fashion m/c also uses two sets of needle by needles are long and short respectively for both dial and cylinder, that is why multiple design and thick fabric can be produce with that m/c. that m/c is also called double jersey m/c.
M/c Gauge – needle/inch (Varies according to diameter)
Needle bed type-single cylinder, double cylinder, Cylinder and dial, long short needles far cylinder and long short needle for dial.
Two principle operations exist:-
English system- Where the cams and yarns stands revolves by needle and fabric take down is stationary. American system- Where the needles & fabric take down revolves by cams and yarn stands are stationary.
1. Production /kg/shift at 100% efficiency:
2. Production in Length/Shift in meter:
3. Fabrics width in meter:
IMPORTANT EQUIPMENT OF CIRCULAR FASHION M/C:
1 .START / STOP / INCH BUTTONS :
Complete set of easily accessible START / STOP / INCH buttons at top lf each leg.
2. RATCHET LEVER :
Permits hand movement of the machine.
3. AUTO-STOP MOTIONS :
Automatic three (3) stage 24v. Yarn motion, positive feed tapes and Fashion zone. Indicator lamps are on individual stop motions and on the main control panel. While the yarn is broken or too tight that we can find the location which is broken as wall as to repair, meanwhile the motor can broke and stop operation at once to keep the security of machine.
4. FREE STANDING SIDE CREEL:
With an active and reserve package for each feed.
Three (3) shift revolution with digital display counter with predetermined stop, to settle freely the weight or yardage of fabrics.
6. VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE WITH MACHINE BRAKE :
Transistor inverter provided for free controlled, the process of “V.S. MOTOR-DRIVE” from slow operation to normal operation is quite and fast brake to prevent damages in case of needles or yarn breakage.
7. FABRIC TAKE-UP SYSTEM:
With variable speed control by a belt drive set can be adjusted the speed for different course of fabric-constant and uniform fabric tension.
8. SAFELY GUARD SWITCH :
Machine cannot be started or run with guards open, this guards have reinforced fiber glass window for easy fabric inspection.
9. AUTO-LUBRICATION :
The automatic central pressurized oil sprayer can be adjusted at cycling time and quantity to make cylinder, dial, sinker ring’s cams, needles and sinkers lubricated enough, besides it has the function cooling and clearing and clearing.
10. AUTO-LINE REMOVAL SYSTEMS :
Three fans on each rotating arm for clearing off any dust of creel and Fashion zone
(I) Major control by quality pulley.
(ii) Minor control by stitch length adjustment.
It is technical term that indicates the weight of the fabric Gram per square meter.
2. CHANGING OF G.S.M:
The G.S.M. of the fabric is changed by altering the position of the tension pulley. If pulley moves towards the positive directive then the G.S.M. is decrease. And in the reverse direction G.S.M will increase.
3. POINTS THAT SHOULD CONSIDER IN CASE OF G.S.M. CHANGING:
1. Tension pulley
2. Cam position
3. Take up motion
4. FACTORS THAT SHOULD BE CHANGE IN CASE OF FABRIC DESIGN ON QUALITY CHANGE:
1. Cam setting
2. Tension pulley
3. Set of needle
4. Size of the loop shape
5. RECOMMENDABLE POINTS OF A BUYER:
1. Diameter of the fabric
2. Design of the fabric
3. G.S.M. of the fabric
4. Total weight of the fabric
5. Yarn count
6. Types of yarn (combed or carded)
7. Color of the fabric.
6.GAUGE NUMBER THAT ARE USUALLY SEEN IN DIFFERENT M/C:
In case of Rib m/c 16 to 18 gauges are normally used. But in case of improve Quality yarn 20 gauge m/c are used in the European on Country.
Single Jersey m/c are normally found 20, 24, 28 etc. gauges.
7. MAXM AND MINM G.S.M. OF A FABRIC FOR A PARTICULAR YARN:
|Type of m/c||Yarn count||Maxm GSM||Minm GSM|
8. WEIGHT LOOSES AFTER FINISHING OF THE FABRIC:
6 – 7% weight looses on the basis of whole weight.
9. WEIGHT INCREASES PER METRE2 AFTER FINISHING THE FABRIC
15-16% weight increases per square meter.
QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM
Northern Fashion Limited ( NFL), quality will be emphasized in all the procedures and we will follow many quality standards to ensure that,t6he garments we will sell are in line with the taste and requirements of our buyers. We follow all the stringent procedures and test appliances for all international standards. Our QC team with ream of highly efficient and follow the standards right from yearn to packing, to see nothing is missed.
