An economic institution whose main aim is to earn profit through exchange of money & credit instruments of Southeast Bank Limited
A Bank is an economic institution whose main aim is to earn profit through exchange of money & credit instruments. It is a service oriented as well as profit oriented organization. To perform those two functions simultaneously, the Bank divides its operation mainly in four parts- General Banking, Accounts and General Services, Loan & Advances and Foreign Exchange. Bank also invests their money into different financial security and also in different types of project to diversify the risk and getting more profit.
The banking sector of Bangladesh is passing through a tremendous reform under the economic deregulation and opening up the economy. Currently this sector is becoming extremely competitive with the arrival of multinational banks as well as emerging and technological infrastructure, effective credit management, higher performance level and utmost customer satisfaction.
Southeast Bank Limited is one of the leading private commercial Banks having a spread network 56 branches across Bangladesh and plans to open few more branches to cover the important commercial areas in Bangladesh. The bank has been operating in Bangladesh since 1995 and has achieved public confidence as a sound, stable and trustworthy Bank.
The completed internship in the Gulshan Branch of Southeast Bank Limited. During internship period found here a good job environment and also got a lot of cooperation from every department and every person. It is a great task to prepare a report on a big branch and at this moment feel very happy to complete this. The found that Southeast Bank gained success very early because they have a very strong backup to provide financial as well as administrative support. Within a very short time this bank has become very much popular to the people. They gained success from the very beginning of their operation and were capable enough to hold the success year after year.
1.1 Origin of the Report
This report is originated as the course requirement of BBA Program (Major in Accounting) of Department of Accounting and Information Systems, University of Dhaka. As practical orientation is integral part of BBA Program requirement, was assigned to the Southeast Bank Limited, Gulshan Branch to take the real life exposure of the activities of banking financial institutions from July 4, 2010 to August 14, 2010.
1.2 Background of the Report
Any academic course of the study has a great value when it has practical application in the real life. Only lots of theoretical knowledge will be little important unless it is applicable in the practical life. So we need proper application of our knowledge to get some benefit from our theoretical knowledge to make it more fruitful when we engage ourselves in such field to make proper use of our theoretical knowledge in our practical life. Such an application is made possible through internship. When theoretical knowledge is obtained from a course of study it is only the half way of the subject matter. Internship implies the full application of the methods and procedures through rich acquired knowledge of subject matter can be fruitfully applied in our daily life. The case study is titled “Foreign Exchange practice of Southeast Bank Limited”.As a student of BBA this study will be more significant in my practical life. have worked for Six Weeks at “Gulshan Branch” of Southeast Bank Limited to complete the internship program as an academic requirement.
1.3 Report Objectives
Objective of the study acts as a bridge between the starting point and the goals of the study. To illustrate the objectives properly, presented into two parts:
o To get practical idea about commercial banking activity.
o To observe the Foreign Exchange operation of Southeast Bank Limited and their services.
o To observe the major outline of foreign business.
o To analysis the expansion of Foreign Trade business of the SEBL.
1.4 Scope of the Report
The main objective of the study is to obtain a clear idea about Foreign Exchange business of our banking operation i.e. how the L/C is opened and how the import & export is done. The other objectives are as follows:
· To fulfill the requirement of our BBA Program.
· To evaluate the performance of the Southeast Bank Limited import and export business.
1.5 Methodology of the Report
While conducting the study collected various types of primary and secondary data. Data has been collected through different sources, by communicating with the responsible officers and from different circular published by the Bank. can say that the study inputs were collected from two sources:
- The Primary sources of Data:
o Practical banking work.
o Face to face conversation with the respective officer of the branch.
o Relevant file study as provided by the officers concerned.
· The Secondary sources of Data:
o Annual Reports of the SEBL.
o Different books, articles etc. regarding Foreign Exchange operations.
1.6 Limitations of Report
The study was not free of limitations. The limitations faced during the preparation of this report are given below:
· Lack of adequate information:
There was lack of sufficient primary and secondary data. As banking job is one of the busiest jobs, therefore they are busy, and show lack of interest to provide information.
· Time Limitation:
Intern period is only Six weeks which is not sufficient to cover the vast work area of the banking sector. Though main goal was to study the foreign Exchange section, the work in deferent section the bank as it was schedule by Bank authority.
· Secrecy of information:
Some of the information needed to explore the current market scenario of the company was not disclosed.
2.1 A Brief Overview on Southeast Bank Limited
Southeast Bank Limited is a second-generation bank that was established in 1995 with a dream and vision to become a pioneer banking institution of the country and contribute significantly to the growth of the national economy. The Bank’s journey began when it was incorporated as a Public Limited Company on March 12, 1995. The Registrar of Joint Stock Companies and Firms issued the Certificate of Commencement of Business of the Bank on the same date. The Bank received its Banking License from Bangladesh Bank on March 23, 1995.The Bank’s first branch was opened by Late M. Saifur Rahman, the Honorable Finance Minister of the Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh as the Chief Guest at the busiest commercial hub of the country at 1, Dilkusha Commercial Area, Dhaka on May 25, 1995.
