Cyber Crimes In Bangladesh

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Chapter 1
1.1 Introduction
New communication system and digital technology have made dramatic changes in the way we live.[1] In the last decade the Internet has achieved considerable expansion.  In today’s world, international borders don't bind this kind of crime, which exploits the technological situation of the global market.[2] In Bangladesh the rate of internet user is increasing rapidly.  Cyber crimes are gradually increasing in the country but Bangladesh has no mechanism yet to combat this thing. Cyber crime encompasses any criminal act dealing with computers and networks. It also includes traditional crimes conducted through the Internet. A growing number of states have introduced or are in the process of introducing new legislation on cyber crime offenses but in Bangladesh we still do not found any positive attempt of the government to enacting cyber law in our country.  Though Bangladesh is a   poor   country   but   now a day because   of   mobile   phone internet service Internet is now becoming available to almost all the districts of our country. People started to know what is internet and what cyber world is. At present we have so many cyber cafes in our country. The young generations are badly addicted to internet and computer. They love to spend lots of time on computer. This is very crucial period for our country.  The Financial express on 10 January   2008   publish   one   report   stating that with an inactive cyber law and a severe lack of the expertise necessary to detect cyber crime   Bangladesh has become a safe haven for anyone committing a computer crime.[3] According to Net craft, a UK company that is doing research and analysis on internet applications – Bangladesh has been identified as one of the top ten hosts for phasing sites for hosting fake websites or sending fake emails to obtain confidential information.[4] The internet has become a very important part of our lives. Bangladesh has a growing information technology sector. With the rise of modern  technology Bangladesh like every other nation trying to go on with the increasing speed, that  is  why  there is a need for specific laws to control cyber crimes. Also there is an urgent need to develop a cyber crime legislation that will protect cyber security in Bangladesh.

  1. Literature review
The concept of cyber law is very much new in Bangladesh. No Bangladeshi writer yet writes any book on cyber law. In Bangladeshi market there are very few numbers of books available on cyber law. From Nilkhet I collect few books and I study those books very carefully. The books that I collect from Nilkhet is Guide to cyber law by Justice Yasiandra Singh, Intellectual Property law by P. Narayan, Cyber Law in Bangladesh by Dr. Zulfiqurar Ahmed and Principles of Cyber Law by Prof. Md. Borhan Uddin. It was found in Singh 2000 that all the developed states have already enacted cyber law in their country. They have got strong cyber police force also. For preparing my paper I read so many articles and journals. I read the article Cyber crimes need more attention by Ripon Kumart Biswas and New challenge for law enforcers by Alam. Md. Shah   very carefully. Ripon Kumar Biswas writes in his article that developing countries should give more attention to the cyber crimes because such crime can destroy the financial institutions of a country very easily. Alam Shah says in his article that without cyber law it is not possible for our government to control cyber crime in Bangladesh. I derive much important information from web sites also. I collect statement of the expert people from the internet and I put it in my paper. I go public library several times to get information. But unfortunately I do not found any book of cyber law there. That is why it is becoming very difficult for me to get information of cyber law from the public libraries because the collection of our public libraries is not good.  I read the Penal Code of Bangladesh and I also read the Model IT act of our country but I do not found any important information there. That is why for preparing my paper I will have to depend on internet.  I go through so many web-sites and I also collect much important information from these sites. I search so many newspapers. From Daily Star, Bangladesh Observer, New Age and Financial Express I collect so much valuable information. From Center for language department of Stamford University I collect one book. The name of the book is Module Four Booklets. Such book helps me a lot I preparing my paper.  I also take advice from my honorable teachers.
Chapter 2
2.1 Introducing Internet   
The Internet is an interactive medium based on a decentralized network of computers. One portion of the Internet is known as the World Wide Web.[5] The Internet may also be used to engage in other activities such as sending and receiving emails, trading files, exchanging instant messages, chatting online, streaming audio and video, and making voice calls.
