ANTIBIOTIC Market OF DRUG INTERNATIONAL LTD and Its customer satisfaction.
1.1 Background of the Report
Medicine is very essential to be cured from disease and direct related to the human life. Thus the pharmaceuticals industries which produce medicine and almost effort at all levels of it’s activates to do it. There are 270 companies are involve to produce and market pharmaceuticals products and meet up 95% medicine of our local market .among those company Drug international ltd one of them. It established in 1983. Drug international ltd provide quality full medicine with affordable price.
The report titled “ANTIBIOTIC Market OF DRUG INTARNATIONAL LTD & Its customer satisfaction. Is a collaboration representation of my Internship Program at Drug international ltd the report topic was assigned by the respectable supervisor of the host organization and was approved by the faculty supervisor to satisfy both organizational requirements as well as the fulfillment. This report has been prepared under both of their direct supervision.
1.2 Significance / Justification:
At present it has product-range of about 270.Amongst them there are 95types of various life-saving drugs like antibiotics, vitamins, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerant etc. The company has a Consumer Healthcare portfolio comprising Over-The-Counter (OTC) medicines; oral health care products and nutritional healthcare drinks, all of which are among the market leaders.
1.3 Scope of the Report:
The scope of the report is confined to the Dhaka city. The report is the consisted analysis of complain of Antibiotic and the satisfaction level of consumer toward Drug international ltd .
The report is also the analysis of the effective media of communication with customers; the report includes small scale of information available in the organization because of information availability, confidentiality, and not for public dissemination.
The total medicine Market of the country could not be observed significantly in the report. Therefore, this report does not actually compare the position of the total Medicine market in the context of the total business situation of the country.
1.4 Report objectivies:
1.4.1. Broad Objective:
The general objective of this report is to analyze the Antibiotic market of Drug international ltd and its aspects of customer satisfaction.
1.4.2 Short Objectives:
- To analyze the market competition in the Pharmaceuticals market in Bangladesh.
- To analyze the satisfaction level of marketing mix of antibiotics of Drug international ltd & its major competitor.
- To identify the problem of antibiotics of Drug international ltd and find out some solutions to overcome this problem.
1.5.1. Type of Research:
This report is a descriptive type of research in nature and it administered by collecting both primary and secondary data. It has tried to use both the primary and secondary sources of collecting information and some are to make the report presentable with as less abstraction as possible.
1.5.2. Sources of data:
In order to attain the objective of the study in this report all-necessary information are prepared by collecting both primary & secondary sources of data. These are:
18.104.22.168. Primary sources:
Primary data collected directly to solve the customer problem through face-to-face interaction. It is the systematic collection of information directly from respondents using survey. Several sources of data collection are use to make this report. The source of data are-
Medical Promotion officer.
22.214.171.124. Secondary sources:
Some secondary data collected to make the report more concrete. These data has been collected from different books, newspapers, web site and combination of all these sources;
Company sales report
1.5.3. Methods of Primary data collection:
126.96.36.199. Primary data:
Filling the questionnaire by consumer (users, lapsers and other brand users). In depth interview with organizational supervisor.
1.5.4. Questionnaire Design:
This questionnaire developed with the combination of open-ended, close-ended and multiple-choice questions. For close ended questionnaire, multiple-choice question was used where the respondent will choose one option among several possible alternatives and for close-ended questions are used to write down the respondent any opinion, complain and feelings. The length of the questionnaire is 4 (Four) pages (A4 size paper). The questionnaire has 2 (two) sections. In section – 1 the general information – 2 About Drug international ltd. The average interviewing has been 25 minutes.
The questionnaire was mainly use to find out the satisfaction level of Drug international ltd. Besides, I attempt to find out the main reason of use other antibiotic what amount of antibiotic are you consume, get up , performance price etc.
1.5.5. Sample plan:
The population of my survey is all of customer of antibotes users. The first step of the sampling design is to define the study population. Due to time restriction and other limitations, the survey mainly focused on chemist.
The sample element of this research is the existing consumers of antibiotics of Bangladesh.
There is no concrete list or number of subscriber of the selected area of the population.
