Gazipur Sadar Upazila
The history of transport development all over the world a process of gradual evolution. Bangladesh is not an exception in this regard. Over centuries a varied and complex transport system has developed in this country on account of it’s various geographical features and historical facts. Since transport system provides one of the basic infrastructures and acts as a prerequisite for socio-economic development of a country, the GOB has accorded priority to build up a necessary surface transport system, particularly a suitable road transport network. Development of a suitable transport network will play an important role in achieving desired targets of macro-economic development of the country.
Identification of the need and the effect of transportation infrastructure investment are particularly important when development resources are limited. This is the true especially in the context of developing country. Transportation is considered to be one of the most important infrastructure components influencing production. For this reason there exists considerable procedure for investment in the transportation sector.
The role of road network development in the rural area of Bangladesh is an important issue, especially in case of economic and regional development. The study area for the proposed study is Gazipur Sadar Upazila. The study of the role of road network in development is particularly important for Bangladesh. Because during the last couple of decades transportation attracted more than twenty percent of national investment, most of which is concentrated on road transportation sector.
The present road network are playing an important role in the development of Gazipur Sadar Upazila. The proposed study will help to get an idea about the economic and regional development of this upazila. The study will also give knowledge about the road network and it’s impact in the livelihood of this upazila.
1.2 Background of the Study:
Although there is overall resource constraints in the country, GOB has been making substantial investments in building social and physical infrastructure including road network because of its paramount need as a pre-requisite for socio-economic development of the country.
Road maintenance activities in Bangladesh were carried out mainly as condition responsive repairs which included routine maintenance, pothole patching, seal-coat and thin layered overlay works within the budget constraint. These activities were undertaken rather arbitrarily as and when necessary if fund allowed, without proper planning and employing any analysis in determining and justifying the actual needs. In so far as allocation of fund is concerned, road development program was always given much preference over maintenance works.
With the expansion of road network and increase of vehicular traffic on roads, road transport has turned out to be the dominant mode in carriage of freight and passenger traffic in the country. While the traditional water and railway transports have continued to show an overall declining trend in their performance, road transport maintains an increasing role in taking care of goods and passenger traffic movement in the country. According to the estimate of Bangladesh Road Master Plan (BRMP) Study in 1990-91, road transport accounts for about 66 percent of ton-km by mechanized transport (5 billion) and about 73 percent of passenger-km by mechanized transport (37 billion).
The general effect of transportation improvement is to allow more location choice for any given economic activity. In a primitive economy, for example, with very limited transportation, people can only choose from resources close at hand, though those resources ma meet their major life requirements. The availability of transport facilities and the cost of transporting raw materials and finished products to and from manufacturing areas have assumed a central position in many treatments of industrial location. Certain heavy industries are expanding in their transport requirements and may need waterside facilities as well as rail connections. Yet the continuous improvements in roads and in the motor vehicles have made many industries virtually independent of other forms of transport and in conjunction with the wider use of electric power, have operated to produce a considerable degree of indeterminacy in the location of some industries. Rural markets, growth centers and industries have important role in the present study. The economic history of the highly developed economies clearly shows that the growth of manufacturing industries has been an important part of the process by which they have been able to attain their present high income levels. Markets may be specific and localized or diverse and widespread. Industries producing goods for farther processing or for assembling in other industries tend to be situated in close proximity to them. Industries producing consumer goods, however, find the increasing concentration of population in large cities that is such a marked feature of countries at a high level of economic development an irresistible magnet. This study presents an objective and comprehensive account of the economic and regional development of Gazipur Sadar Upazila. An attempt is made in this paper to evaluate the growth of the area. A geographical analysis has been made to show the development and also an attempt has been made to construct a fairly complete picture of the area.
1.3 Objectives of the Study:
The preliminary aim of this study is to develop a tool for studying the interrelationship between road network and economic and regional development of Gazipur Sadar Upazila. However, the specific objectives of the study area can be summarized as follows:
· To develop recent road network map of the study area, Gazipur Sadar Upazila.
· To assess economic development activities of Gazipur Sadar Upazila.
· To develop the relationship between road network and regional development.
· To assess the role of transportation on agricultural products marketing.