2.2 Definition of cyber crime   
Cyber crime can broadly be defined as a criminal activity involving an information technology infrastructure, including illegal access (unauthorized access), illegal interception[6] (by technical means of non-public transmissions of computer data to, from or within a computer system), data interference (unauthorized damaging, deletion, deterioration, alteration or suppression of computer data), systems interference (interfering with the functioning of a computer system by inputting, transmitting, damaging, deleting, deteriorating, altering or suppressing computer data), misuse of devices, forgery (theft), and electronic fraud. This includes anything from downloading illegal music files to stealing millions of dollars from online bank accounts. Cyber crime also includes non-monetary offenses, such as creating and distributing viruses on other computers or posting confidential business information on the Internet.[7]
2.3 Different types of cyber crime
Cyber crimes can be basically divided into 3 major categories:
1. Cyber crimes against persons.[8]
2. Cyber crimes against property.
3. Cyber crimes against government.
Cyber crimes committed against persons include various crimes like transmission of Child-pornography, harassment of any one with the use of a computer such as e-mail. The second category of Cyber-crimes is crimes against all forms of property. These crimes include computer vandalism (destruction of others' property), transmission of harmful program. The third category of Cyber-crimes relate to Cyber crimes against Government. Cyber terrorism is one distinct kind of crime in this category.
Chapter 3
3.1 Present   situation of   Bangladesh
Development of Science and ICT depends on the expansion of telecommunication sector. This sector is still under developed due to lack of deregulation and open competition. The impact of cyber crime is not alarming Bangladesh because financial transactions have not yet been fully facilitated in online.[9] As soon as financial transactions are allowed online computer crimes will increase at an unprecedented rate unless the Government acquires the tools and infrastructure to prevent, detect and prosecute them.[10]  But  our  government  still  not  aware  of  the  fact . Internet services provided through the local area network are vulnerable to similar attacks and intrusions by hackers more often when the security level is inadequate. Now a day in Bangladesh some people send malicious mail to different   foreign diplomatic   Mission and other VIPs which sometimes cause serious problem for the   police and   also for the government.
 [11]  Some people use internet   for transmitting false and malicious information.  Some of them   use   internet   for   women and   child   trafficking. Pornography is another dangerous business weapon of the cyber criminals. But In spite of this the Government of Bangladesh is not   alert.
3.2 Cyber crime in Bangladesh
Life is about a mix of good and evil. So is the Internet. For all the good it does us, Cyber space has its dark sides too. [12] Unlike conventional communities though, there are no police men patrolling the information superhighway, leaving it open to everything from Trojan horses and viruses to cyber stalking, trademark counterfeiting and cyber terrorism. Few months   earlier one group of people   hack   the   web site of Rapid – action – battalion   in   Bangladesh. When this incident was published in the media all most all the institution of the government became scared. [13] No body wants   to believe it.  After  that  RAB  arrested   some  people  and  they  are  now  in  jail . One of the main RAB website hackers, Shahee Mirza, said that nobody should use his acquired computer skills in such criminal activities like hacking of important Government or private websites.  After  listening  his  statement  lot  of  expert  who  are  dealing  with  cyber crimes  in   Bangladesh   become  scared  . [14] Although the 2006 Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Act covers many of the legal aspects to prosecute cyber crime, but it has not been effectively implemented since its ratification. According to the expert opinion the main reason for the law’s Ineffectiveness, is the lack of legal support and social and public awareness about Computer crimes. Cyber crime analysts point out that although pornography is not considered illegal across the world, but in Bangladesh it is one of the predominant computer crimes. There is already evidence of the existence of illegally hosted pornographic websites with local content. In Bangladesh, Nowadays youths are increasingly using cyber cafes as their dating places. According to newspaper reports, various types of antisocial activities take place in these cafes in the name of net browsing.[15] For Internet browsing, there are separate cabins for pairs where their intimate moments are videoed secretly. These pictures are later made available on the Internet. According to section 57 of the ICT Act 2006, a person convicted for uploading vulgar and obscene contents on website is punishable to a 10-year imprisonment and a fine of Tk one crore. [16] But  no  one  care  it  because  in  our  country  we  still  do not  have  any  effective  cyber  tribunal  to  deal  with  this  problem. That  is  why  it  is  very  easy   for  the  cyber  criminals  in  Bangladesh   to   get   rid   of   punishment.
