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One of the insights of feminist theory of the last decade has been that women are “essentially connected”, not “essentially separate”, from the rest of human life. How has this insight been supported and what are the implications in law.
|Movements and Ideologies||4|
|Obstacles of women’s empowerment||6|
|Steps for the development of women||7|
|Women’s Contribution in Bangladesh||7|
|Calculating the economic value of women’s work||8|
One of the insights of feminist theory of the last decade has been that women are “essentially connected”, not “essentially separate”, from the rest of human life. How has this insight been supported and what are the implications in law? Is really a big project for me to learn, I had collected several books to setup a theme on the assigned issue. I went to several libraries, search on several websites, but, the topic was containing very rich concept and without concentrating and research on it was quite impossible to complete this paper. I got the theme to prepare this assignment through several books like Professor’s Bangladesh and untarjhatik bishayaboli, current news, women’s rights related news papers and from the websites.
I would also equal to acknowledge Mr. A.M.Masum, faculty of school of business of Ahsanullah University of Science & Technology, who has helped us a lot in various shipway to prepare this term paper and without whom it was not possible to prepare this research work. During my research work, his website named “www.lawyersnjurists.com” was a very helpful one which was the knowledge sea; containing various research papers, reports, assignments on different topics, and one thing which is undoubtedly remarkable is his assignment , it is the only one I have ever seen on the internet search on the same topic on which I tried to research.
I finally, thinks to run the kindest thanks to all of our MBA students and a group of people(including Men & Women), for their valued information for preparing this assignment.
Since the creation of human beings, men and women are marching together. There is no doubt that women are essentially connected to the rest of human life not essentially separated. In the assignment I have supported the issue. I tried to show some important issues that are supporting my thinking. Here, I would like to express the definition of feminist theory, women’s movements and ideologies, cultural issues, obstacles of women’s empowerment, architecture, women’s development plans, women’s contributions in human life, women’s threat in life, case study, women’s criticism, their movements in different aspects of human life. The assignment is mainly prepared on the basis of the issues of Bangladesh.
Feminist theory aims to translate gender disagreement and sexuality inequality and focuses on sexuality politics and sexuality. Providing a criticism of these mixer and governmental cause relations, overmuch of reformer theory focuses on the furtherance of women’s rights. Themes explored in feminist theory countenance discrimination, stereotyping, objectification (especially sexed objectification), oppressiveness, and structure. Feminist theory is academically assembled in women’s studies and encompasses use in history, anthropology, sociology, economics and literate disapproval, (suspended by women’s literature, penalization, shoot, and otherwise media), art chronicle, analysis, divinity, geographic, and other disciplines. 
Elaine Showalter sculptural the exercise of feminist theory, although Toril Moi criticized this work, perception it as essentialist, deterministic, and imperfectness to record for the situation of women alfresco the Westbound.
Movements and Ideologies
Individual covering movements of reformist ideologies feature mature over the age.
Liberalistic movement seeks individual equality of men and women through political and juristic regenerate without altering the structure of gild.
Socialist crusade connects depression of women to victimization, depression, and birth. Marxist feminists seem that overcoming year persecution overcomes sexuality depression; any socialist feminists dissent. Immoderate considers the male-controlled capitalist organization as the defining lineament of women’s oppression and the summate uprooting and reminiscence of gild as needed and has ramate into such as anti-pornography drive, conflicting by sex-positive drive. Anarcha-feminists expect that instruction endeavour and disorder against the Express say struggling against structure, which comes from unwilling organization. Social feminism attempts to revalidate undervalued “pistillate nature” or toiletries”; its critics insist that it has led feminists to crawfish from sentiment to manner. 
Womanism emerged after past feminist movements were largely author and middle-class. Person campaign argues that sexism, sort oppressiveness, and racism are inextricably rolled together. Chicana cause focuses on Mexican Earth, Chicana, and Latino women in the Conjugate States. Multiracial or “women of form” cause is connate. Standpoint feminists contend that movement should see how women’s receive of inequality relates to that of discrimination, homophobia, classism, and establishment.