In order to provide quality products and smooth finishing, the factory will be equipped with cutting edge technologies. All the machineries and accessories will be imported from Japan, Korea, China and Turkey.
Ordered will be closely monitored from sampling, to shipment. Status on sampling, production and shipment will be transmitted to buyers regularly. We will maintain a pro active approach towards identification lf our problem areas and corrective measures will be taken immediately to ensure timely deliveries.
QUALITY CONTROL EQUIPMENT
(Each batch of every work order)Verivide Light Box.
Light Sources: –
UVB (ultraviolet).James H. Heal &Company, Halifax, England.GSM
(Each batch of every work order)Measuring Tape.
b) Ahiba Nuance.a) Qayyum Textile Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
b) Datacolor International, UK.Water FastnessPerspirometer & Carbolite (Thermostat Oven)James H. Heal & Company, Halifax, England.Colour Fastness to PerspirationPerspirometer & Carbolite (Thermostat Oven)James H. Heal & Company, Halifax, England.Light Fastness
(Tested if required by customer)ICI Pilling Box.James H. Heal & Company, Halifax, England.Abrasion Resistance (Tested if required by customer)Nu-martindale Abrasion & Pilling Tester.James H. Heal & Company, Halifax, England.WPI (Wales / Inch) & CPI (Courses / Inch)Piece Glass.James H. Heal & Company, Halifax, England.
RESPONSE TO FAULT:
RESPONSE TO QC FAULTS:
|Yarn fault||Inform yarn supplier|
|Knit fault||Inform Fashion department|
RESPONSE TO MACHINE FAULT:-
|Any electrical fault||Inform electrical maintenance|
|Any mechanical fault||Inform mechanical maintenance|
Quality assurance can check quality and reject the faulty production. But for these operators careful activity is necessary.
HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT
Human resource planning
Northern Fashion Ltd has a personal and administrative Department. Northern Fashion Ltd is one of the biggest employers in Bangladesh. The total number of employers in Bangladesh. The total number of employees is 1,223. For the employees there is systematic in house training in home and abroad. To motivate the employees, along with salary and benefits the company provides various facilities like free meals , free transportation , 24 hour medical center , on site sports . Production and accommodation facilities include full time supply of safe drinking water, adequate lighting and ventilation facilities from sheet.
HR Practices of Northern Fashion Ltd
· Recruitment ? job design
· Training ? Selection
· Performance Management ? Development
· Labor relation ? Incentives
· Employee relation ?Benefit
SOURCE OF RECRUITMENT
Recruitment and Selection process in Northern Fashion Ltd
Recruitment is the process trough which the organization seeks applicants for potential employment. Selection refers to the process by which it attempts to identify applicants with the necessary knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics that will help the company achieve its goals, companies engaging in different strategies need different types and numbers of employees. The strategy a company is pursuing will have a direct impact on the types of employees that it seeks to recruit and selection.
There are two kinds of source Northern Fashion Ltd uses for recruitment .They are
1. Internal source.
2. External source.
We try to discuss all relative sources which are used for recruitment in Northern
1. Internal source
Northern Fashion Ltd thinks that current employees are a major source of recruits for all but entry-level positions. Whether for promotions or for ‘Lateral’ job transfers, internal candidates already know the informal organization and have detailed information about its formal policies and procedures. Promotions and transfer are typically decided by operating managers with little involvement by HR department.
HR departments become involved when internal job openings are publicized to employees through job positioning programs, which informs employees about opening and required qualifications and invite qualify employees to apply. The notices usually are posted on company bulletin boards or are placed in the company newspaper. Qualification and other facts typically are drawn from the job analysis information.
The purpose of job posting is to encourage employees to seek promotion and transfers the help the HR department fill internal opening and meet employee’s personal objectives. Not all jobs openings are posted .Besides entry level positions, senior management and top stuff positions may be filled by merit or with external recruiting. Job posting is most common for lower level clerical, technical and supervisory positions.
1.2 Departing Employees
An often overlooked source of recruiters consists of departing employees. Many employees leave because they can no longer work the traditional 40 hours work week .School, child care needs and other commitments are the common reason. Some might gladly stay if they could rearrange their hours of work or their responsibilities .Instead, they quit when a transfer to a part-time job may retain their valuable skill and training. Even if part-time work is not a solution, a temporary leave of absence may satisfy the employee and some future recruiting need of the employer.
2. External source
When job opening cannot be filled internally, the HR department of Northern Fashion Ltd must look outside the organization for applicants. We discuss all the external source of recruitment at bellow:
2.1 Walk-ins and Write-ins:
Walk-ins are some seekers who arrived at the HR department of Northern Fashion Ltd in search of a job; Write-ins are those who send a written enquire .both groups normally are ask to complete and application blank to determine their interest and abilities. Usable application is kept in an active file until a suitable opening occurs or until an application is too old to be considered valid, usually six months.