In the data collection procedures, it is used non-probability convenience sampling.
The total sample size for the study is 100 and all of respondent are chemist & chemist come doctor.
Field Work / Data collection:
The questionnaire survey was administered in different Chemists, big and small pharmacy.
1.5.6. Analysis and reporting
Statistical tools and computer software are used for analysis and reporting.
The study is not free from some practical limitations. Following limitations have faced during the study and the time of working & data collection:
· Time and budget constraints for this kind of research.
· Lack of instrumental facilities to get proper information.
· Only simple statistical tools were used for data analysis.
· The sample size is too small so the result may not convey the scenario perfectly for whole country.
2. 0 Overview of Drug international ltd :
2.1 Back ground of Company:
Drug international ltd is a dynamic, progressive company engaged in the science of mankind. It proudly stands today as one of the most reputed pharmaceutical companies of Bangladesh.
Drug international ltd is a privet limited company engaged in the year 1974 & started production in the end of 1983 with a view to formulate and supply quality pharmaceutical products to the people of Bangladesh.
From the beginning of its outset, Drug international ltd had taken up bold measure some of the finished pharmaceutical products in soft capsule from to retain its real properties specially vitamins. The company is still pioneer in the field of soft gelatin capsules in Bangladesh. The company also introduced ophthalmic drugs (Drops, Creams and Ointments) in the market, which is another milestone of success.
The company has started manufacturing Bulk Antibiotic in Bangladesh in the year 1998 and now the product line includes Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Cloxacillin, Flucloxacillin, Cephalexin and Cephradine.The company has also been awarded with ISO 9002 Certification from Orion registrar Inc, USA in the year 1998.
At present the finished pharmaceuticals are marketed all over Bangladesh and in the field of Bulk Drugs Companies like Beximco,ACI,Novarties,Essential Drug company Limited, Renata, Eskyyef, phamadesh, Acme, Opsonin and many others are valued customers of bulk antibiotics with their entire satisfaction.
Drug international ltd believes their mission is to ensure better life through better medicine. Drug international ltd approaches this challenge with excitement, determination & optimism. This is possible in close collaboration with their clients.
Drug international ltd products enjoy the trust and respect of the medical user communities.
Endeavor of Drug international ltd is to develop any specialized formulations/intermediate according to the need and specification of individual customer.
Drug international ltd Spreading its business in many developing and developed countries across the globe. Drug international ltd is praised domestically and internationally for its outstanding product quality.
Facilities & Strategies
Drug international ltd is one of the top ranking manufacturer and a major player in the pharmaceutical sector of Bangladesh and first manufacturer of soft gelatin capsule in Bangladesh. We have an undisputed leadership position in cardiac products with dedicated facilities for these products. Apart from these dedicated facilities, there exists a multipurpose facility to manufacture other products like the antibiotics, anti-diabetic, anti-viral, antacid & ulcer healing, analgesic & anti-inflammatory, vitamins, sustained release products and other anti-hypertensive drugs.
The environment of the factory is an awardance with WHO standard to ensure the highest level of quality.
Marketing strategies Of Drug international ltd:
Identifying effective products for local markets
Development of the product and service portfolio
Ensuring timely and targeted communication by using modern information technology
Providing quality medicine to the remotest corners of the country
Maintenance of personal contacts to customers
Today they employ a lot of staff in different sectors which includes Doctors, Chemists, Pharmacists, Engineers, Technicians and others professionals. They believes, it is essential that all their employees should be directly involved in the process of optimizing their operations and their way of working and that Drug international ltd learn from each other. Drug international ltd want their people to be capable, reliable, empowered and responsive.
Drug international ltd are committed to bring together qualified personnel to build an effective organization that will be respected in the market place.
Drug international ltd are manufacture in suitable environment control all steps are done and related personnel are trained up according to needs. Lot of latest sophisticated products are existing and latest various life saving products are in their pipe line.
Tablet section of Drug international ltd is well equipped and enriched with all necessary facilities. All processing steps are done by automatic machineries & equipment.
Capsule section of Drug international ltd is well equipped and enriched with all necessary facilities. All processing steps are done by automatic machineries & equipment.