· To find the influence of road network on the development of the livelihood of rural people of Bangladesh.
1.4 Methodology of the Study
The study will be carried out by the following systematic and stepwise methodology. The flowchart of the methodology is shown below:
1.4.1. Thesis Initiation:
The thesis has been initiated with the conceptualization of the prospects of road network for solving the transportation problems of Gazipur Sadar Upazila. The research also evaluates the event of success and failure of the road network and analyzes the drawbacks of the plan.
1.4.2. Formulation of objectives:
Five definite objectives are defined for the study and the entire study has been formulated to fulfill the objectives.
1.4.3. Formulation of thesis plan:
After formulation of the objectives, a comprehensive thesis plan has been prepared to carry out the study. The methodology has been designed to guide the succeeding steps to achieve the desired goals.
1.4.4. Selection of study area:
The study area is Gazipur Sadar Upazila. This area is divided into nine unions. The study has been conducted with the aim of analyzing the economic and regional development process.
1.4.5. Literature Review:
The first step of an organized methodology is the study on the relevant subject. A meaningful literature search is necessary to direct the study. Literature is in the form of text, statistics, thesis and websites has been thoroughly. Different relevant literatures (reports, journals, articles and thesis etc.) on road network has reviewed to get an idea about the study area and it’s problems.
- Impact Assessment of Transport on Regional Economy using Data Envelopment Approach – A Case Study in Bangladesh,
Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology.
This study examines the role of transportation investment in regional economic development of Bangladesh and compares the effectiveness with respect to other input parameters. The investment pattern and criteria under which resources are allocated among competing sectors and projects might have created investment bias towards already developed regions and resulted in economic inefficiency.
- Regional Inequality of Development in Bangladesh.
– Mohammad Shibli Rahman, Department of Geography and Environment.
University of Dhaka.
A spatial analysis of the ‘Levels of Development’ obtained from the factor analysis of 25 selected indicators of development covering a wide ranging field of ‘Regional Inequalities of Development in Bangladesh’ is presented. The selected indicators include five major components viz. general feature and environment, social and manpower, infrastructure, agriculture and general economy conclude with the overall development. This work gives the summary results and a clear picture of the different aspects of development.
- The Role of The Transport Road Network in The Economic Development
of Saudi Arabia.
The proper development of the transport road network not only reduces the cost of transportation, both in terms of money and time, but also helps in the integration of various regions within the country and the better understanding of neighbouring countries at the international level.
The transport road network in Saudi Arabia contributed to the development of the country by bringing in direct benefits from its role in the development of some sectors, such as minerals, agriculture, industry and commerce.
In vast countries like the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, where the main population centres are not only scattered all over the country but are also separated by deserts, sand dunes, valleys and mountains, a reliable transport road network becomes all the more important and essential.
Therefore, this paper aims to identify the level of the transport road network in Saudi Arabia.
- Infrastructure Development for the Economic Development in
Developing Countries: Lessons from Korea and Japan – Byoungki KIM.
Infrastructure is indispensable to achieve the main development targets in developing countries, such as urbanization, industrialization, export promotion, equitable income distribution, and sustainable economic development. Late developing countries can benefit from previous development experience provided they choose the right model. However, the relationship between infrastructure and economic growth is still frequently debated. This paper examines the experience of Korea and Japan in infrastructure development for economic growth to acquire some valuable lessons that infrastructure development contributes to economic development in developing countries.
- Transportation and Economic Development 2002.
This research paper covered a variety of themes related to the crosswalk between transportation and economic development. Some sessions focused on rural development, with an especially close look at the role of the Appalachian Development Highway System in addressing the rural poverty that characterized pockets of Appalachia throughout much of the 20th century. Another series of sessions explored the overlap of transportation and economic development in major urban areas throughout the world, including Paris, Mexico City, and London. Other speakers focused on various aspects of causation; while speakers and attendees generally recognized a correlation between transportation and economic vitality, a number of speakers discussed the roles of benefit.cost analysis, new econometric modeling tools, and case studies in exploring the actual causal relationship between forms of transportation investment.
6. Role of public investment to promote eco-efficiency of infrastructure such as
public transport – M A Malek, Department of Environment,
Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh.