2.2 Employee referrals:
Employees may refer job seekers to the HR department .Employee referrals have several advantages .Employees with hard –to –find job skill may no others who do the same work.
Employee’s referrals are excellent and legal recruitment technique, but they tend to maintain the status quo of the work force in term of raise, religions, sex and other characteristics, possibly leading to charges of discrimination.
Want ads describe the job and the benefits, identify the employer, and tell those who are interested how to apply .They are most familiar form of employment advertising .for highly specialist requites, ads may be placed in professional journal or out of town newspaper in areas with high concentration of the desired skills
General Manager- production (ref: PM)
-Age: 28-35 years; Graduate with specialization in garment mfg technology from NIFT or equiv.
-Minimum 10 years experience in similar position of a unit with a minimum of 1000machines.
-Must have detailed hands on knowledge of industrial engineering.
We offer competitive salary which is commensurate with experience and qualification.
If you aspire to an exiting and rewarding career, send your detailed resume, quoting your present and expected salaries to jobs.
Now today no body thinks anything without internet. So Northern Fashion Ltd give their advertise at internet.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE HUMAN RESOURCES
The long term development of human resources as distinct from training for a specific job is of growing concern to HR departments of Northern Fashion Ltd. Throw the development of current employees the department reduces the company’s dependents on haring new workers .if employees are developed properly the job openings found throw HR planning are more likely to be filled internally promotions and transfers also show employees that they have a career not just a job. The employee benefits from increased continuity in operations and from employees who fail a greater commitment.
HR department is also an effective way to meets several challenges including employee obsolescence, international and domestic diversity, technical challenges. Affirmative action and employee turn over. By meeting these challenges the department can, maintain an effective workforce.
Performance appraisal is the process of assessing employee’s past performance, primarily for reward, promotion and staff development purposes.
‘Performance appraisal (is) a process that identifies, evaluates and develops employee performance to meet employee and organizational goals.
Performance Appraisal doesn’t necessarily use to blame or to provide a disciplinary action. Previous management theories used to view performance appraisal as a stick that management has introduced to beat people. Performance appraisals are now more clarified and they concentrate on developing organizational strengths and employee performance.
Purpose of Performance Appraisal in Northern Fashion Limited
· To review past performance
· To assess training needs
· To help develop individuals
· To audit the skills within an organization
· To set targets for future performance
· To identify potential for promotion
· To provide legal & formal justification for employment decision
· To diagnose the hidden problems of an organization
Performance Appraisal Process
• Self appraisal
Approaches to measuring performance in NORTHERN FASHION LTD
There are various kind of method for measuring performance appraisal. But we get information that Northern Fashion Ltd uses only three type of performance method. These are at below:
1. 360- degree feedback
2. Experience based.
We describe those at below:
One currently popular methods of performance appraisal is called 360-degree feedback. With this method managers peers, suppliers or colleagues are ask to complete questionnaire. The questionnaire is generally lengthy
2. Experience based
Northern Fashion Ltd measures the performance of employee by experience. For example MR. X has been working in Northern Fashion Ltd for three years and MR. Y has been working in NORTHERN FASHION LTD for two years. So Northern Fashion Ltd favors MR. X for his more experience
EMPLOYEE RELATION & JOB ANALYSIS
Employers and employees each have their own sets of needs and values, and successful relationship between these two sides requires that some sort of balance be struck. This balance often takes the form of a psychological contract, an understood agreement between employer and employees that defines the work relationship. This contract with or without support of a formal collective bargaining, agreement influence the outcome achieve by each side.
NORTHERN FASHION LTD group the various into three channel categories those are
1. Employee safety
2. Employee health
3. Employee working condition
1. Employee safety
NORTHERN FASHION LTD provides the employee safety .It ensure the all kinds of job safety such as insurance of each employee not this it provide insurance to the labor.
2. Employee health
Free medical checkup, provide health card and also provide necessary medical facilities for each employee.
3. Employee working condition
The working condition of employee is very hygienic
Northern Fashion Ltd is ISO 9001-2000 Certified company
Job analysis is the procedure for determining the duties and skill requirement of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it .
The supervisor or HR specialist of Northern Fashion Ltd normally collects one of the following types of information:
First he or she collects information about the job actual work activities such as marketing, sewing, production. This list also include how, why and when the worker performance each activity.
Education and qualification
Collects the information about education background and qualification.