Presently Southeast Bank is one of the country’s leading banks in the private sector contributing significantly to the country’s economy. The Bank has 56 branches in operation. The Authorized Capital of the Bank today is Tk. 10,000 million. Its Paid Up Capital & Reserve reached Tk. 9,927.16 million as on December 31, 2009. The Bank had 1402 staff of whom 113 were Executives, 1141 were Officers & 148 were other staff as on December 31, 2009.
The Southeast Bank was established by leading business personalities and eminent industrialists of the country with stakes in various segments of the national economy. They established the Bank with a vision to bring efficient and professional banking service to the people and business community of Bangladesh to help the national economy to grow.
Southeast Bank has become a synonym of quality service and products. It has a diverse array of products and services tailored carefully to cater to the needs of the customers. In the growth graph, it has generated profit of Tk. 1,870.19 million after provision and income tax in the year 2009. The curve keeps soaring upward everyday making it one of the leading and most successful banking institutions in Bangladesh with a total asset of Tk. 112,676.98 million as on December 31, 2009.
2.2 Corporate Information
- Registration No : C-27985(1831)/95
- Incorporation Date : March 12, 1995
- Address : 1, Dilkusha C/A, Dhaka-1000
- Line of Business : Banking
- Telephone No : (88-02)9550081-5,9567271-2
- E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
- Website : www.sebankbd.com
- Swift : SEBDBDDHXXX
- Chairman : Mr .Alamgir Kabir, FCA
- Managing Director : Mr. Mahbubul Alam
- Company Secretary : Mr. Muhammad Shahjahan
- Auditors : Hoda Vasi Chowdhury & Co.
- Legal Advisors : The Law Syndicate
- No of Shareholders : 22,152
- No of Branches : 56
- No of Employees : 1402
- Financial Year : January – December
- Listing Status : Dhaka Stock Exchange Ltd.
- Chittagong Stock Exchange Ltd.
2.3 Hierarchy of the Southeast Bank Limited
2.4 Board of Directors
- Mr. Alamgir Kabir, FCA
- Vice Chairman:
o Mr. Ragib Ali.
o Mr. M A KAsem.
o Mr. Azim Uddin Ahmed.
o Bangla Capital Limited represented by Tanveer Harun
o Mr. Tahnoun A Harun.
o Ms. Jusna Akhter Kasem.
o Ms Duluma Ahmed.
o Rehana Rahman.
o Md. Akikur Rahman.
o Mr. M A Ahad.
o Sirat Monira
o Karnafuli Tea Company Limited represented by Abdul Hye.
o Dr. Saidi Sattar.
o Mr. A H M Moazzem Hossain
- Managing Director:
o Mr. Mahbubul Alam
- Company Secretary:
o Mr. Muhammad Shahjahan
2.5 Mission, Vision & Commitment to Clint’s of SEBL
o To be a premier banking institution in Bangladesh and contribute significantly to the national economy
o High quality financial services with state of the art technology.
o Fast customer service.
o Sustainable growth strategy.
o Follow ethical standards in business.
o Steady return on shareholder’s equity.
o Innovative banking at a competitive price.
o Attract and retain quality human resource.
o Commitment to Corporate Social Responsibility.
· Commitment to Clients:
Ours is a customer focused modern banking institution in Bangladesh. We deliver unparallel financial services to retail, Small, Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Corporate, Institutional, Governmental and Individual clients through branch outlets across the country. Our business initiatives centre on the emerging demands of the market. Our commitments to the client are the following:
o Provide service with high degree professionalism and use of modern technology.
o Create long term relationship based on mutual trust.
o Respond to customer needs with speed and accuracy.
o Share their values and beliefs.
o Grow as bank customer grows.
o Provide product at service at competitive pricing.
o Ensure safety and security of customer valuables in trust with us.
o Synchronized and steady growth of the bank.
o Utilize all available resources to develop various plans, policies and procedures in each of the objective and goal areas.
o Implement plans, policies and procedures.
o Utilize a team of professional employees.
2.7 Main Operational Area
As a commercial bank, Southeast Bank limited does all traditional banking business including the wide range of savings and credit scheme products, retail banking and ancillary services with the support of modern technology and professional excellence. The bank has launched a number of financial products and services since its inception. Among them different types of monthly savings schemes have achieved wide acceptance among the people.
2.8 General Banking
General Banking is designed to provide financial service to the general people in saving their money, smoothing transactions for businessman and ensure security of the precious wealth of the clientele. Under general banking the Southeast Bank Ltd. provides offers varies kind of accounts, issue demand draft, telegraph transfer, pay order etc. since bank is confirmed to Provide the services everyday general banking is also known as “Retail Banking”.