The role of an efficient transport and communication system is extremely critical for the socio-economic progress of a country. As physical infrastructure is indispensable, a well-knit transport and communication network ensures a well balanced distribution system for the means of production, efficient marketing of produced commodities, maintaining stability of price and rapid industrialization. In the current context of globalization and market economy, there is a critical need for evolving a developed and well knit transport and communication system that should be able to integrate Bangladesh with the international transport and communication network. Realizing this importance, the concerned ministries and their agencies continue to exert their concerted efforts to develop the system.
1.4.6 Identification of Data Source:
Through literature review and discussing with relevant professionals of different organization the sources of data has identified. Advice of the thesis supervisor is the main guideline for this activity. The data can be categorized as-
(a) primary data and
(b) secondary data.
(a) The primary data has been collected through socio-economic survey and locate the growth center and rural markets.
(b) The secondary data has been collected from Roads and Highways Department (RHD), Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), Department of Urban and Regional Planning (URP) of BUET, Department of Civil Engineering of BUET, Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services (CEGIS).
1.4.7 Data Collection:
After the identification of the data sources, necessary data has been collected to assess and evaluate the existing situation. Data has been collected both from the primary and the secondary sources. The required data has been collected from different sources need assessment. The basic categories of data has used in this study are:
a) GIS Data:
§ Administrative boundary (District, Upazila, Union etc.)
§ Road Network:
GIS layers of Gazipur Sadar Upazila which includes National Highways, Regional roads, Zila roads, Upazila roads, Union roads, Village roads.
§ Connectivity maps of Gazipur Sadar Upazila.
§ Hospital and health centers location.
§ Educational Institute location.
b) Attribute Data:
§ Data of growth centers.
§ Road inventory data.
§ Socio-economic data.
22.214.171.124 Primary Data Collection:
Majority information about the present condition from the direct observation of the study area. The information about the physical, economic and infrastructure condition have been collected from the primary sources through field survey. Field survey has been conducted from 5th July to 13th July.
126.96.36.199.1 Questionnaire Survey:
Maps from secondary sources are used as a based map. A predefined survey has been conducted to collect information about the land use pattern, roads types and pattern, which helps to perceive a detail view of the area.
Questionnaire survey is a direct procedure for the collection of data, which gives a clear opinion of the respondent regarding the subject. A questionnaire survey has been conducted to collect detail information of roads, growth centers, agricultural products manufacturing and socio-economic condition within the study area to get a real picture of the development process of Gazipur Sadar Upazila. 63 places are randomly selected as sample from the area for detail questionnaire survey.
188.8.131.52 Secondary Data Collection:
Secondary data has been collected mainly through consultation with the related officials and personnel and from relevant literature. The prime two sources of collecting secondary information are from previous works and from concerned departments.
1.4.8 Data Processing:
The spatial or GIS data has been processed using GIS software such as ArcGIS. The attribute data or time series data has been interpreted and processed using Microsoft Access. Statistical analysis has been carried out using Microsoft Excels. After processing all the data, a well organized database has been developed for analysis.
1.4.9 Data Analysis & GIS Mapping:
After processing and database development data has been analyzed for generating the required outcome of the study. The different analytical modules of ArcGIS software has been used to analyze the GIS data and generating GIS maps. Spatial Analyst module of ArcGIS has been used to analysis the spatial distribution road network and growth centers (hat, bazaar) of Gazipur Sadar Upazila. Different types of GIS maps has been generated under this step. The Attribute and time series data has been analysis using Microsoft Access. Statistical analysis has been carried out using Microsoft Excels. The relation between road network and economic or regional development has been done by the analysis in Microsoft Excels.
1.4.10 Thesis Report Writing with Conclusion & Recommendation:
After data analysis and GIS mapping a comprehensive thesis report has been written. From the analysis potentials and drawbacks of Gazipur Sadar Upazila has been predicted. Finally, some recommendations have been put forward and necessary measures have been suggested in order to improve the present condition and also for better future development to make an effective use of Government efforts and resources.