Experience must be needed for any job in Northern Fashion ltf.
SAMPLE OF JOB ANALYSIS OF NORTHERN FASHION LTD:
Quality control manager
Master in any subject
Bachelor/diploma in textile and clothing or related discipline will be given preference
Must have at least 7 years practical experience in similar position in any garments factory.
Cutting Astt. Manager (cum in-charge)
Masters/ bachelor in any subject preferably commerce.
Bachelor/diploma in textile and clothing or related discipline will be given preference
Must have at least 7 years practical experience experience in similar position in any garments factory.
Ware house Astt. Manger
Diploma in textile and clothing or related discipline will be given preference
Must have at least 5 years practical experience in similar position in any garments factory
Production Officer (Sewing)
Must have at least 3 years practical experience in similar position in knit garments.
Must have at least 5 years practical experience in similar position in knit garments.
Experience and skill for all above jobs:
Candidate must have experience to work with world reputed buyers
Good writing and communication both in Bengali and English
Should be capable of making QA reports on daily basis
Computer literacy in MS world, Excel, e-mail Northern Fashion Ltd
BENEFITS OF NORTHERN FASHION LTD.
Benefits of Northern Fashion Ltd
Employee benefits & services were formerly known as fringe benefits and these benefits were primarily the in-kind payments employees receive in addition to payments in the form of money.
In addition to paying employees fairly and adequately for their contributions in the performance of their jobs, organizations assume a social obligation for the welfare of employees and their dependents
Employee benefits are usually inherent components of the non-compensation system are made available to employees that provide:
– Protection in case of health & accident
– Income upon retirement & termination
These benefits are components that contribute to the welfare of the employee by filling some kind of demand.
Legally required benefits of Northern Fashion Ltd
• Social Security
– Social security benefits include the general benefits like unemployment insurance & benefits, old age insurance, and Medicare facilities.
• Workers’ Compensation
– Worker’s compensation includes the compensation when an employee becomes injured or disable due to extreme working conditions or while working at the job site.
• Family & Medical Leave
– Family leave includes the compensation continuation during the family leave such as maternity or paternity leave and other family leave.
• Old age, Survivor, Disability Insurance requirements for getting compensation:
– Earn 40 quarters of credit, or
– Be employed for 10 years
– Be age 62 for partial benefits
– Be age 65 for full benefits
– Now the age has been extended to age 67 because more and more workers are retiring late.
– Widow aged 60 +
Depends on the country’s policy, Medicare facilities are generally government services to citizens. Organizations add some value to Medicare facilities. In some countries Medicare is financed together by employees’ tax, employers and the government.
Provided insurance coverage for
– Hospitalization – Covers inpatient & outpatient hospital care & services.
– Major Doctor bills – Charges of visiting a doctor or specialist.
– Prescription drug costs.
– Provides unlimited in-home care in certain situations.
• Workers’ compensation is a legally required benefit is included in the compulsory disability laws of many countries. Mostly, employer is seen liable regardless of the fault.
• Objectives of Workers’ compensation:
– Provide income & medical benefits
– Reduce litigation
– Eliminate legal fees & time
– Encourage employer safety
– Promote accident study & avoidance
• Workers’ compensation claims
– Occupational disease
• Workers’ compensation benefits
– Medical services
– Disability income
– Death benefits
• Discretionary benefits are judgment based benefits that the organization provides to its employees. These benefits are not legally required benefits but enhances organizational culture and corporate image.
• Benefits include:
– Protection programs
– Pay for time not worked
– Other services
Pay for time not worked
• Funeral leave
• Marriage leave
• Sick leave
• Stress leave
• Blood donation or welfare work
• Personal leave
• Sabbatical leave/ For Muslims, leave after death
• Other religious leaves such as pilgrimage or preaching
Seals and merchandising section is very important section in northern fashion limited. The factory overall seals depends on the merchandising section. Merchandising section done some specific work. They are given below:
· Communicate with buyer and receive the order.
· Meet the buyer and approve the sample.
· Collection raw materials and all accessories.
· Monitoring the production progress.
· Help the buyer for inspection of product.
BASIC PART OF T-SHIRT:
|Final measurement of garments||N|
|½ Minimum head space||61|
|½ Sleeve bottom width||9|
|½ Armhole length||12|
|½ Sleeve top width||15|
|½ bottom width||11|
FABRIC AND SWING THREAD CONSUMPTION:
When the merchandiser received the order from the buyer then he will calculate the total fabric and swing thread consumption. After he will calculate fabric consumption then he gives order knitting manager to produce required quantity of fabric.