· Deposit Schemes:
Bank has the following customer friendly deposit schemes:
o Current Deposit Scheme (CD)
o Savings Deposit scheme (SB)
o Short Notice Deposit Scheme (SND)
o Monthly Saving Scheme (MSS)
o Monthly Income Scheme (MIS)
o Pension Savings Scheme (PSS)
o Double Benefit Deposit Scheme (SBDS)
o Millionaire Deposit Scheme (MDS)
o Fixed Deposits ( 1, 2, 3, 6 & 12 months )
2.9 Accounts and General Services
Accounts and general service division maintains the internal expenditure and internal audit of the branch. Here internal expenditure means the regular office maintenance and entertainment cost of the branch. More over internal audit means sorting, cross checking and summarizing of all documents of the bills, vouchers, cheque and deposits for internal audit. After that all documents are preserved in the branch for two year for any future reference.
2.10 Loans and Advance
Credit is the confidence of the lender in the ability and willingness to the borrower to repay the loan at a future date. It is generally believed that confidence is the basis of all credit transaction. The fundamental principles, upon which credit is generally based on, are character, capacity, capital, responsibility, reliability and resources of borrower. Lending is a function that is crucial to the banker, because of the associate risk and profit potential. Quality of lending depends on safety, liquidity, yield, diversity, productivity, purpose national and social interest, management ability, borrower analysis and business analysis.
· Loan Schemes:
o Time Loan ( 5, 3 years)
o Term Loan ( 60 Installments)
§ Hypothecation ( against fixed asset)
§ Secured overdraft ( against FDR)
§ Scheme (against DPS).
§ Consumer Credit Scheme (CCS)
· Incase of foreign exchange the loans are:
o Packing Credit
o Inland Bill Purchase (IBP)
o Foreign Bill Purchase (FBP)
o Trust Receipt (TR).
2.11 Foreign Exchange
Foreign exchange means exchange of foreign currency between two countries. Foreign exchange deals with foreign financial transactions. There are three types of foreign exchange transactions:
o Export &
o Foreign Remittance.
The main topic of internship report is “Foreign Exchange Practice of Southeast Bank Limited”. will discuss about the topic in the later chapter.
Foreign trade can be easily defined as a business activity, which transcends national boundaries. These may be between parties or government ones. Trades among nations are a common occurrence and normally benefit both the exporter and importer.
Foreign trade can usually be justified on the principle of comparative advantage. According to this economic principle, it is economical profitable for a country to specialize in the production of that commodity in which the producer country has the greater comparative advantage and to allow the other country to produce that commodity in which it has the lesser comparative advantage. It includes the spectrum of goods, services, investment, technology transfer etc.
This trade among various countries causes for close linkage between the parties dealing in trade. The bank, which provides such transactions, is referred to as rendering international banking operations. International trade demands a flow of goods from seller to buyer and of payment from buyer to seller. And this flow of goods and payment are done through letter of credit (L/C).
3.2 Foreign Exchange
As more than one currency is involved in foreign trade, it gives rise to exchange of currencies which is known as foreign exchange. The term “Foreign Exchange” has three principal meanings. Firstly, it is a term used referring to the currencies of the other countries in terms of any single one currency. To a Bangladeshi, Dollar, pound sterling etc. are foreign currencies and as such foreign exchange. Secondly, the term also commonly refer to some interments used in international trade, such as bill of exchange, Drafts, Travel cheque and other means of international remittance. Thirdly, the terms foreign exchange is also quite of ten referred to the balance in foreign currencies held by a country.
In exercise of the power conferred by section 3 of the foreign exchange regulation, 1947, Bangladesh Bank issues license to schedule bank to deal with exchange. These banks are known as Authorized Dealers. Licensees are also issued by Bangladesh Bank to persons or firms to exchange foreign currency instruments such as T.C, currency notes and coins. They are known as Authorized moneychangers.
3.3 Functions of Foreign Exchange Department
o Pre-shipment advances.
o Purchase of foreign bills.
o Negotiating of foreign bills.
o Advising/Confirming letters – letter of credit.
o Advance for deferred payments exports.
o Advance against bills for collection.
o Opening of letter of credit (L/C)
o Advance Import through LCAF.
o Import loan.
o Issue of DD, TT etc.
o Payment of DD, TT etc.
o Issue and enhancement of traveler’s cheque.
o Sale and enhancement of foreign currency notes.
3.4 The Most commonly used documents in Foreign Exchange
o Documentary Letter of Credit.
o Bill of Lading.
o Commercial Invoice.
o Certificate of origin of goods.
o Inspection certificate.
o Packing List.
o Insurance Policy.
o Pro-forma Invoice / Indent.