3.3 Use of Internet in bad Intention
There are two sides of a coin. Similarly internet also has advantages and disadvantages. Internet can be used as a mass destructive weapon. By using internet terrorist can destroy one country. Few weeks ago Bangladesh government imposed restriction on opening you- tube video site because it contains an audio recording of a March 1 encounter between angry army officers and the prime minister. The recording was made on March 1 during an emotional meeting at the Dhaka cantonment. Hundreds of officers were present, distraught after paramilitary soldiers brutally killed more than 50 members of the army, including many of the leaders of the Bangladesh Rifles border force. Bangladesh government says in front of media that you-tube has been blocked in the interest of national security. [17]
  1. Bangladesh is not safe from cyber crime
The government statistics for cyber crime are not remarkable, but district judges have been empowered to try cases in reference to the penal code and code of criminal procedure.[18] The limited number of cyber crimes apprehended is confined to email threats. According to a government study conducted by the Bangladesh Computer Council, only 0.3 per cent of the total population own computers and 0.7 per cent have access to the internet.[19] In September 2007, most internet service providers (ISPs) in Bangladesh were affected by the Denial of Service (DoS) attack. A large volume of data packets was transmitted from an American data centre and caused server failure, slowing the performance of almost all ISPs. The attack was initially attempted on one ISP, Global Access Limited (GAL). Such attack causes serious damage.  But our government   remains   silent  after  the  attack   and  said  in  front  of  media  that  we  have  nothing  to   do.
3.5 Bangladesh is in Danger
Cyber terrorists are very expert.  It is not possible for the normal police to arrest them.
Cyber warfare is a complex aspect of the modern war, but it is not a new feature. [20]It has been called by various names in the past – intelligence and electronic warfare. Some of the cyber warfare notions are absurd, such as bringing a society to its knees through an exotic electronic disruption to banking systems or air traffic control networks.  Extremist groups train their workers for the future cyber warfare. Extremist organizations also use the Internet to target their audiences without depending on overt mechanisms such as radio, TV, or the press. The police force of   our country is not still developed. They are not expert like American federal bureau of investigation. That’s  why  it  is  very  easy  for  the  cyber  criminals  to  commit  crime  in  Bangladesh . In our country we still do not have any cyber law also.  Now a day in Bangladesh   lot of   people use   Face book   on internet.  Face book   is a social utility that connects people. [21]  Students are blind fan of   face book. Students use face book almost all day long.  They  upload   their  pictures ,  they  send  their  message  through  this  site  to  their  friends . But  the  problem  is  some  people   use  face book  for  business  purpose .  They post   illegal things and advertise it in face book.  They invite students to join so many fake clubs.  Some  group   invite   students  community  to  come  and join different  restricted  night club of  Dhaka city. Student community becomes influenced by this type of   advertisement.   So many   crimes have been occurred   already   through face book[22] Almost   all  the   university   strictly   restricted   their  students  to open   face book  in the  computer  lab   during   the  class  time   because   this  site  seriously   hampered   the   education  of    the   students.
3.6 Bangladesh under a serious cyber threat
Few years   back in   2004 one boy named   Partho   was   accused   for   sending a threatening   email to former prime minister of Bangladesh Sheikh Hasina.[23]After that he was arrested   by the police.  The investigation team takes help from the IT expert  of  cid  team after that they  found   that  one  boy  using  cyber  cafe  computer   send  an  email  to  sheikh  hasina  and  that  boy was  Shaibal  saha  partho .  In this case the police also take   help from   the   foreign   cyber law expert.   But the  Problem arise after   the   arrest   because there is no law available in our country to deal with this matter  that   is  why  it   is  become  very   difficult   for   the  police to go for the further proceedings  and  as  a  result  of  this   the  police  take  different  way  and   that  is   torture  which  is  not  supportable. During that time lot of people advise our  government  to enact cyber law in our country but  still  today  it  is not implemented and  the government  still remain  silent  about the matter . [24] 
  1. Bangladesh computer society website hacked by libyan hacker
The hacking took place after a few days of a 3 day-long “Regional Seminar on Cyber Crime in Dhaka” from 5-8 November. [25] Cyber Crime experts from Australian High-tech Crime Center (AHTCC) attended the seminar and discussed about various offences done by the Internet. But the incident of hacking the website of an important organization like Bangladesh Computer Society happened after a few days of the seminar. The organization has been working for long days in developing Information & Communication Technology in Bangladesh. It has been working in the areas of promoting and creating awareness among people in using computer, acting as a liaison among the computer professionals in home and abroad. Cyber attack at the early stage of ICT development in Bangladesh is frustrating news. Concerned people with ICT expect the authority will take stern action against repetition of this type of cyber crime. Regional & international cooperation is strongly needed to combat these cyber-terrorists.