Postcolonial feminists represent that colonial depression and Northwestern movement marginalized postcolonial women but did not attendant. These discourses are overlapping to Human drive, motherism, Stiwanism, negofeminism, femalism, international movement, and Africana womanism. Nonprogressive feminism is stand at congenator to the elite in which it resides. Libertarian drive conceives of group as self-owners and thence as entitled to freedom from coercive trouble. Individual campaign or effort, opposing so-called gender movement, draws on anarcho-capitalism.
Genre feminists fence that sex and gender are socially constructed, that it is unrealizable to talk women’s experiences across cultures and histories, and that dualisms and tralatitious gender, movement, and government are too limiting. Post-structural drive uses various good currents for meliorist concerns. Galore post-structural feminists maintain that number is one of the most effectual tools that women possess. Modern psychotherapy French effort is statesman humanities and literary than is Anglophone effort.
Ecofeminists see men’s check of onshore as trusty for the oppressiveness of women and state of the elemental environment, but disapproval is that ecofeminism focuses too overmuch on a faith instrumentality between women and nature.
Movements’ assets whatsoever perspectives while disagreeing on others. For representative, few excogitate men oppressed by gender roles while others debate men primarily the motor agents of sexism.
Few feminists someone argued that men’s issues are an central thing of movement, as men’s equivalence is obligatory for women’s equality. These feminists direction to valid and multiethnic imbalances in compliments to chief’s rights, masculine violate and spousal shelling, destructive gregarious expectations for men, and a determine definition of “sex.”
Unfavorable to popular beliefs, studies possess shown that feminists incline to mortal nonsubjective feelings towards men, and self-identitied feminists incline to jazz little hostile attitudes towards men than non-feminists. Any feminists discourse that the improper characterization of feminism as misandrous has been promoted by detractors to dishonor the occurrence, and has contributed to hesitation among supporters of campaign to refer as specified.
If we look out the western culture we will observed that as day by day they are becoming more advanced. Even if you look at our native country (India) only, you will see that they are following the western culture since a long where as the third world country like Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal, Somalia and the middle east country’s people are not becoming speedy from the side of women’s movement in are still conservative. 
Gender-based inquiries into and conceptualization of architecture have also come about, leading to feminism in modern architecture.
Though there is a claim that “architectural planning has an inextricable link with the defining and regulation of gender roles, responsibilities, rights, and limitations. 
Obstacles of women’s empowerment
1) Social situation: Though the government is taking many steps but, still women’s situation is a matter to be upset. Because of murder of women for dowry, exporting women, rape, eve teasing, acid attack, stone attack etc are common terrorism happening daily in women’s life in our country.
2) Poverty: The famous writer “Easter Broserup” (1970) said in her writing “Women’s role in economic development” that, women’s main enemy is poverty. She also said, women are ignored or neglected because, no machine is discovered yet to measure the women’s contribution (physical and mental) in our social life. As a result they are suffering a lot.
3) Less number of educated women: Though education is fundamental right of women and it is essential it is essential for equilibrium between men and women as well as for development and peace. Though the government providing free of cost education for women up to a certain and carrying various facilities for the same, but, still the women’s education is not reached to the expected level. Most of the female child of rural areas before completing the primary education. Though the percentage of women’s education is increased than the last decade, but still many women leave their study because of early marriage, the take care of their child or through disliking of reading. But, the women’s mentalities as well as the surrounding factors that are obstacle of their education is need to be changed.
4) The lacking of consciousness: A country or a nation’s future depends on an ideal mother. Because, an ideal mother means an ideal an ideal child and an ideal child means an ideal nation. That is why the great hero Nepolian said that, give me a mother; I will give you a good nation. So women have super power which is not anticipated by the large community.
5) Abuse of religious concept: In the Middle East and the developing country, some religious people are engaged to provide negative or modified explanation to get some personal or political facilities and a result, the women of this countries are still confined at home. In the present days, the Supreme Court has declared the “Fotoa” as illegal which is a step of milestone undoubtedly.
6) Lack of good education: In the present days many countries including Bangladesh, some women are following the western culture and in the name of education, they are polluting the culture, education and also the mentality of the whole women’s community as well.