· Documentary Letter of Credit:
In simple terms, a documentary credit is a conditional bank undertaking a payment. Expressed more fully, it is a written undertaking by a bank (issuing bank) given to seller (beneficiary) at the request, and in accordance with the instructions of the buyer (applicant) to effect payment (that is, by making a payment, or accepting or negotiating bill of exchange) up to a stated sum of money, with in a prescribed time limit and against stipulated documents. The customary clauses contain in a L/C are the followings:
o A clause authorizing the beneficiary to draw bills of exchange up to certain on the opener.
o List of shipping documents, which are to accompany the bills.
o Description of the goods to be shipped.
o An undertaking by the opening bank that bills drawn in accordance with the conditions will be dully honored.
o Instructs to the negotiating banks for obtaining reimbursement of payments under the credit.
· Parties to a Letter of Credit (L/C):
o Importer/Buyer: Importer/buyer is the person who requests/instructs the opening bank to open a L/C. he is also called opener or applicant of the credit.
o Opening/Issuing Bank: It is the bank which opens/issues a L/C on behalf of the importer. It is also called importer’s/buyer’s bank.
o Exporter/Seller/Beneficiary is the party in whose favor the L/C is established.
o Confirming Bank: It is the bank, which adds its confirmation to the credit and it is done at request of issuing bank. Confirming bank may or may not be the advising bank.
o Advising/Notifying Bank: It is the bank through which the LIC is advised to the exporters. This bank is actually situated in exporter’s country. It may also assume the role of confirming and/or negotiating bank depending upon the condition of the credit.
o Negotiating Bank: It is the bank that negotiates the bills and pays the amount of the beneficiary. It has to carefully scrutinize the documentary credit before negotiation in order to see whether the documents apparently are in order or not. The advising bank and the negotiating bank may or may not be the same. Sometimes it can also be confirming bank.
o Paying/Accepting Bank: It is the bank on which the bill will be drawn (as per condition of the credit). It is nominated in the credit to make payments against stipulated documents complying with the terms of the credit. It may or may not be the issuing bank.
· Bill of Lading:
A bill of leading is a document that is usually stipulated in a credit when the goods are dispatched by sea. It is evidence of a contract of carriage, is a receipt for the goods, and is a document of title to the goods. It also constituted a document that is, or may be, needed to support an insurance claim.
The Details on the bill of Leading should include:
- A description of the goods in general terms not inconsistent with in the credit.
- Identify marks and numbers, if any.
- The name of the carrying vessel.
- Evidence that the goods have been loaded on board.
- The ports of shipment and discharge.
- The names of shipper, consignee, and name and address of the notifying party.
- Whether freight has been [paid or is payable at destination.
- The number of original bills of lading issued.
- The date of issuance.
A bill of lading specifically states that goods are loaded for ultimate destination specifically mentioned in the credit.
· Commercial Invoice:
A Commercial Document is the accounting document by which the sellers change the goods to the buyer. Its main purpose is to check whether the appropriate goods have been shipped and their unit price, total value, marking on the packages etc are consistent with those given in other documents. A commercial invoice normally includes the following information:
- Name and address of the buyer and seller.
- Quantity and description of the goods, unit price and the total price.
- Weight of the goods, number of the package, shipping marks and numbers.
- Complete reference of the letter of credit number, the relevant import license number.
- Terms of delivery and payment.
- Shipment details.
· Certificate of Origin:
A certificate of origin is a signed statement providing evidence of the origin of the goods and it is required in compliance with exchange control regulation in the importing country. It is issued by Chamber of Commerce, Trade Associations or any other authority authorized by the government to issue the certificate.
· Inspection Certificate:
This is a certificate declaring that the goods have been examined and found to be in accordance with the contract of sale. This is signed by the manufacturer or supplier, but the contract of sale may require it is to be issued by a recognized independent inspection body. It is also called survey report.
· Packing List:
The Exporter must prepare a packing list showing, item by item, the contains of the containers or cases to enable the importer of the goods to check the shipments. It should give description of the goods, net weight and gross weight, specific packages and thus may facilitate assessment by the customs
· Insurance Certificate:
The Insurance Certificate documents must –
- Be that specified in the credit.
- Cover the risks specified in the credit.
- Be consistent with the other documents in its identification of the voyage and description of the goods.
- Unless otherwise specified in the credit.
- Be a document issued and / or signed by an insurance company or its agent, or by underwriters.
- Be dated on or before the date of the date of shipment as evidenced by the shipping documents.
- Be for an amount at least equal to the CIF value of the goods and in the currency of credit.
· Pro-forma invoice/Indent:
Pro-forma invoice is a memorandum of the terms of a contract of sale wherein the seller gives the quotation to a potential buyer. If the buyer approves its terms he sends a definite order for supply.
3.5 Import Practice of SEBL
Import is the flow of goods and services purchased by economic agents located in one country from economic agents located in another
· Import Policy :
Under the Imports and Exports (Control) Act, 1950 the Government of Bangladesh formulates the Import Policy through Ministry of Commerce.