Syrup processing of Drug international ltd commence with all modern sophisticated machineries and environmental control . All latest steps are included and additional continuously adapted to future mindset.
Suspension section of Drug international ltd is well equipped and enriched with all necessary facilities. All employees are trained up according to need and participate continuous improvement system.
Emulsion of Drug international ltd is unique and only manufacture of cod liver oil Emulsion in our local market. It’s palatability and acceptances is widely known and continuously improve it in micro-emulsion.
(D)Soft Gelatin Capsule:
Drug international ltd has introduced soft capsule first time in Bangladesh. We have special modern technology & equipments for this regard. We are the pioneer in these fields and introducing all kind of vitamins and various life saving drugs in soft capsule dosage form.
All IV/IM vial are process in strictly controlled aseptic area in class 100 rooms and out manufacturing capabilities, auto-processing equipments, uninterrupted environment control lead us present quality products in the market.
Drug international ltd Lead to manufacture many sophisticated parenteral products such as psudonil (Amikacin) and mainly other on our pipe line which lead us a poineer manufacturer in these regard.
(C)Eye, Ear & Nasal Drop Departments
Eye,Ear & Nasal Drop Departments are establishment with all modern technology and required aseptic technology facilities setup as per cGMP guidance. DIL ensures a best quality of ophthalmic products for the patients.
(D)Cream, Ointment & Gel
Drug international Ltd. is introducing a lot of essential topical cream, ointment & Gel with excellent manufacturing facilities, with automatic manufacturing devices and highly controlled environment to produce high quality of topical Cream, Ointment & Gel.
Packaging Department of Drug International Ltd. is very elegant and convenient for all products. We have a lot of latest design automatic blister packing machine, automatic liquid filling-sealing facilities, shrink packing arrangement and many more. A group of trained & expert officers & workers effort ensure elegance in presentation of finished products to protect against physical, chemical, climatic and biological hazards.
Their primary and secondary packaging systems are extraordinary and strictly control & monitor by QA continuously to ensure the integrity and consistency of the products.
They always ensure you for their products quality, safely and stability by the unique packaging system.
2.2.1 PRODUCT & SERVICES:
•KhwajaYunus li Medical College & Hospital
• ATI Limited
• ATI Ceramics Limited
• M M Tea Estate
• Drug International Unani Limited
2.2.2 List of Pharmaceutical Products of drug international ltd.
|Sl||ACTIVE INGREDIENT (S)||DOSAGE FORM (S)||TRADE NAME|
|01||Amoxycillin USP||(Cap-250mg & 500mg, 100 ml Dry Syrup) Inj. [250mg, 500mg & 1gm (IV/IM)]||Demoxil|