7) Lack of opportunities: Because of the density of the population and the limited areas of service, the increased numbers of women are unemployed. Moreover, the sexual harassment has become the common scenario in most the private and public organizations which is one of the major problems for women to contribute for the country as same as for the human life. 
Steps taken for the development of women
1) Development Plan: According to the statute of 1972, men and women’s equal right is ensured. Not only on the statute; had the government taken several steps in practical too. That is as follows:
a) Counted the suffered women and took them to the shelter
b) Provided training by scholarship to the suffered women
c) The women whose husband died on the war 71, they got training and job to live.
2) Institutional development for women: The government in 1974 buildup foundations, holding seminars for women and provide the following privileges:
a) Took attempts to add the women’s society to the main stream of development.
b) Providing women discrimination eliminating certificate
c) Setup women’s ministry with its subordinate offices to keep the working flow all over the country.
3) Laws for protecting women: After the liberation war, there are so many steps are taken, new laws are added and existing laws and its provisions are modified. Law against the eve teasing, early marriage, dowry, special act for protecting women and child are the remarkable examples of women protection steps.
Women’s participation in administration and politics: Now the women have the movement in every sectors of administration and in politics. Approximately 10% women are engaged in government job and 45 seats of MP seats of parliament are reserved for women. 
Women’s Contribution in Bangladesh
The women’s participation is enormous at all the recession since anti-British freedom war to the war of 70. Women become self confident and conscious since the practical experience of the freedom war 71.At that time women’s movement was remarkable, they start struggling and become optimistic to engaged them self taking education to get rights in various sectors (like political, economical and social rights).
Seeing the women’s recession, Bangladesh government passed a resolution to preserve the women’s rights and fundamental freedom. In the 27th provision of the statute, it is stated that, every citizen is equal to the eye of the law and have the same rights to the eye of the law and to the same rights to take the shelter of the law.
According to the act 28(2), men and women will get rights in every civic and public life. In the act 28(3), it is strictly mentioned that, nobody will be discriminate by their religion, race, community, men-women to entrance into any entertainment or education or any other institution. Women also get rights to work in every sector act 29(1) where it is stated that, every citizen will get equal opportunity for getting job in government sectors. 
Women, in tradition and exercise, remained assistant to men in nearly all aspects of their lives; greater autonomy was the perquisite of the sumptuous or the requisite of the rattling pinched. Most women’s lives remained centralized on their conventional roles, and they had modest gain to markets, creative services, pedagogy, health aid, and anesthetic governing. This deficiency of opportunities contributed to swollen fertility patterns, which reduced stemma well-being, contributed to the hungriness and generally unfruitful wellbeing of children, and frustrated educational and added person process goals. In fact, piercing impoverishment at the anxiety, instruction, and training remained minor, prospects for landscaped productivity among the someone universe remained necessitous.
Nearly 82 proportion of women lived in bucolic areas in the dead 1980s. The figure of homespun women, perhaps 70 proportionality, were in fine grower, tenant, and landless households; galore worked as laborers concern term or seasonally, ordinarily in post-harvest activities, and conventional payment in sympathetic or in scarce payment consequence. Added 20 proportionality, mostly in mean landless households, depended on easy parturition, gleaning, solicitation, and new partizan sources of income; typically, their income was staple to unit activity. 
The economic contribution of women was considerable but mostly repudiated. Women in hobnailed areas were obligated for most of the post-harvest play, which was through in the chula, and for duty eutherian, gallinacean, and midget gardens. Women in cities relied on internal and traditional jobs, But, in the 1980s they increasingly worked in manufacturing jobs, especially in the readymade garment business.
Those with much upbringing worked in polity, health charge, and precept, but their lottery remained real dwarfish. Continuing adenoidal rates of accumulation ontogenesis and the declining availability of succeed supported in the chula meant that statesman women wanted occupation extracurricular assess twofold between 1974 and 1984, when it reached nearly 8 proportion. Individual salary rates in the 1980s were low, typically ranging between 20 and 30 percent of lover earnings rates.
|Category||Value of work in Taka||Value of work in US $|
|Full-time rural wives||14,61,606||20.88 Million|
|Full-time urban wives||29,88,902||42.70 Million|
|Formally employed rural women||2,83,769||04.05 Million|
|Formally employed urban women||1,52,495||2.18 Million|
Calculating the economic value of women’s work
As we see from our investigate, women perform a enormous amount of tasks apiece day, and most men and women -at minimal after being walked finished the substantial name of tasks women action – accept that the succeed performed by women is valuable. The succeeding rank is to allot a monetary reckon to that affect.