The existing Import Policy (1997-2002) has come into effect from June 14,1998 to June 30, 2002.
· Main Features of Import Policy (1997-2002) :
1. Import facility through import permit and clearance permit;
2. Import facility through indent and pro-forma invoice;
3. Import facility for specimen, advertisement related goods and gifts without permission in a limited amount;
4. Temporary import facility for re-export;
5. Import facility through barter;
6. Joint import facility (group of industrial consumers and commercial importers);
7. Import facility on the basis of deferred payment and against suppliers credit;
8. Import on the basis of deferred payment subject to the clearance of BB;
9. Import of EPZ and export from it beyond the purview of this policy. It will be regulated by respective BB and NBR orders;
10. Import facility up to $2,000 for actual user without permission;
11. Import facility on the basis of direct payment in foreign countries;
12. The number of banned and conditional items has been reduced to 121 from 703;
13. BEPZA, BSCIC and BOI have been treated as patron organizations in the case of industrial capital machinery import.
14. Maximum customs duty has been reduced from 45% to 42.5% (now – from 42.5% to 40%); Nominal tariff rate has been reduced to 20.3%, 1991/92 – 57.5%);
15. Import under L/C – L/C must be irrevocable. But in case of perishable items like food from $5,000 to $7,500 transported by road L/C is not required;
16. Import through LCA form without opening of any L/C: Books, Magazines, Publications (on the basis of sight draft/Usance bill);
17. Industrial raw materials and capital goods can be imported without opening L/C;
18. Government sector bodies can import without any license, permit and IRC;
19. Special import facility for non-resident Bangladeshi scientists, doctors, engineers etc. to import instruments and appliances without any permission;
20. Facility of imports for export-oriented industries by govt, foreign exchange rate
21. L/C on import of capital machinery and spare parts for new industrial units can be opened without IRC (Import Registration Certificate).
22. Commercial import by cash payment only.
· Import Procedure:
Imports are purchase of foreign goods and services by consumers, firms and Government in Bangladesh.
· The Importer must obtain Import Registration Certificate (IRC) from the CCI&E submitting the following papers :
- Up to date Trade License
- Nationality and Asset Certificate
- Income Tax Certificate.
- In case of a company, Memorandum & Articles of Association And Certificate of Incorporation
- Bank Solvency Certificate etc.
§ Then the importer has to contact with the seller outside the country to obtain the pro-forma invoice.
Usually a local agent of the seller or foreign agent of the buyer makes this communication. Other sources are:
1. Trade fair
2. Chamber of commerce
3. Foreign mission in Bangladesh
4. Journals etc
- After the importer accepts the Pro-forma invoice, he makes a purchase contract with the exporter detailing the terms and conditions of the import.
- After making the purchase contract, import procedure differs with different means of payment. In most cases import payment is made by the documentary letter of credit in our country. The other means are Cash in Advance, Open Account, and Collection methods. It is mentioned in the purchase contract, which payment procedure has to be applied.
Different payment procedures are:
· Cash in advance :
Importer pays full, partial or progressive payment by a foreign DD, TT. After receiving payment, exporter will send the goods and the transport receipt to the importer. Importer will take delivery from the transport company.
· Open account :
Exporter ships the goods and sends transport receipt to the importer. Importer will take delivery and makes payment by foreign DD, TT at some specified date.
· Collection methods :
Collection methods are either clean collection or documentary collection. Again, documentary collection may be document against payment or document against acceptance. Another is direct collection in which the exporter obtains his bank’s pre-numbered direct collection letter.
· Letter of credit :
Letter of the credit is the well accepted and most commonly used means of payment. It is an undertaking for payment by the issuing bank to the beneficiary, upon submission of some stipulated documents and fulfilling the terms and conditions mentioned in the letter of credit.
· L/C Opening Process:
In foreign exchange banking Letter of credit (L/C) opening is an important part. L/C opening is a set of procedure which every importer needs to follow to import their products. At first importer need to contact with Exporter and with their mutual understanding exporter prepare Pro-forma Invoice and sent it to the importer.
After received the Pro-forma invoice importer present it to their bank that is known as issuing bank that prepare L/C on behalf of importer. After preparing L/C proposal need to send Head office of issuing bank for approval. After approval, issuing bank open L/C on behalf of Importer, signed it by proper authority of bank officer, and send it their authorized export county bank for authentication. The process is done through SWIFT. The bank that provides authentication then it called advising bank. After given the authentication seal-advising bank send it to the exporter bank as per requirement of invoice
Papers required at the time of opening on L/C:
o Import Registration Certificate
o Trade License
o IMP Form
o Letter of Credit Authorization (LCA form)]
o Indent in case of indenture
o Pro-forma Invoice
o Credit report of the importer
o Credit report of the seller should be collected from correspondent bank
o In case of F.O.B./C&F., insurance cover note
o In case of quota item, quota allocation paper.