The road network can show the economic and regional development of Gazipur Sadar Upazila. The population of Gazipur Sadar Upazila is increasing gradually. But the land area is limited. The occupation of the most of the people of this upazila is farming. The farmers are growing multiple crops in a same land for their sustainable economic development. For marketing farmer’s products, planned rural road network development is essential. The study will assess the existing road network status in terms of farmer’s product marketing. The second occupation of the people of this upazila is business. There is an important impact of road network for improving their business and economic activities. The study will also try to find out the relationship between rural economic development and road network. To develop the economic and regional condition of this upazila reconstruction and practical oriented plans are needed. Proper implementations of these plans are required with the sustainable maintenance. The present study has also been carried out identify the functions of rural markets of Gazipur Sadar Upazila, functional gap to be filled up for enhancing rural development and to formulate a policy guideline for the development of rural markets as the growth centre of integrated rural development. The study will illustrate the role of road network in economic and regional development of Gazipur Sadar Upazila.
The study was initiated with a view to cover all the aspects of development process and growth pattern of the study area to fulfill all the objectives and requirement. But the study area is not free from limitations. Like other research works, this study also has few obvious constrains, difficulties and limitations. These problems may not be totally overcome but tried to mitigate as far as possible. These are as follows:
a) Somewhere people were reluctant to answer some questions and some of them also gave incorrect answer. Hence, it created some problems.
b) Time constraint is one of the difficulties to collect primary data.
c) Communication is other difficulty to collect primary data.
d) Credibility of secondary data is a problem in collection of secondary data.
PROFILE OF GAZIPUR SADAR UPAZILA
Gazipur Sadar is an upazila of Gazipur District in the Division of Dhaka. Gazipur was upgraded as a district in 1984. Formerly it was part as its sub-division. Gazipur disrtict is located between 23°53′ and 24°21′ north latitudes and between 90°09′ and 90°22′ east longitudes. It consists of 5 upazilas, 67 unions, 825 mouzas. In respect of size it ranks 7th among in Dhaka Division. The upazilas of the district are –
1. Gazipur Sadar Upazila
2. Kaliakair Upazila
3. Kaliganj Upazila
4. Kapasia Upazila
5. Sreepur Upazila
Map 1. Gazipur District
Gazipur Sadar Upazila is the largest upazila in terms of population and is the second largest upazila in terms of area in the district. It is comprised of former Joydevpur and Tongi thanas.
2.2 Historical Background:
Joydeb Narayan Roy Chowdhury, the zamindar of Bhawal built his residence at Pirabari on the southern side of the river Chilai and named it Joydebpur. Kalinarayan Roy Chowdhury got the title of ‘Raja’ in 1878 and the residence of the zamindars of Joydebpur became to be known as the ‘Rajbari’ (Royal Palace). Three persons were killed in a resistance movement at Tangi on 4 March 1971. The Pak army killed Hurmat, Manu Khalifa (tailor), Niamat and Kanu Mia at Joydebpur and Chandana Chowrasta on 19 March 1971. It is not definitely
known about the origin of name of the upazila. There is a hearsay that in the past it was an abode of a famous Gazi family. The upazila might have derived its name from the name of the Gazi family.
2.3 Profile of Gazipur Sadar Upazila:
To analyze the economic and regional development of Gazipur Sadar Upazila, consideration of the regional setting of the upazila and physical and socio-economic condition are very important which have discussed in this chapter.
Gazipur Sadar Upazila is located between 23°53′ and 24°11′ north latitudes and between 90°20′ and 92°30′ east longitudes.
Gazipur Sadar Upazila(GAZIPUR district) with an area of 446.38 sq. km, including 0.31 sq. km. river area and 54.52 sq. km. forest area. This upazila is bounded by Sreepur upazila on the north, Savar upazila and Uttra thana and Rupganj upazila on the south, Kaliganj upazilas, Rupganj upazila of Narayanganj and Sreepur on the east, Kaliakair and Savar upazilas on the west. Main rivers are Turag, Balu, Labandaha and Salda. Tongi Khal is noted.
2.3.2 Soil Condition:
The soil of the upazila is mainly dominated by the extension of shallow up land soil of the Modhupur Tract. There are high ridges with dissected terrace alluvium in the valley. The western part of the upazila is composed of some red and brown clay of the mixed variety of deep dissected terrace soil. In the extreme south, there are some areas of fertile land with grey and brown flood plain clay.