|02||Amoxycillin 125mg as Amoxycillin Trihydrate BP with Clavulanic Acid 31.25mg as Potassium Clavulanate USP||(100 ml Suspension)||Demoxil-Plus|
|03||Flucloxacillin Sodium BP/USP||(Cap-250mg & 500mg,100ml Syrp)||Flupen|
|04||Cephalexin BP||(Cap-500mg, 100 ml Dry Syrup)||Cefalex|
|05||Cepharadin BP||[(Cap-250mg & 500mg, 100 ml Dry Syrup), nj. 250mg, 500mg & 1gm (IV/IM)]||Dicef|
|06||Cepharadin BP 250mg/5ml||(100ml Suspension)||Dicef-Forte|
|07||Cefadroxil USP||Cap-500mg & 100ml Dry Syrup)||Sefanid|
|08||Cefuroxime USP||(Tab-250mg & 500mg, 70ml Dry Syrup, Inj-250 mg & 750 mg)||Furex|
|09||Cefixime Trihydrate USP||(Cap-200mg, 400mg, 30ml & 50ml Dry Syrup)||T-cef|
|10||Ceftriaxone Sodium USP||[Inj-250mg, 500mg & 1gm (IV/IM)]||Dicephin|
|11||Ceftazidime USP||[Inj-250mg,500mg & 1 gm (IV/IM)]||Trum 3|
|12||Cefpodoxime USP||[Cap-100mg. 200mg & 50ml Dry Syrup]||Ceforan|
|13||Erythromycin USP||(Tab-250mg, 500mg & 100ml suspension)||Erybac|
|14||Clarithromyxin USP||(Tab-250mg & 500mg)||Clarin|
|15||Azithromycin USP||(Tab-250mg, 500mg, 15ml & 30ml Dry Syrup)||Azimex|
|16||Ciprofloxacin USP||(Tab-250mg, 750mg & DS Tab-500mg, 200mg/100ml IV Infusion)||Ciprozid|
|17||Ciprofloxacin USP||(XR Tab-1000mg)||Ciprozid XR 1000|
|18||Ofloxacin INN||(Tab-200mg & 400mg)||Oflacin|
ANTACID & ULCER HEALING
|Sl||ACTIVE INGREDIENT (S)||DOSAGE FORM (S)||TRADE NAME|
|01||Al(OH)3 + Mg(OH)2 + Simethicone BP||(200ml Susp.)||Geludrox-Hs|
|02||Simethicone||(15ml Paediatric Drops)||Semecon|
|03||Domperidone BP||(Tab-10mg & 100ml Susp.)||Paridon|
|04||Ranitidine USP||(Tab-150mg & 300mg||Ulcar|
|05||Famotidine USP||(Tab-20mg & 40mg)||Famotid|
|06||Omeprazole INN||(Cap-20mg & 40mg)||Cosec|
|08||Pantoprazole INN||(Tab-20mg & 40mg)||Pansec|
|09||Esomeprazole INN||(Tab-20mg & 40mg)||Pronex|
|Sl||ACTIVE INGREDIENT (S)||DOSAGE FORM (S)||TRADE NAME|
|01||Nitroglycerin USP||(Sublingual Tab-0.5mg)||Angicard|
|02||Nitroglycerin USP||(Tab-2.6 mg & 6.4 mg)||Nidocard-Retard|
|03||Glyceryl Trinitrate BP||(0.40 mg/dose)||Nidocard-Spray|
|04||Isosorbide-5-mononitrate INN||(Tab-20mg & SR Cap-50mg)||Monocard|
|05||Amlodipine INN||(Tab-5mg & 10mg)||Amlocard|
|06||Amlodipine BP + Atenolol BP||(Tab-5mg + 25mg)||Amlocard-Plus 25|
|07||Amlodipine BP + Atenolol BP||(Tab-5mg + 50mg)||Amlocard-Plus 50|
|08||Diltiazem HCl. USP||(Tab-30mg & 60mg)||Cardizem|
|09||Diltiazem HCl. USP||(Cap-SR Pellets 90mg & 120mg)||Cardizem-SR|
|10||Nifedipine USP||(Soft Capsule-10mg)||Nifecap|
|11||Metoprolol Tartrate USP||(Tab-50mg)||Betaloc|
|12||Metoprolol Tartrate USP||(SR-Tab-50mg & 100mg)||Betaloc-XR|
|13||Carvedilol INN||(Tab-6.25 mg & 12.5mg)||Cavelon|
|14||Lisinopril USP||(Tab-5mg & 10mg)||Acepril|
|16||Ramipril BP||(Tab-2.5mg & 5mg)||Ramicard|
|18||Losartan Potassium INN||(Tab-25mg & 50mg)||Losardil|
|19||Losartan Potassium INN + Hydrochlorothiazide BP||(Tab-25mg + 12.5mg)||Losardil-Plus 25|
|20||Losartan Potassium INN +
|(Tab-50mg + 12.5mg)||Losardil-Plus 50|