· Importer’s application for L/C limit / margin:
To have an import L/C limit, an importer submits an application to the department of (SEBL) furnishing the following information:
o Full particulars of bank account.
o Nature of business.
o Required amount of limit.
o Payment terms and conditions.
o Goods to be imported.
o Offered security.
o Repayment schedule.
A credit officer scrutinizes this application and accordingly prepares a proposal and forwards it to the head office credit committee (HOCC). The committee, if satisfied, sanctions the limit and returns back to the branch. Thus the importer is entitled for the limit.
· Before opening a L/C, the issuing bank must check the following:
o L/C application properly stamped, signature verified and margin approved and properly retained.
o Indent / Pro-forma Invoice signed by the importer and Indenter / supplier.
o Ensure that the relevant particulars of L/C application correspond with those stipulated in Indenter / Pro-forma Invoice.
o Validity of LCA entitlement of goods, amount etc. conforms to the L/C application.
o Conversion and rate of exchange correctly applied.
o Charges like commission, Postage, Telex charge, SWIFT charge, if any recovered.
o Insurance Cover Note – in the name of issuing bank – A/c importer covering required risks and voyage route.
o Incorporation of instruction for Negotiating Bank as per banks existing arrangement.
o Reimbursement instructions for reimbursing bank.
o If foreign bank confirmation is required, necessary permission should be obtained and accordingly advising bank is advised as per banks existing arrangement.
o If add confirmation is required on account of the applicant charges should be recovered from the applicant.
o In case of askance L/C, mention interest rate clearly in the letter of credit.
Fig# 3-1: L/C Opening Process.
· Charges of L/C Opening:
o L/C Margin
o Postage/Swift Charge
· Liability of Issuing Bank:
As per Article 9(a) of UCPDC 600, An Irrevocable Credit constitutes a definite undertaking of the issuing Bank, provided that the stipulated documents comply with the terms and conditions of the credit.
· Advising of Letter of Credit:
Advising means forwarding of a Documentary Letter of Credit received from the issuing bank to the beneficiary (Exporter).
Before advising a L/C the advising Bank must verify the following:
o Signature of Issuing Bank officials on the L/C verified with the specimen signatures book of the said bank when L/C received.
o If the export L/C is intended to be an operative cable L/C Test Code on the L/C invariably be agreed and authenticated by two authorized officers.
o L/C scrutinized thoroughly complying with the requisites of concerned UCPDC provisions.
o Entry made in the L/C Advising Register.
L/C advised to the Beneficiary (Exporter) promptly and advising charges recovered.
· Adding Confirmation:
The confirming bank does adding Confirmation. Confirming bank is a bank that adds its confirmation to the credit and it is done at the request of the issuing bank. The advising bank usually does not do it if there is not a prior arrangement with the issuing bank. By being involved as a confirming agent the advising bank undertakes to negotiate beneficiary’s bill without recourse to him.
o Issue L/C and request to add confirmation.
o Review the L/C terms.
o Provide reimbursement.
o Drafts to be drawn on L/C opening bank.
o Availability of credit facilities.
o Line allocation from the business and ownership units in the importer’s country.
o Confirm and advise L/C.
· Amendments to Letter of Credit:
After issuance and advising of a L/C, it may be felt necessary to delete, add or alter some of the clauses of the credit. All these modifications are communicated to the beneficiary through the same advising bank of the credit. Such modifications to a credit are termed as amendment to a letter of credit.
SEBL transmits the amendment by tested SWIFT to the advising bank. In case of revocable credit, it can be amended or cancelled by the issuing bank at any moment & without prior notice to the beneficiary. But in case of irrevocable L/C, it can neither be amended nor cancelled without the agreement of the issuing bank, the advising bank & the beneficiary. All the amendment forms an integral part of the original credit. If the L/C is amended, service & SWIFT charge is debited from the party account.
· The following clauses of L/C are generally amended:
o Increase/decrease value of L/C and increase/decrease of quality of goods.
o Extension of shipment/negotiated period.
o Terms of delivery i.e. FOB, CFR, and CIF etc.
o Mode of shipment.
o Inspection clause.
o Name and address of the supplier.
o Name of the reimbursing bank.
o Name of the shipping line etc.
§ Settlement of Letter of Credit:
Settlement means fulfillment of issuing bank in regard to affecting payment subject to satisfying the credit terms. Settlement to may be done under three separate arrangements as stipulated in the credit.
§ Settlement by Payment:
Here the seller presents the documents to the nominated bank and the bank scrutinizes the documents. If satisfied, the nominated bank makes payment to the beneficiary.
§ Settlement by Acceptance:
Under this arrangement, the seller submits the documents evidencing the shipment to the accepting bank (nominated by the issuing bank for acceptance) accompanied by draft down on the bank at the specified tenor. After being satisfied with the documents, the bank accepts the documents and the draft and at maturity the reimbursement will be obtained in the pre-agreed manner.
