Cold war is one of the most discussed and important chapters in the international politics. Cold war is the story of the half-century since the end of the Second World War. Cold war was started and stayed for some decades. At that time world politics was revolved by it. Directly or indirectly. Cold war influenced on other every thing. If was and ideological conflict come said between capitalism and communism. It was a story of cries and conflicts and communism. It was a story of crises and conflicts on a global scale.
2nd word war:
In 1945, the United States and Soviet Union were allies, jointly triumphant in world war II. Which ended with total victory for soviet and American forces over adolf Hitler’s Nazi empire in Europe, within just a few years, however, war time allies became mortal enemies locked in a global straggle. Military, political. Economic ideological – to prevail in a new “Cold war”.
· Before the cold war: World system was multipolar system before the cold ware.
· At time of cold war- That time world system was Bipolar.
· Post cold war- This time world system was unipolar.
· At present: At present world system going to be multipolar.
The cold war was a period of tension and subdued hostility which gripped most of the world between the 1940’s and the early 1990’s. The primary actions in the cold war were the United States and its allies, countered by Russia and countries aligned with that nation. The cold war was to dominate international affairs for decades and many major crises occurred the Cuban missile crisis, Vietnam, Hungary, the Berlin wall and Korea crisis being just some for many the growth in weapons of mass destination was the most worrying issue and its impact on world politics.
Marxism USSR and alliance
· Autocrat: c/dictatorship
· Every body helps everybody
· Poor economic base
· Target: Establish class less society
Capitalism USA and alliance
· Survival of the fittest
· Richest world power
· Target: Establish capitalism.
Cold war was basically ideological war.
The Cuban missile crisis:
In October 1962 the USA learned the USSR had secretly installed missiles and missile bases in Cuba about 90 miles from Florida, president Kenedy demanded the USSR remove them. He set up a naval “quarantine” of Cuba. The USSR Offered to remove the missiles if USA world dismantle its military bases in turkey. The USA refused after a week of extreme tension khrusehev a grad to remove the missiles. This war the prominent issues about cold war.
One of the more significant impacts of containment was the out break of the Korean war in June 1950. Among other effects the Korean War galvanized NATO to develop a military structure.
Berlin blockade and airlift:
Stalin instituted the Berlin-blockade. One of the first major crises of the cold war preventing food, materials and supplies from arriving in West Berlin. The united states, Britain, France, Canada, Australia, Newzealand and Several other countries began the massive ‘Berlin airlift’ supplying west Berlin with food and other provisions.
Major military axis:
· NATO by U.S.A
· WARSAW by USSR
· Another new Alliance-NAM
This major military axis impact on cold war and world politics.
Impact on world politics:
The cold war was a war over establishing ideological hegemony in the international politics on world politics. World system going to be unipolar.
Rise Industrial base capitalism
· Basically developing country
Rise commercial base capitalism
· Basically L.D.C country
Rise Financial base capitalism
· Basically USA
Established capitalism by USA
End of cold war. Its impact on some country:
· U.S.S.R Broke in -1991.
· Most of the country change their economic ideology.
Some country like Cuba, North Korea, Venezuela only hold the socialism.
· Even Russia got the capitalism system.
· China is non a capitalist country.
Rising of hegemony:
· Iraq Attack by USA
· Afghan Attack by Nato
Major change in international relations :
The end of the cold war denotes a major change in international relations.
· Changes are made in soviet/Russian foreign policy with withdrawal from Afghanistan and Angola in the late 1980s as monitored by the U.N.
· Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990 and the Multilateral response unites the former cold war adversaries.
· Glasnest and percstroika continued in Russia, as recognized in 1992-93.
· The former Yugoslavia disintegrated into independent states; civil war ensured in Bosnia leading to UN and NATO action.
Impact on Middle East:
Middle East is significant to cold war diplomacy for various reasons like political matters, their resources like oil and transportation routes. Both Arab and non Arab states of Middle East like Iran, Iraq. Syria, Cyprus Lebanon, Palestine, Afganistan, Saudi Arabia are involved in cold war.
The Present cold war is both more intensive and more extensive than that of the past. The methods of fighting are more diverse and generally speaking, they are more injurious. Conflict covers the surface of the world, although it is usually more critical at certain spots than others. No nation can be indifferent to its battles and it trends for all in one way or another are implicated in conclusion. It can be said that the methods of cold war has been changed but cold war has never been declared. It still persists today.
· Hill, N.L. International Politics. New York: Harper and Row publishers. 1963, p.143.
· “The sources of soviet conduct”. Foreign Affairs XV: 575-576.
· The end of the cold war: Its meaning and implication-michael J.Hogan: 1953:21-25.
· “Special message to the congress on Greece and Turkey: The Truman Doctrine”. Truman library public papers, 12 march 1947.
· Patterson, T.S.: Soviet American, Confrontation: Post-war Reconstruction and the origins of the cold war. 1973.
· Fleming, D.S: The cold war and its origins.