|21||Atorvastatin Calcium Trihydrate INN||(Tab-10mg & 20mg)||Divastin|
|24||Clopidogrel INN + Aspirin USP||(Tab-75mg + 75mg)||Clopid-As|
|25||Amiodarone HCl BP||(Tab-200 mg)||Cardiron|
|26||Trimetazidine Dihydrochloride BP||(Tab-20mg)||Trimet|
|27||Torasemide INN||(Tab-2.5 mg & 5 mg)||Luretic|
|28||Frusemide BP +Spironolactone BP||(Tab-20mg + 50 mg)||Diretic|
|29||Frusemide BP +Spironolactone BP||(Tab-40mg + 50 mg)||Diretic-Ds|
|30||Indapamide BP||(SR Tab-1.5mg)||Indapa|
|32||Enoxaparin Sodium BP 4000 anti-Xa IU||Pre-filled syringe-40 mg)||Cardinex-40|
|33||Enoxaparin Sodium BP 6000 anti-Xa IU||Pre-filled syringe-60 mg)||Cardinex-60|
|34||Enoxaparin Sodium BP 8000 anti-Xa IU||(Pre-filled syringe-80 mg)||Cardinex-80|
|35||Digoxin USP||(Soft Cap-0.1mg & 0.2mg)||Digoxen|
|36||Heparin Sodium BP||(500IU/ml||Diparin|
VITAMINS & MINERALS
|Sl||ACTIVE INGREDIENT (S)||DOSAGE FORM (S)||TRADE NAME|
|01||Vit. A, D & E BP||(Capsule)||Cod Liver Oil|
|02||Phytomenadione (Vitamin K1) BP/USP||[Inj-10mg/ml (IV)]||Dinakion-10|
|03||Vitamin E-200 I.U & Vitamin
E-400 I.U BP/USP
|04||Multivitamin + Minerals BP/USP||(Soft Capsule)||Supravit-M|
|05||Multivitamin BP/USP||(Soft Capsule)||Supravit|
|06||Vitamin-B Complex BP/USP||(100ml & 200ml Syrup)||Supraplex|
|07||Vit.- A BP/USP||(Cap – 50,000 I.U & 2,00,000.IU)||Ratinol Forte|
|08||Beta Carotene, Vitamin-C & Vitamin-E||(Soft capsule)||Tanox|
|09||Calcitriol BP||(Soft Capsule 0.25mcg)||Dicaltrol|
|10||Calcium Carbonate USP||(Tab-500mg)||Caldil|
|11||Calcium BP & Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) BP||Tab-500mg+200 I.U||Caldil Plus|
|12||Naicin USP||(XR Tab-500mg)||Niapid|
|13||Multivitamin Plus Multi Mineral||(Soft Capsule)||Supravit-PN|
|14||Multivitamin Plus Multimineral A-Z||(Soft Capsule)||Supravit-G|
|15||Anti-oxidant Plus Multimineral||(Soft Capsule)||Tanox-Plus|
|16||Mecobalamin INN||(Tab-0.5 mg)||Mecolin|
|17||Vit-B1 + B6 + B12||(Tab & Injection)||Supra-B|
|18||Multivitamin with Cod Liver Oil||(100ml Syrup)||Supracod|
|19||Vitamin C BP & Vitamin E BP||(Soft Cap-250mg + 200 mg)||E-Cap Plus|
|Sl||ACTIVE INGREDIENT (S)||DOSAGE FORM (S)||TRADE NAME|
|01||Ferrous Sulphate + Folic Acid Timed released blended Pellets BP||(Capsule)||Ferospan|
|02||Ferrous Sulphate, Folic Acid & Zinc Sulphate USP||(Capsule)||Ferozi|
|Sl||ACTIVE INGREDIENT (S)||DOSAGE FORM (S)||TRADE NAME|
|01||Cetirizine Dihydrochloride BP||(Tab-10mg)||Cetrin|
|02||Ketotifen Fumarate INN||(Tab-1mg & 100ml Syrup)||Fenat|
|05||Levocetirizine Dihydrochloride INN||(Tab-5mg)||Clarigen|
2.3.1 Target customer:
The main target consumers are all age group of commodities. Both Male and Female
2.3.2Target customer Medicine:
The main target consumers are all age commodities.
All general people
All of the Medicine market and hospitals.
All the chemist and chemist come doctors.
Marketing mix mainly consists of 4p’s. Those are product price place and promotion. This 4p’s of Drug international ltd. are describe below on the bases on antibiotic.