When hunting for an appropriate way to claim appreciate, some questions resist in position of what soprano to dispense to contrasting tasks, how to stack with tasks that women vow in simultaneously, or whether to claim women a salary supported on the number of hours they energy, and in that example, using which wage as a line.
The distance of addressing these proceedings:
v Examining possibleness costs: what women could garner if they performed mercenary affect during the measure they expend on housework;
v The outlay of remunerative home service to do the tasks otherwise performed by housewives;
v The value of attaining the services performed by housewives on the mart, that is, of washing clothes at a wash, consumption in a edifice, hiring a teacher for one’s children, etc.;
v The salary conventional by men for a fair received job, prorated according to the product of hours full-time housewives typically acquisition apiece year.
Apiece of the methods have its advantages and drawbacks. The possibility outlay method tells statesman about discrepancies in earnings rates than in the valuate of the unit employ actually performed. 
Citified men earning countertenor salaries tally high school chance costs flat for attractive in elflike amounts of house job, piece women, peculiarly in rustic areas and tally really low.
Case Study: A day in the life of a Dhaka’s housewife
Rehena (not her real name) is a 35-year-old housewife living in Dhaka. She has a bachelor’s degree, but no salary. Rehena’s day begins at 6 a.m., and she goes to sleep between 12:30 and 1 a.m. Every day she puts in 18-19 hours on family-related work. Early mornings, between 6 and 8 a.m., Rehena prepares breakfast, wakes up her son, washes his face, feeds and clothes him, and takes him to school. She prepares her husband’s breakfast, and feeds it to him when she returns from leaving her son at school. She also prepares necessary items for her husband to take to his office and packs him a lunch. Once Rehena’s husband has left for the office, she has her own breakfast. At this time her maid also arrives. She explains to the maid what she needs her to do that day and then Rehena herself begins cleaning the home (making the beds, putting clothes away, etc.).Rehena again leaves the home at 11 a.m. to fetch her son home from school. At this time the maid finishes her other work and begins preparing for lunch by cleaning fish and vegetables, etc. Rehena returns home with her son, bathes and feeds him. While she helps him with his homework, she also prepares lunch and dinner. 5 She first serves everyone lunch, then bathes, prays, and finally eats.When her husband returns home from work, she serves everyone a late afternoon snack. If she finds some free time, she does some sewing. While the maid washes most of the clothes, Rehena herself also irons some of the clothes. At the moment there are no elderly people in the home. Not long before, her mother-in-law was unwell and was living with them. At the time, her family had to pay a nurse 500 taka a day to look after her. Three months previously another sick relative came to live with them. It was Rehena’s responsibility to look after the patient.Rehena also looks after any guests who come. Sometimes she goes shopping for household items. She pays the bills, such as her son’s school fees, electricity, water, gas, and others. She must look after her son and husband, performing various small tasks such as serving them food and bringing them sandals. Rehena explains that females have no free time. Whenever she might think of relaxing there is always more work to do, or as she says, “When I’m done helping my son study, the time is up.” She either goes to bed or does some sewing late at night. While she had previously had time to study, this is no longer possible for her. Rehena says that, we (women) are essentially connected to human life, with us, even a single day is not possible to bear for a man.
The half of the total work in this world is done by women. In the new decade they are confined at home, rather than engaged in the works of social development beside the man. But, women’s community of Bangladesh is neglected and tortured from the decades. In the male dominated society, we were confined by religious excuses societal rumor. Their talent and industries is not considered to the development of the society and culture. Not a single practical step is taken for women development and power generation. But, if we see around, we will understand that the women are helping as same as the men are doing to meet the fundamental needs. It is not a one sided process, but, a both sided process. Women’s development and power generation means freedom in their personal, social and political life. 
5. Professor’s Bangladesh & Untarjathik bishayaboli
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