§ Settlement by Negotiation:
This settlement procedure starts with the submission of documents by the seller to the negotiating bank. After scrutinizing the documents the negotiating bank sends the documents to the issuing bank as usual; reimbursement will be obtained in the pre-agreed manner.
§ Accounting Treatment:
Payment Against Document s(PAD) A/C Dr.
Head Office A/C + Exchange Trading A/C Cr.
(Amount given to Head Office ID and interest credit)
Sundry Deposit L/C Margin A/C Dr.
PAD A/C Cr.
(Margin amount transferred to PAD A/C)
Customer A/C Dr.
PAD A/C Cr.
Income All (Interest on PAD) Cr.
(Customer A/C debited for the remaining Amount)
Banker’s Liability Dr.
Customer’s Liability Cr.
(When lodgment is given)
After realizing the telex charge, service charge, interest (if any), and the shipping documents is then stamped with PAD number & entered in the PAD Register. Intimation is given to the customer calling on the bank’s counter requesting retirement of the shipping documents. After passing the necessary vouchers, endorsements is made on the back of the bill of Exchange as “Receipt Payment” and the Bill of Lading is endorsed to the effect “Please deliver to the order of M/s………………………. under two authorized signatures bank’s officer’s .Then the documents are delivered to importer.
§ Payment procedure of the Import Documents:
This is the most sensitive task of the import department. The officials have to be very much careful while making payment.
o Date of Payment: Usually payment is made within 5 days after the documents have been received. If the payment is become deferred, the negotiating bank may claim interest for making delay.
o Preparing Sale Memo: A sale memo is made at BC rate to the customer. As the TT & OD rate is paid to the ID, the difference between these two rates is exchange trading. Finally, an Inter Branch Exchange Trading Credit Advice is sent to ID.
o Mode of payment: In case of making payment to the foreign importers, Telegraphic Transfer is used to remit the fund and for local importers FDD is issued.
o Requisition for the foreign Currency: For arranging necessary fund for payment, a requisition is sent to the International Department.
· Valued Import Customer of SEBL (GULSHAN BRANCH)
o KEYA SPINNING MILLS LTD.
o KEYA COTTON MILLS LTD.
o KEYA KNIT COMPOSITE LTD.
o SHORE TO SHORE BANGLADESH LIMITED.
o SHORE TO SHORE TEXTILES LIMITED.
o STS TEXTILES LIMITED.
o LANDMARK PRINTING & PACKING IND. LTD.
o CHAITY COMPOSIT LTD.
o JUZ TRADING INTERNATIONAL.
o RIPON PACKAGING IND. LTD.
o MEGACORP LTD.
o EVEREST RUG PRODUCTION LTD.
o AMTAK SYNDICATE.
o SWAPAN WASHINGLTD.
o OCEAN AUTO
o HAMEEM DENIM LTD.
o THE FABRICATORS LTD.
3.6 Export Practice of SEBL
Practically by the term Export we mean out carrying of anything from one country to another. As banker we define export as sending of visible things outside the country for sale. Export Trade plays a vital role in the development process of an economy. With the caring we meet out import bills.
Although export trade is always encouraged, any body cannot export anything to any place. Like importer the exporters are also required to get them registered before entering into export trade. Export registration certificate (ERC) given by CCI & E is required for this purpose. The required documents to obtain ERC are also same as IRC.
When a bank (Authorized dealer) receives a L/C (cable or original) it ascertains the correctness of the test number and the authorized signature. Then the bank sends the original copy of the L/C to the beneficiary.
The exporter presents the relative documents to the negotiating bank after the shipment of the goods. The L/C issuing bank undertakes to honor is obligation only if the beneficiary fulfills the conditions stipulated in the L/C, may namely, the submission of stipulated documents with in the stipulated time. Even a slide deviation of the documents from these specified in the L/C may give an excuse to the negotiating bank. So the negotiating bank must be careful, promote, systematic and bias-free while scrutinizing the tender documents after careful and thorough examination of the documents, the banker has to list out the discrepancies.
· Export Procedure:
The Export and Importer trade in our country are regulated by imports and exports (control) Act, 1950. Under the Export Policy of Bangladesh the exporter has to get the valid Export Registration Certificate (ERC) from chief controller of Import & Export (CCI & E). The ERC is required to renew every year. The ERC number is to be incorporated on EXP Forms and other papers connected with exports.
· Registration of Exporters:
For obtaining ERC indenting Bangladeshi exporters are required to apply to the Controller of import & export in the prescribed Form along with the following documents:
o Nationality and assets certificate.
o Memorandum and Articles of Association and certificate of Incorporation in case of limited company.
o Bank certificate.
o Income tax certificate.
o Trade license etc.