The Drug international ltd has a number of products in their product lines. This product consists of different product categories. The existing product lines of DIL are:
Soft gelatin capsules
Eye & ear drops
Cream, Ointment & Gel
Price of most of the essential drugs is fixed by the government. The company can fix price of other products but needs approval of the government. In pricing a product, DIL usually follows target pricing. Medium price can’t be charged as the entire competitor’s products are similar and not much distinguishable from each other.
They are high quality sales and marketing network nationwide, structured to anticipate and respond to local market needs. We sell mostly through our own local marketing companies and our products are marketed mainly to physicians and other healthcare professionals.DIL has over 1,000 employees countrywide. Of these, over 750 are in sales and marketing, one of the largest sales forces in the country. Over 250 employees work at the manufacturing site. 61 types of various life-saving drugs like antibiotics, vitamins, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerant etc. The company has a Consumer Healthcare portfolio comprising Over-The-Counter (OTC) medicines; oral health care products and nutritional healthcare drinks, all of which are among the market leaders.
Figure 2.2: Distribution
Network of DIL.
DIL distribute free samples to the doctors and retailers to promote their products. The style of giving sample drugs to the doctors varies and retailers. Sometimes the doctors find that the sample is useless because of the faulty sampling style of a company. DIL always try to find out the best sample style to be effective for the target market.
DIL provide the potential doctors with gifts, such as pen, pen-holders, paperweight, calendar or any related item related with their profession. The company sometime even decorates the doctor’s chambers; give the necessary expenses to join a meeting held in foreign country. These promotional activities are carried out with the sole purpose of influencing the doctors to prescribe the company’s product.
All of the raw Materials come from abroad.
Ascorbic Acid, Beta Carotene, CMC, Citric Acid, Caustic Soda, Hotmelt, Pectin, Potassium Sorbet, Xanthan Gum, Different Flavors, Confectionery raw material.
Packaging Materials: Aluminum Foil, Crown Cork, Flexible Packing material, Glass Bottle, Glass Jars, HDPE, Lug Cap (30, 53 & 63mm), PET, Shrink Labels, Shrink caps, Tin Can, U-Straw. Soft gelatin capsules , Vial ,ampoule ,
2.4.6Major Market: Bangladesh
Drug international ltd is entering the international market slowly but steadily. It always tries to fulfill the national aspiration of turning a domestic based pharmaceutical industry into an exporter of quality medicines.
|Drug International Limited.
(A Pharmaceutical Company)
|KHWAJA ENAYETPURI (R) TOWER|
|17, Green Road|
|Dhaka – 1205, Bangladesh|
|Telephone :||88 02 9662611
88 02 9626112
88 02 9662613
88 02 9662614
|Fax :||88 02 8614364|
|E-mail Address :||email@example.com|
2.5 SWOT analysis of Bangladesh Pharmaceuticals Industry
· Legal protection of domestic industries by Drug Policy, 1982
· A good growth of market
· Availability of raw materials from nearest source location
· Least presence of multinational giants
· High price sensitive target group
· Need broad distribution network
· Need continuous monitoring for prescription generations
· Strong position of chemist group
· Bureaucratic drug approval procedure
· Acceptability of new molecules to the doctor is high
· New market for meeting existing demands can be created
· There is government’s exemption of patent free business for the pharmaceuticals sector up to 2016.
· Infiltration of cheap Indian drugs
· Trend of copying of highly prescribed drugs
· Price war among the competitors
3.0 Theoretical Aspect:
In the arena of competitive business, organizations are surviving on strategy, which play very vital role to achieve the organization goal. Marketing policy is one of the major strategies for stay in the market with brand locality. Especially in medical products, the role of marketing is very important to satisfy the customers through quality of product, new flavor, better packaging, competitive pricing and product availability.
According to Webster, “Preference is grant of favor or advantage to one over another. That means some criteria of marketing that create willingness to receive any product. That may be influenced by the product’s quality, promotional activities, organizational commitment, facility, packaging, value addition etc.”
The set of actual and potential buyers of a product or service is called market.
Figure: 3.1 Elements of a Modern Marketing System.
Marketing is a social and Managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they needs and wants through creating and exchanging products and values with others.
Need is states of felt deprivation. Human needs are states of felt deprivation. They include basic physical needs for food, clothing, and satisfy: social needs for belonging and affection: and individual needs for knowledge and experience.