As the upazila is situated in the tropical belt it experiences fairly equitable tropical monsoon climate. The temperature is almost uniform throughout the year. The maximum and minimum average monthly temperatures vary from 35.1°c to 14.2°c. The level of humidity varies from 83% to 56%. Winter steps in the month of November and continues up to February. Rainy season comes in May and continues up to September.
The population of Gazipur Sadar Upazila was 866,540 out of which 471,768 were males and 394,772 were females in 2001. According to population census 2001 population density in the upazila was 1,941 persons per sq. km. which was more than that of 1991 by 623 persons per sq. km. Decadal population growth rates of the upazila since 1951 are shown at table T1:
Table 1. Decadal Growth in Population (1951 – 2001)
|Decade||Decadal Growth Rate (Per Thousand)|
It is evident from the table that decadal growth of the population of Gazipur Sadar upazila during 1991 – 2001 was less than that of the previous decade by 8.7 percentage points.
Age sex distribution: Population of all the villages, mauzas/mahallahs and unions/wards for broad age groups are shown at table T2. Age – sex distribution of the population of the upazila are shown below:
Table 2. Age – sex Distribution of the Population of the Upazila
|60 and above||39,622||23,156||16,466|
It is evident from the table that child women ratioin the upazila and urban area had been 386 and 386 in 2001.
The dependency ratioin the upazila was 57 and index of ageing was 14.5 area. It had increased from the corresponding sex ratios of 1991 which were 117 and 117by 3 and 3 percentage points respectively.
Population Density: According to population census 2001 population density in the upazila was 1,941 persons per sq. km. which was more than that of 1991 by 623 persons per sq. km.
2.3.6 Administrative Units:
The district headquarter is housed at Gazipur Sadar Upazila. There are 9 unions, 21 wards and 183 mouzas in the upazila. The number of populated mouzas are 246 and depopulated mouzas are 6.
2.3.7 Union, Mauza, Village, Ward and Mahallah Characteristics:
The upazila consists of 9 unions, 183 mauzas, 261 villages and 2 municipalities, 21 wards and 68 Mahallahs. The average size of each union/ward, mauza/mahallah and village was 29,881 persons, 3372 persons and 3320 respectively. The
distribution of mauzas and mahallahs are shown in table T3:
Table 3. Distribution of Mauzas / Mahallahs by Size Class of Household
|Size Class of Number of Mauzas/Mahallahs||Household and Mahallah||Difference|
|601 & above||73||45||(+)28|
It is evident from the table that according to PC – 2001 there were 10 depopulated mauzas in this upazila. The modal size class of the mauzas was 51 – 20 households. It is also evident from the table that the size classes of 31 mauzas had increased.
The distribution of villages by size class of population is shown at table T4:
Table 4. Distribution of Villages by Size Class of Population
|Size Class of Population Number of Village||2001||1991||Difference|
|Up to 250||18||18||–|
|2501 & above||60||39||(+)21|
It is evident from the table that 17 new villages had been created and the size- classes of 22 villages had increased during the decade 1991 – 01 . The modal size class of villages was 251 – 750 population.
2.3.8 Housing and Household Characteristics:
Household: There were 194,945 households in Gazipur Sadar Upazila out of which 186,856 were dwelling households, 1958 were institutional households and 6131 were other households in 2001. During 1991 – 2001 the decadal growth rate of household was 67.82%. In case of urban area it was also 67.82%.
Slum and Tribal Household: In the upazila there were 327 tribal households with 1326 population and 3266 slum households with 12533 population in 2001. The average size of household was 4.06 persons in tribal areas and 3.84 persons in slum areas.
Household Size: Size of dwelling households was 4.4 persons with 4.4 persons in urban area in 2001. As compared to population census 1991 household size had decreased in the upazila by 0.7 persons. The modal size class of household at the upazila level was 4 – persons household and average size was 4.64 persons.
Housing Structure: There were 232,768 housing structures in the upazila in 2001. On the average there were 1.19 structures per household. Distribution of dwelling households by type of main structures were –
Table 5. Households by Type of Main Structures
|Type of Structure||Number of HH||Percentage|
It is evident from the above table that in the upazila 52.77% of the households were katcha which was followed by semi-pacca 28.98%) pacca (12.46%) and jhupri (5.79%).