Chapter 4
4.1 Bangladesh plans for strict cyber crime laws
Bangladesh is planning stringent measures to fight cyber crime amid the rapid expansion of the information and communications technology and telecommunications networks in the South Asian country. Bangladesh’s ICT industry has been expanding exponentially and is making its presence strongly felt both in the public and private sectors. More than five million personal computers are now in use in the country with three million internet users, by industry estimates. “We have taken steps to facilitate fair and secured use of information technology as the country lacks a complete law to deal with cyber crime,” says MM Neazuddin, Joint Secretary to the Science and ICT Ministry. Neazuddin said that the government, which has pledged a “Digital Bangladesh” by the year 2021, had approved in principle to amend previous legislation calling for jail terms and heavy financial penalties to tackle new forms of crime. The proposed law has suggested provisions for a maximum 10 years in jail and taka 10 million (US$150, 000) in fines for hacking into computer networks and putting false and libellous information or indecent material online. For the speedy and effective prosecution of the offences, the government will consult with the Supreme Court to set up one or more Cyber Tribunals.
4.2 The Information and Technology Act, 2006
The Penal code of Bangladesh contains very few provision   regarding   cyber   squatting. But in case of cyber crime like   Hacking, Internet time thefts,   Email bombing-   there is nothing contained in our penal code. So it  can be said that  it  is  not  possible  for  our government  to   control   cyber  crime  by   using  some  provision   of  the   penal  code .  To  controlled  cyber  crime  it  is  necessary   to   enact   special  law  which   only  deals  with  cyber  related  matters .
     The Government of   Bangladesh passed   Information Technology Act on 2006. This is the most recent statute enacted by the government of Bangladesh with a view to consolidate Computer related matters and also prosecute computer and computer network related Offence.[26]This statute contains several provisions regarding damage to computer and computer system.
    Cybercrime dictates that prohibits attacks or unauthorized access to computers and computer systems. According to Section 66   of the ICT Act provides Punishment for tampering with computer source documents. Section 66 says   whoever intentionally destroys or alters or intentionally or knowingly causes any other person to conceal, destroy or alter any computer source code used for a computer, computer program, computer system or computer network, shall be punishable with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine which may extend to Taka two lakhs, or with both.[27]
     Section 67 Hacking with computer system. Whoever, with the intent to cause or knowing that he is likely to cause wrongful loss or damages to the public or any other person, does any act and thereby destroys, deletes or alters any information residing in a computer resource or diminishes its value or utility or affects it injuriously by any means, commits the offence of “hacking”.
     Section 68 of the ICT Act   provides punishments for the hackers.  Section  68   says  that   whoever   commit  hacking   shall   be  punished  with  imprisonment  for  a  term   which  may   extend   to   three   years   or   with   fine  which  may  extend    to   taka  two  laks or with both. But  the  problem  of  this  act  is  this  act  deals  with  so  many  things . The act is made to cover all the information technology   related matters. But  it   is  not  possible  to  cover  all  the  things  by  implementing  just  only  one  act . In  order  to   control  cyber  crime  we  need  to  have  one  specific  cyber  law  in  our  country.