Want are the form of human needs take as shaped by cultural and individual personality.
Demand is human wants that are backed by buying power.
3.6 Market demographic:
Dividing a market into smaller groups of buyer’s distinct needs characteristics or behavior that might require separate products or marketing mix.
Dividing a market into different geographical units such as nations, stats, regions, counties, cities or neighborhoods.
Dividing the market into different groups based on demographic variables such as, sex, age, family size, family life cycle, income, occupation, education, religion, race and nationality.
3.9 Behavioral factor:
Dividing a market into groups based on consumer knowledge, attitude, use or response to a product.
3.10 Customer Satisfaction:
The extent to which a product’s perceived performance matches with buyer’s expectations. If the product’s performance falls short of expectations, the buyer is dissatisfied. It the performance matches or exceeds expectations, the buyer is satisfied or delighted (Principles of Marketing 13th edition, Philip Kotlar & Gary Armstrong).
Customer satisfaction is the extent to which a product or service’s perceived performance matches a buyer’s expectations. If the product or service’s performance falls short of expectations, the buyer is dissatisfied. If performance matches or exceeds expectations, the buyer is satisfied or delighted.
Expectations are based on customers past buying experiences, the opinion of friends and associates, and marketer and competitor information and promises. Marketer must be careful to set the right level of expectations. If they set expectations too low, they may satisfy those who buy but fail to attract enough buyers. In contrast, if they raise expectations too high buyers are likely to be disappointed. Dissatisfaction can arise either from a decrease in product and service quality or from an increase in customer expectations. In either case, it presents an opportunity for companies that can deliver superior customer value and satisfaction.
Today’s most successful companies are rising expectations—and delivering quality product. Such companies track their customers’ expectations, perceived company performance, and customer satisfaction. Highly satisfied customers produce several benefits for the company. Satisfied customers are fewer prices sensitive, remain customers for a longer period, and talk favorably to others about the company and its products & services.
Although the customer center of firms seeks to deliver high customer satisfaction relative to its competitors, it does not attempt to maximize customer satisfaction. A company can always increase customer satisfaction by lowering its price increasing its services, but it may result in lower profits. Thus, the purpose of marketing is to generate customer value profitably. This requires a very delicate balance: The marketer must continue to generate more customer value and satisfaction but not “give away house”.
3.11 The Marketing Process: Under the marketing concept, the firm must find a way to discover unfulfilled customer needs and bring to market products that satisfy those needs. The process of doing so can be modeled in a sequence of steps: the situation is analyzed to identify opportunities, the strategy is formulated for a value proposition, tactical decisions are made, the plan is implemented and the results are monitored.
|Marketing Mix Decisions|
|Implementation & Control|
Figure: 3.2The Marketing Process
3.11.1 Situation Analysis
A thorough analysis of the situation in which the firm finds itself serves as the basis for identifying opportunities to satisfy unfulfilled customer needs. In addition to identifying the customer needs, the firm must understand its own capabilities and the environment in which it is operating.
The situation analysis thus can be viewed in terms an analysis of the external environment and an internal analysis of the firm itself. The external environment can be described in terms of macro-environmental factors that broadly affect many firms, and micro-environmental factors closely related to the specific situation of the firm.
The situation analysis should include past, present, and future aspects. It should include a history outlining how the situation evolved to its present state, and an analysis of trends in order to forecast where it is going. Good forecasting can reduce the chance of spending a year bringing a product to market only to find that the need no longer exists.
If the situation analysis reveals gaps between what consumers want and what currently is offered to them, then there may be opportunities to introduce products to better satisfy those consumers. Hence, the situation analysis should yield a summary of problems and opportunities. From this summary, the firm can match its own capabilities with the opportunities in order to satisfy customer needs better than the competition.
There are several frameworks that can be used to add structure to the situation analysis:
· 5 C Analysis –
Company, customers, competitors, collaborators, climate. Company represents the internal situation; the other four cover aspects of the external situation
· PEST analysis –
For macro-environmental political, economic, societal, and technological factors. A PEST analysis can be used as the “climate” portion of the 5 C framework.