Main Source of Household Income: The main source of household income of each village, mauza and union of the upazila employment (32.22%) which was followed by business (19.76%), agriculture (17.86%), construction (3.97%), transport (7.03%), non-agricultural labour (2.58%) and others (10.74%) in 2001.
Figure 1. Source of Households Income
2.3.9 Economic Situation:
Agriculture plays an important role in the rural economy of the upazila. Farmers who are engaged in agricultural activities and produces varieties of crops namely local and HYV paddy, pulses, vegetables, oilseeds and other minor crops jackfruit, palm and wood trees (Shal) brings handsome earning to big farmers. Non farm economic activities has also a substantial share in revenue earnings and livelihoods of the rural of the upazila. The only Machine tools factory of the country, The Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, The Agricultural Research Institute, Institute for post graduate studies in Agriculture, the National Park etc. create employment opportunities to the local people which ultimately helps economic development of the locality as well as for the country. Besides farming activities, non-farm economic activities are also provide sources of livelihood to the households.
2.3.10 Ownership of Agricultural Land:
In the upazila 54.83% of the household own agriculture land which was less than that of zila (62.39%) by 7.56 percentage points in 2001. In case of urban area it was 54.83%.
2.3.11 Major Sites and Organization:
- Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI)
- Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI)
- Central Extension Resources Development Institute (CERDI)
- Seed Certification Agency (SCA)
- Bangladesh Ordnance Factory (BOF)
- BRAC Dairy Farm
- Dhaka University of Engineering and Technology (DUET)
- Bangladesh Machine Tools Factory (BMTF)
- National University (NU)
- Bangladesh Open University (BOU)
- Bangladesh Institute of Technology (BIT)
- Islamic University of Technology
- The Security Printing Press.
- Diesel Plant
- Cremation Ghat
2.3.12 NGO Activities:
NGO activities BRAC, ASA, CARE, Hunger, PROSHIKA, World Vision, ABC, Dialogue, Swanirvar Bangladesh (Self reliant Bangladesh), Pidim.
2.3.13 Major Industriesof Gazipur Sadar Upazila:
· Aluminium factory
· Pharmaceutical industry
· Cosmetics industry
· Machine tools factory
· Diesel plant
· Security printing press
· Ordnance factory
· Ceramics factory
· Packaging industry
· Brick field and garments industry
· BSIC industrial area 2 (Tongi and Konabari).
· Bamboo and cane work
2.3.14 Literacy Rate (age 7+ years):
Literacy rates for population 7 years and above can be seen from the literacy rate in the upazila was 62.56% with 67.33% for male and 56.79% for female. It had increased from the corresponding rates of 1991 by 28.77%, 17.88% and 49.57%. In case of municipality area the corresponding rates had been 65.3%, 70.0% and 59.6%.
It is evident that literacy rates of the population 7+ years had substantially increased for both the males and females during the decade 1991 – 01 in Gazipur Sadar Upazila.
The entire Gazipur Sadar Upazila are urban area.
Household and population of each village, mauza/mahallah and union/ward of the upazila was that 94.39% of its population were Muslims, 5.20% were Hindus, 0.37% were Buddhists and 0.02% were Christians in 2001.
Figure 2. Percentage of Different Religion People
Table 6. Gazipur Sadar Upazila at a Glance
|Variable||Cen – 2001||Cen – 1991||Decadal Growth||Annual Growth|
|A) General Variable
|In Sq. Km||446.38||446.38||–||–|
|In Sq. Mile||172.35||172.35||–||–|
|2. Geographic Area|
|Both Sexes||866 540||588 492||47.25||3.95|
|Male||471 768||316 793||48.92||4.06|
|Female||394 772||271 699||45.30||3.81|
|4. Population Density|
|Per Sq. Km||1 941||1 318||47.27||3.95|
|Per Sq. Mile||5 028||3 415||47.27||3.95|
|5. Literacy Rate (Age 7+ Years)
|Growth rate (2001)||Growth rate (1991)|
INFLUENCE OF ROAD NETWORK IN ECONOMIC AND
Bangladesh has a rural society most of the population live in rural areas. Agriculture is the main occupation of rural people. The rural markets (hats and bazars) are the only outlets for village produce. Not only farmers but many kinds of traders and craftsman have been engaged in trading at these markets. At the same time these hats and Bazars are the only channels through which urban, agricultural and industrial products and other daily needs of rural life enter into the village economy. Besides, these rural markets attract people from surrounding areas not only as the organization of exchange but also as a socio- economic, cultural and political situation. Accordingly place institutions located in or around it. Moreover, these hats are the only centers in the rural area where off farm employment can be generated through improving different modes of transport and establishing rural and cottage industries there.