Formula of body fabric consumption with CM:
Length = 40 cm
Width = 30 cm
Required quantity 50,000 pcs
40×30×180× 12÷10÷1,00,000,00=.02592 kg per Dozen
4167×.02592 =1080 kg fabric
Note = 50000÷12=4167 (1 dozen= 12 pcs)
Formula of fabric consumption with inch:
Length = 40 inch
Width =30 inch
Required quantity 50,000 pcs
40×30×180×12÷10÷1550÷1000 = .1672 kg per dozen
Note: 1 inch =2.54 cm
Formula of neck fabric consumption with CM:
Length = 10 cm
Width = 3 cm
Required quantity 50,000 pcs
10×3×180×12÷10÷1,00,000,00=.000648 kg per dozen
4167×.000648 =2.70 kg fabric
Note = 50000÷12=4167 (1 dozen= 12 pcs)
Measurement of placket to use interlining:
Length = 25 cm
Width = 2 cm
Total order 14000 pcs
CALCULATE OF SWING THREAD CONSUMPTION:
Knit composite garments are generally used three types of swing Machine.
§ Over lock machine.
§ Flat lock machine.
§ Plain machine.
Over lock Machine:
Over lock machine are frequently used in knit composite garments. Generally neck joint, solder, armhole, side sleeve joint are used over lock machine.
Swing thread consumption with inch:
Armhole 8×2 =16
Total = 116inch
Flat lock machine:
Flat lock machine are used to join bottom him, sleeve, neck top sin, armhole top sin.
Swing thread consumption:
Armhole 8×2 =16
Total = 116inch
Total used sewing thread:
146×15000 pcs (order quantity)
Length 92 cm
Width 80 cm
High 40 cm
Play 7 cm
(Length+ Width) × (High+ width) ×2+wastage÷10000×ply×quantity
= 6068.16 meters.
GREIGE BODY & RIB INSPECTION:
Body and rib inspection process can be defined as a process to detect and identify the Fashion faults in the fabric by visual assessment on the inspection machine.
COLLAR & CUFF INSPECTION:
Collar & cuff inspection is a process of identifying quality faults in the knitted collar and cuff from flat knit machine.
Equipments used for greige inspection process are:-
- Inspection machine (calator,1095622 sweden)
- Inspection table.
Key accessories used for greige inspection process are:-
Ø Weighting balance
Ø Inch tape.
BODY & RIB INSPECTION:
All rolls are kept in front of the inspection m/c time to time and are inspected over the greige inspection m/c visually in a pre-set speed against light. For any major or minor faults like thick-thin, barre mark, fall out, contamination, fly, holes, oil lines, needle line, slubs etc are recorded in greige inspection report to classify the fabric based on the four point system.
Collar& cuff are inspected visually under the light box, any major or minor faulty collar/cuff like having wrong ply, hole, needle line, slubs, wrong design, first round problem etc properly counted and recorded.
FABRIC ROLL IDENTIFICATION:
Based on the sequence of greige inspection, the inspector serially numbers each roll ensuring that all rolls having the knit card with complete details of the roll.
Operation stuffs for greige inspection process are:-
Ø Manager, quality control
Ø Sr. inspector
The four point system is followed to inspect the body & rib fabric. The defects found and points given against are recorded in the inspection sheet.
Following table shows the four point grading system followed by greige inspection at NFL.
|Four point grading system|
|Size of defects||Penalty|
|3 inches or less||1 point|
|Over 3 inch but not over 6 inch||2 point|
|Over 6 inch but not over 9 inch||3 point|
|Over 9 inch||4 point|
Following table shows common body and rib faults and response by greige inspection section at NFL:-
|Rejection criteria for body & ribs|
|1.||Needle mark||Major needle line is rejected|
|2.||Stripe||Major needle line is rejected|
|4.||Contamination fly||Approved for color but for white shed 1 point is assigned|
|6.||Thick thin place||Reject|
|7.||Birds eye||1 point|
|8.||Pin holes||1 point|
|10.||Mixed yarn||Discuss with manager|
|11.||Sinker mark||Major sinker mark is rejected.|
|12.||Missing yarn||Use 4 point|
Following table shows common collar and cuff fault and response taken by greige inspection section at NFL:-
|Rejection criteria for collar & cuff|
|7.||Fly & contamination||Acceptable for color but not for white|
|8.||First round problem||Reject|
|9.||Uneven tension||Discuss with manager|
Following table shows the acceptance calculation followed by the greige inspection section at NFL:-
|Factory: Roll yardage (A)|
Total points founds(B)
Formula : X100 =points per 100 yard
<= 40 points = A type