Chapter 5
5.1 An International perspective on cyber crime
Cyber crime is becoming ever more serious. Findings from the 2002 Computer Crime and Security Survey show an upward trend that demonstrates a need for a timely review of existing approaches to fighting this new phenomenon in the information age. In this paper, we provide an overview of cybercrime and present an international perspective on fighting cybercrime. We review current status of fighting cybercrime in different countries, which rely on legal, organizational, and technological approaches, and recommend four directions for governments, lawmakers, intelligence and law enforcement agencies, and researchers to combat cybercrime.[28]
5.2 Within Country Strategy
The United States, to protect the interests of internet businesses, the U.S. Congress has created new laws to regulate activities on the internet. With the first digital signature law in the world, the U.S. has established a number of regulations on cybercrime, such as the “National Infrastructure Protection Act of 1996”, the “Cyberspace Electronic Security Act of 1999” and the “Patriot Act of 2001”. In addition a number of agencies have set up in the U.S. to fight against cybercrime, including the FBI, National Infrastructure Protection Center, National White Collar Center, Computer Hacking and Intellectual Property Unit of the Doj, and so on. The FBI has set up special technical units and developed Carnivore.[29]
   England two cyber crimes related Acts have been passed by the British parliament: the Data Protection Act of 1984 and the Computer Misuse Act of 1990. The former one deals with actual procurement and use of personal data while the latter defines the laws, procedures and penalties surrounding unauthorized entry into computers. The British government has applied technologies of filtering and rating to protect manors from inappropriate material on the Web.[30]
    Canada in 2001, the Canadian parliament passed the Criminal Law Amendment Act that has tow sections. The first section defines unlawful entry into a computer system and interception of transmissions. The second section criminalizes the actual destruction, alteration, or interruption of data. [31]
    The Kenya Communications (Amendment) Act was passed by the Kenyan Parliament and signed into law by the President on January 2. The Act includes legislation on cybercrime in Sections 83 W-Z and 84 A- F on: unauthorized access to computer data, access with intent to commit offences, unauthorized access to and interception of computer service, unauthorized modification of computer material, damaging or denying access to computer system, unauthorized disclosure of passwords, unlawful possession of devices and data, electronic fraud, tampering with computer source documents, and publishing of obscene information in electronic form.
    In Norway a Bill on a new Criminal Law (2008-2009) has in 202 introduced a provision on identity theft, using the term Identity Infringements that reads as follows:“With a fine or imprisonment not exceeding 2 years shall whoever be punished, that without authority possesses of a means of identity of another, or acts with the identity of another or with an identity that easily may be confused with the identity of another person, with the intent of a) procuring an economic benefit for oneself or for another person, or b) causing a loss of property or inconvenience to another person.”(Unofficial translation). The Norwegian Parliament (Stortinget) has on May 28 adopted the New Penal Code, including several provisions on cybercrime.
5.3 Cyber law in United Kingdom
The Police and Justice Act 2006 Chapter 48 declares the amendments of the Computer Misuse Act 1990, Part 5 sections 35 to 38. The new amendments came into force on October 1, 2008.
5.4 Cyber law in Republic of India
The Indian Government has in 2003 announced plans on a comprehensive law for cybercrimes.66.Hacking with computer system. (1) Whoever with the intent to cause or knowing that he is likely to cause wrongful loss or damage to the public or any person destroys or deletes or alters any information residing in a computer resource or dimishes its value or utility or affects it injuriously by any means, commits hack.
(2) Whoever commits hacking shall be punished with imprisonment up to three years, or with fine which may extend up to two lac rupees, or with both.[32]
5.5 Cyber law in People's Republic of China
In China many cybercrime issues are covered in laws and regulations that refers to Internet related crimes. The two most important organizations responsible for internal and external security are the Public Security Bureau (PSB), responsible for the internal security, and the Ministry State Security (MSS), which handles external security. The responsibilities of the Public Security Bureau (PSB) are formally codified in: “Computer Information Network and Internet Security, Protection and Management Regulations”, approved by the State Council, December 11, 1997, and published December 30, 1997.
     Article 285 says whoever violates state regulations and intrudes into computer systems within formation concerning state affairs, construction of defense facilities, and sophisticated science and technology is be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment or criminal detention.
    Article 286 says whoever violates states regulations and deletes alters, ads, and interference in computer information systems, causing abnormal operations of the systems and grave consequences, is to be sentenced to not more than five years of fixed-term imprisonment or criminal detention; when the consequences are particularly serious, the sentence is to be not less than five years of fixed-term imprisonment.