3.2 Criteria of Economic Development
A Considerable numbers of tests have been used to throw light on the level of economic development. Attained by the various countries of the world. These tests may relate to either the technological or the demographic situation of a nation but by and large they all tell the same story. The criteria used here to determine the main patterns of development in the world are-
a) per capita national product,
b) The occupational distribution of the population
c) The urban rural population ratio
d) The age structure of the population,
e) The rate of economic growth the world situation in relation to the first four
can be presented in cartographic form.
3.3 Concepts of Region and Regional Development
A first step in an outline of the concept of the region is to examine whether regions are natural phenomena or merely mental constructions. There are two divergent views- one objective, the other subjective. The subjective view sees a region as a means to an end, simply an idea, a model, to help in the study of the world. It is a method of classification, a device to segregate racial features, with the only natural region being the surface of the earth on which and finds his home. The objective view adopts an opposite stance, seeing the region as an end in itself, a real entity, an organism, that can be identified and mapped. The subjective view is now generally accepted. Regions are seen as descriptive tools, defined according to particular criteria, for a particular define them. In this contest they perform a particularly useful function, avoiding the extremes of description.
The concept of development as applied to society is a complex one. Development is not the same as societal change. The latter includes changes in society which may be detrimental as well as beneficial, whereas development tens to be equated with the beneficial side only, with progress or improvement for example, improvements in living standards, the adoption of new technologies, the establishment of new institutions. Development as such involves implicit and explicit value judgments about the direction and speed of change. However, it should be noted that the distributional impact of development may not be even and development for one person may not be development for another’s regional development can be seen as the process of development in a particular area. Regional development concerns the incidence of economic growth. It is ultimately the result of the location of economic activities in response to differential regional attractions. Shifts in the location pattern have direct repercussions on income, employment and welfare. Since spatial organization is a function of activity and interaction patterns, regional development is simply an expression of these patterns.
Regional development is often used in a relative context, comparing problem regions with the prosperous regions, or with the national context, on the basis of a variety of socio economic indicators. It can also be used in an absolute context the development within a particular region.
The objectives of rural development can be described as the process which would include substantial increases in per capita output and income, expansion of productive employment and greater equity in the distribution of the benefits of growth. This implies reducing poverty and human misery by increasing the productivity of the poor and providing the greater access to goods and services. (WB, 1975:16).
While considering the economic development of different regions of a country, transportation infrastructure and system may play a significant role in removing regional-economic disparities.
3.4 Influence of Road Network in Agricultural Activities
It has often been observed that agriculture is and always has been the leading occupation of mankind. It is less often remarked that this fact is indicative of the generally low level of economic development of the world as a whole and of the enormous scope that exists for economic progress. The great majority of the worlds farmers are subsistence farmers; that is their production is primarily intended for the needs of the cultivator himself and his family. Only when these needs have been met and an allowance has been made for seed is any surplus offered for sale. If the road network is in good condition then the farmer can get seeds, fertilizer, pesticides etc. easily and can grow more products. The surplus product is sold easily in the market by good road network.
Agricultural is the whole complex of social and economic relations existing between the procedure of agricultural products and consumers through the term is often used in a more restricted sense. It includes farm size and layout, tenure and marketing arrangements for the products. Agricultural productivity depends on good road network. The direct access of agricultural products to regulated markets depends on road network.
3.5 Influence of Road Network in Industrial Activities
Although Bangladesh is predominantly an agricultural country a good number of large scale industries based on both indigenous and imported raw material have been setup. Among them jute and jute goods cotton textile, paper and newsprint, sugar, cement, chemicals, fertilizer, and tanneries are important. Other notable industries are engineering and ship building, paints, colors and varnishes, electric cables and wires, electric laps, florescent tube lights, other electrical small scale industries; handlooms, carpet making, shoe making coir bamboo and cane products; small tools and implements ornament etc are worth mentioning. Road network has great influence in production of industry by getting easily raw materials, labor etc. Road network helps industries grow by selling the products easily. Road network also plays a vital role to transport the industrial goods from industry to market.