· Securing the Order:
After getting the ERC (Export Registration Certificate) the exporter may proceed to secure the export order. He/she can do this by containing the buyers directly or through agent. In this purpose exporter can get help from:
o Liaison Office.
o Buyer’s local agent.
o Export Promotion organization.
o Bangladesh mission abroad.
o Chamber of Commerce (Local & Foreign)
o Trade fair etc.
- Signing the contract:
After communicating with buyer exporter has to get contracted (writing or oral) for exporting exportable item(s) from Bangladesh detailing commodity, quantity, price, shipment, insurance and marks, inspection, arbitration etc.
- Receiving the Letter of Credit:
After getting contract for sale, exporter should ask the buyer for letter of credit clearly stating terms and conditions of export and payment. The following are the main points to be looked into for receiving /collecting export proceeds by means of documentary credit:
o The terms of the L/C are in conformity with those of the contract;
o The L/C is an irrevocable one, preferable confirmed by the advising bank;
o The L/C allows sufficient time for shipment and negotiation.
- Terms and conditions should be stated in contract clearly in case of other modes of payment:
o Cash in advance;
o Open A/C.
o Collection basis (documentary / clean).
o (Here the regulatory framework is URC-525, ICC Publication).
- Procuring the Materials:
After making the deal and on the L/C opened in his favor, the next step for the exporter is to set about the task of procuring or manufacturing the contracted materials/merchandise.
- Shipment of goods:
Then the exporter should take the preparation for export arrange for delivery of goods as per L/C and INCO-terms, prepare and submit shipping documents for Payment/ Acceptance/ Negotiation in due time. Documents for shipments –
- EXP Form,
- ERC (Valid),
- L/C Copy,
- Customer Duty Certificate,
- Shipping Instruction,’
- Transport Documents,
- Insurance Documents,
- Other documents,
- Bill of Exchange (if required),
- Certificate of Origin,
- Inspection Certificate,
· Final Step:
After those, exporter submits all these documents along with a letter of Indemnity to SEBL for negotiation. An officer scrutinizes all the documents. If the documents are clean, SEBL purchases the documents on the banker – customer relationship. This is known as Foreign Documentary Bill purchases (FDBP).
The negotiating bank much be careful promote and bias free will scrutinizing the tender documents. After careful and thorough examination of the documents, the banker has to list out the discrepancies.
· The following types of discrepancies may be noted while the negotiating bank examines the documents:
o L/C expired.
o Late shipment.
o Amount drawn in excess of the L/C.
o Bill of exchange not properly drawn.
o Descriptions of goods differ.
o Bill of Lading or Airway Bill state.
o Bill of Lading classed.
o Insurance Cover Note as per terms L/C.
o Insurance Cover obtained after the Bill of Lading or Airway Bill date.
o Enough number of copies not submitted as required by L/C.
o Negotiation under L/C restricted.
o Packing List and certificate of analysis not as per the L/C.
o Documents not properly endorsed in favor of the bank.
o Full shipment not effective and part shipment prohibited.
o Gross Weight and Net Weight shown in different documents differ.
o Same of the documents required by L/C not submitted and
o Documents inadequately stamped.
Documents with major discrepancies, which could not be negotiated, should be sent on collection basis with the permission of the exporter.
· Procedure for Foreign Documentary Bills for Collection (FDBP):
After purchasing the documents SEBL gives the following entries:
FDBP A/c Dr.
Customer A/c Cr.
(Before realization of proceeds)
Head Office A/c Dr.
FDBP A/c Cr.
(Adjustment after realization of proceeds).
A FDBP Registered is maintained for recording all the particulars.
· Foreign documentary Bills for Collection:
Southeast Bank Limited forwards the documents for collection due to the following reasons –
o If the documents have discrepancies.
o If the exporter is a new client.
o If the banker is in doubt.
o Foreign Documentary Bills of collection signifies that the exporter will receive payment only when the issuing bank gives payment
· Export Bill Scrutiny Sheet:
Bank scrutinizes the export bill on they following points –
o Late shipment.
o Late presentation.
o L/C expired.
o L/C overdrawn.
o Partial shipment or Tran’s shipment beyond L/C terms.
· Bill of Exchange:
o Amount of bill differs with invoice.
o Not drawn on L/C issuing bank.
o Not signed.
o Tenor or B/E not identical with L/C.
o Full set not submitted.
o Not issued by the beneficiary.
o Not signed by the beneficiary.
o Not made out 1 name of the applicant.
o Description, price, quantity, sales terms of the goods not correspond to the credit.
o Not marked one fold as original.
o Shipping marks different will B/A & Packing List.
· Packing List:
o Gross weight, Net weight & Measurement, number of cartoons / packages differs with B/L.
o Not marked one fold as original.
o Not signed by the beneficiary.
o Shipping marks differs with B/L.
· Bill of Lading:
o Full set of bill not submitted.
o B/L is not drawn or endorsed.
o “B/L shipping on Board”