    Whoever violates state regulations and deletes, alters, or adds the data or application programs installed in or processed and transmitted by the computer systems, and causes grave consequences, is to be punished according to the preceding paragraph.
    Whoever deliberately creates and propagates computer virus and other programs which sabotage the normal operation of the computer system and cause grave consequences is to be punished according to the first paragraph.
    Article 287 says whoever uses a computer for financial fraud, theft, corruption, misappropriation of public funds, stealing state secrets, or other crimes is to be convicted and punished according to relevant regulations of this law.[33]
5.6 Cyber law in United States of America
President Barack Obama has directed the National Security and Homeland Security Advisors to conduct a review of the plan, programs, and activities underway throughout the government dedicated to cyber security, including new regulations to combat cybercrime.
    US Vice President Joe Biden gave a presentation at the 45th Munich Conference on Security Policy on February 7, 2010.[34] Among many issues he emphasized the need to tackle terrorism and cyber-security.
Chapter 6
6.1 Recommendations
The Aim of my research is to suggest the government to enact cyber law in our country to prevent cyber criminals from committing cyber crime in Bangladesh. My suggestion to Government is please establish one digital forensic laboratory in our country for investigation   and   detection   of   cyber crime.   At present all most all the leading private banks of our country already started   online   banking. This   online   banking is   based   on   Internet and   computer.   So it is the duty of the   government   to   provide   security   to all the banks. In 2008 some terrorist attack Mumbai. More than two hundred   people   died in that attack.  From  newspaper  it  has  been  found  that  terrorist  use  so  many  fake  email  address and  also  they  use  some  fake  web  site  in  order  to   contact  with  their  leaders. Through close circuit camera it has been seen that few terrorist bearing their personal Laptop with them.  But because of lack of expertise necessary to detect cyber crime Mumbai police failed to prevent it. They are totally ignore of   it  that’s  why  it is  become  very  easy  for the  terrorist   to  attack  their  target .  Bangladesh  is  also  face  same  type  of   attack  few  years  ago  . During the year 2004 to 2006 J MB killed so many people in Bangladesh. They also used latest technology. Now a days terrorist use advance technology in  order  to  commit  crime  which  sometimes  become  impossible  for  the  police  to detect  it  unless  and   until  they  have  advance technology  in  their  hand . That’s why I suggest   our government to establish one digital   forensic laboratory in our country for Investigation   and   detection   of   cyber crime. Also there is an urgent need to develop a cyber crime legislation that will protect cyber security in Bangladesh. Cyber police force is also needed in order to detect cyber criminals. Now a  days  lot  of  internet  expert  is  available   in   Bangladesh   who  have  got  lot  of   idea  about  internet and  cyber  world  .  So  it  is  not  a   impossible  thing   to  enact  cyber   law   in   our  country . Just willingness of the government is enough to do this thing. Bangladesh has been carrying out anti- cyber crime activities from last year providing training for a group of professionals and developing software. There is also a need to have more projects on cyber crime legislation and enforcement capacity building and training courses through out the country.
6.2 Concluding remark
The estimated number of internet users in the early years of the twenty-first century is over a billion. In this global village, consumers, companies, and governments from around the world must further develop ways to protect the sensitive personal and business information and detect those, whether here or abroad, that conspire to exploit technology for criminal gain. Most of the developing countries like Bangladesh have limitations in access to information and the available access is not affordable because of the inadequacy of the existing infrastructure as well as the non-availability of appropriate education. The challenges are posed by the lack of an integrated computer security system and education about computer security. Therefore, there is a need for co-operation; collaboration and investment for security, which also develop the culture of security needs for assuring the security issue. The BTRC has to play a strong role in curbing cyber crimes as people of the country are in favor of bringing cyber criminals to book before they commit crimes like serial bombing, smuggling out national resources and extortion. Bangladesh Government should   established   one strong   cyber police force squad.  It is the duty of the government   to   provide security   to   all the citizens.  A country-wide ICT infrastructure will need to be developed to ensure access to information by every citizen to facilitate empowerment of people and enhance democratic values and norms for sustainable economic development by using the infrastructure for human resources development, governance, e-commerce, banking, public utility services and all sorts of on-line ICT-enabled Services. Enactment of Cyber law is very necessary. Without cyber law it is not possible for our government to control cyber crime. Our parliament   has passed   so many   laws.  Now  it  is  time  to  enact   another  law  and   that  is  cyber  law . If our government passes cyber law immediately then I think the reputation   of our country will be increased in front of the world community. We the people of  Bangladesh  love  our  country  as  we  love  our  self .  Bangladesh  is   our   motherland  and  we  the  young  generation  of  our  country  will  have to  save  our  motherland  from  cyber  terrorist . We need to organize seminar.  We need to protest against the illegal decision of the government. We will have to make our self perfect. In  the  end  I  am  again  suggesting   our  government   to  enact   cyber  law  in  our  country  as   quick  as  they  can.