3.6 Influence of Road Network on Growth Centers
The role of rural hats and bazaars in the development process is immense. In Bangladesh, traditional markets have played important role in rural areas. At the same time, these hats and bazars are also the only channels through which urban based products, modern agricultural inputs and other daily needs of rural life enter the village economy.
First of all as places of trade and commerce play a significant role in the rural economy. Secondly, these hats and bazaars provide horizontal and vertical linkage with other centers of trade and commerce. Thirdly, some of these market places act as growth centers in the dissemination of technology including modern agricultural techniques. Growth centers connect an area with another by road network. Economic activities of an area can be showed by growth centers. Good road network is very important to communicate all the commodities through growth centers.
3.7 Classification of Road Network In Bangladesh
Roads in Bangladesh are classified by Roads and Highways Department (RHD) and Local Government Engineering Department (LGED).
Table 7. Roads Type and Definition
|Sl. No.||Type||Definition||Ownership and Responsibility|
|1.||National Highway||Highways connecting national capital with Divisional HQs or sea ports or land ports or Asian Highways||RHD|
|2.||Regional Highway||Highways connecting District HQs or main river or land ports or with each other not connected by National Highways||RHD|
|3.||Zila Road||Roads connecting District HQs with Upazila HQ/s or connecting one Upazila HQ to another Upazila HQ by a single main connection with National/Regional Highway, through shortest distance/route||RHD|
|4.||Upazila Road||Roads connecting District HQs with Growth Centers or one Growth Center with another Growth Center by a single main connection or connecting Growth Center to Higher Road System,* through shortest distance/route||LGED/LGI**|
|5.||Union Road||Roads connecting District HQs with Upazila HQs, growth centers or local markets or with each other||LGED/LGI|
|6.||Village Road||a) Roads connecting Villages with Union HQs, local markets, farms and ghats or with each other
b) Roads within a village
* Higher Road System – National Highways, Regional Highways and Zila Roads;
** LDI – Local Government Institutions.
Source: Roads and Highways Department (RHD)
Table 8. LGED Road Network
|Division||District||Upazilla||Total Length (km)||Total Paved Length (km)||Total Unpaved Length (km)|
Source: LGED, Sep. 2005.
3.8 Road Network Situation of Gazipur Sadar Upazila
In this study, Gazipur Sadar Upazila is the study area. This upazila is connected with Mymensingh, Kishorgonj, Narsingdi, Narayanganj, Tangial and Dhaka by road.
Table 9. District wise Length of Road by Classification in 2004 & 2005 under RHD
Length in (km)
|Year||National highways||Regional highways||Feeders roads||Total||Surveyed Road Length||Length of road not surveyed||Total|
|Paved road||HBB||Earthed road|
Table 10. Width of Roads under RHD (in feet)
|Name of Roads||Width (in feet)|
In past, the Zila roads were 8 feet in width. But now the width of these roads is 12 feet. In Regional Highways, Gazipur – Azmotpur highway is 4 km. brick – built. Different types of vehicles, available in these roads are motorcycle, auto rickshaw, pickup van, microbus, minibus, bus, rickshaw, van etc.
Table 11. Length of National Highways, Regional Highways and Zila Roads
|Roads Type||Roads name||Length in (km)|
|National Highways||Banani-Tongi-Joydevpur road||12.50|
|Regional Highways||Gazipur-Itkhola road||34.00|
|Station Feeder road||5.00|
|Shahid Jaman Sharak||5.00|
|Zila Road||Kadda-Dhour-Pallobi road||10.80|
|Shreepur-Boiragir chala road||7.00|
|Raedia-Bongobondhu bazar road||15.00|
|Board bazar-Jugitola road||6.00|
Table 12. Width of Roads under LGED (in feet)
|Name of Roads||Width (in feet)|
|Village Road (A)||–||8|
|Village Road (B)||–||8|