· SWOT analysis –
Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats – for the internal and external situation. A SWOT analysis can be used to condense the situation analysis into a listing of the most relevant problems and opportunities and to assess how well the firm is equipped to deal with them.
3.11.2. Marketing Strategy
Once the best opportunity to satisfy unfulfilled customer needs is identified, a strategic plan for pursuing the opportunity can be developed. Market research will provide specific market information that will permit the firm to select the target market segment and optimally position the offering within that segment. The result is a value proposition to the target market. The marketing strategy then involves:
- Targeting (target market selection)
- Positioning the product within the target market
- Value proposition to the target market
3.11.3. Marketing Mix Decisions
Detailed tactical decisions then are made for the controllable parameters of the marketing mix. The action items include:
- Product development – specifying, designing, and producing the first units of the product.
- Pricing decisions
- Distribution contracts
- Promotional campaign development
3.11.4. Implementation and Control
At this point in the process, the marketing plan has been developed and the product has been launched. Given that few environments are static, the results of the marketing effort should be monitored closely. As the market changes, the marketing mix can be adjusted to accommodate the changes. Often, small changes in consumer wants can address by changing the advertising message. As the changes become more significant, a product redesign or an entirely new product may be needed. The marketing process does not end with implementation – continual monitoring and adaptation is needed to fulfill customer needs consistently over the long-term.
3.11.5 Situation Analysis
In order to profitably satisfy customer needs, the firm first must understand its external and internal situation, including the customer, the market environment, and the firm’s own capabilities. Furthermore, it needs to forecast trends in the dynamic environment in which it operates.
A useful framework for performing a situation analysis is the 5 C Analysis. The 5C analysis is an environmental scan on five key areas especially applicable to marketing decisions. It covers the internal, the micro-environmental, and the macro-environmental situation. The 5 C analysis is an extension of the 3 C analysis (company, customers, and competitors), to which some marketers added the 4th C of collaborators. The further addition of a macro-environmental analysis (climate) results in a 5 C analysis, some aspects of which are outlined below.
- Market size and growth
- Market segments
- Benefits that consumer is seeking, tangible and intangible.
- Motivation behind purchase; value drivers, benefits vs. costs
- Decision maker or decision-making unit
- Retail channel – where does the consumer actually purchase the product?
- Consumer information sources – where does the customer obtain information about the product?
- Buying process; e.g. impulse or careful comparison
- Frequency of purchase, seasonal factors
- Quantity purchased at a time
- Trends – how consumer needs and preferences change over time
- Actual or potential
- Direct or indirect
- Market shares
- Strengths and weaknesses of competitors
3.11.8 Climate (or context)
The climate or macro-environmental factors are:
· Political & regulatory environment – governmental policies and regulations that affect the market
· Economic environment – business cycle, inflation rate, interest rates, and other macroeconomic issues
· Social/Cultural environment – society’s trends and fashions
· Technological environment – new knowledge that makes possible new ways of satisfying needs; the impact of technology on the demand for existing products.
The analysis of these four external “climate” factors often is referred to as a PEST analysis.
3.11.9 Information Sources
Customer and competitor information specifically oriented toward marketing decisions can be found in market research reports, which provide a market analysis for a particular industry. For foreign markets, country reports can be used as a general information source for the macro-environment. By combining the regional and market analysis with knowledge of the firm’s own capabilities and partnerships, the firm can identify and select the more favorable opportunities to provide value to the customer.
3.12 PEST Analysis
A PEST analysis is an analysis of the external macro-environment that affects all firms. P.E.S.T. is an acronym for the Political, Economic, Social, and Technological factors of the external macro-environment. Such external factors usually are beyond the firm’s control and sometimes present themselves as threats. For this reason, some say that “pest” is an appropriate term for these factors. However, changes in the external environment also create new opportunities and the letters sometimes are rearranged to construct the more optimistic term of STEP analysis.
Many macro-environmental factors are country-specific and a PEST analysis will need to be performed for all countries of interest. The following are examples of some of the factors that might be considered in a PEST analysis.
- Political stability
- Risk of military invasion
- Legal framework for contr