      List of   books
  1. P. Narayanan, Intellectual Property Law, 3rd ed. (India:  Eastern Law Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd, 2007).
  2. Rodney D Ryder, Guide to Cyber Laws, 2nd ed. (Nagpur : Wadhwa & Company, 2005),
  3. Yatindra Singh, Cyber Laws, 3rd ed.(New Delhi: Universal Law Publishing  Co. Pvt. 2007).
List of Statutes
  1. The Information Technology Act 2006.
  2. The Penal Code of Bangladesh 1860.
  3. The Draft Competition Act, 2008.
  1. Mr. Pavan Duggal, ‘Causes of Cyber’, International Journal of Computer Science and Information      Security,Vol. 3, No. 1(October. 2009).
  2. Md. Shah Alam, ‘A New Challenge For Law Enforcers’, American Journal of Public Health, 94(6  951-957(April. 2004).
  3. Ripon Kumar Biswas, ‘Cyber crimes need more attention’,    Tuesday, September 09, 2008.
List of Newspaper
  1. The Daily Star
  2. The Financial Express
  3. The Prothom – Alo
  4. The Bangladesh Observer
  5. Daily Anandobazar
  6. The New Age
  7. Daily Ittefaq
  8. The Times of India
  9. Daily New AGE
  10. Dainik Bhorer Kag
  11.  Amar Desh
  12. Daily Banglabazar
        List of Web-Site
  1. The Financial Express (10 January 2008), [http://www. thefinancialexpress -bd. com/ newindex. php? archive _ date=2008-01-10 ].
  2. [
  3. [].
  4.  [].
  5. TheDailyStar(6September2008),[]
  6. TheBangladeshObserver(6September2008),[].
  7. [].
  8. [].
  9. Newage(March14,2008),[]
  11. [http://www.facebook.Com.  Face book is a Social utility that’s connects the   people].
  13.  [ last visited on 15 July 2010].
  14. TheTimesofIndia(12December2008),[].
  15. TheAnandobazarprotika(01January2008),[].
  16. [ attention.html]
  17. [].
  18. [].

[1]    P. Narayanan, Intellectual Property Law, (India: Eastern Law Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd 2001), p.390.           
[2]    Daily Prothom Alo (November 72009),[
     newspaper/ last visited on 23 June 2010].
[3]   The Financial Express (10 January 2008), [http: //www. the financial express -bd. com/ new index.
     Php ? archive last visited on  January 10, 2010].
[4]    Internet in Bangladesh, Done by Net craft, a UK company doing  research and analysis on internet 
     applications, Year 2008, [ November-
     2008-by- netcraft/ last visited on  June 23, 2010].
[5]     D. Rodney Ryder, Guide to Cyber Laws, 2nd Ed. (Nagpur : Wadhwa & Company,  2005), p. 41.
[6]     [ last visited on 11 July 2010]. 
[7]     [ last visited on 11 July 2010].
[8]     Pavan Duggal, ‘Causes of Cyber’, International Journal of Computer Science and Information
       Security,Vol. 3, No. 1(October. 2009), p.4, [http://www.International  Journal-of- Computer/
       Science-and-Information-Security last visited on 20 October 2010].
[9]     Freddy Tan, chief security advisor of Microsoft Southeast Asia give this statement in a seminar on 
       September 10, 2006 at Dhaka, [ last visited
       on 11 August 2010].
[10]    The Financial Express (10 January 2008), [http: //www.thefinancialexpress -bd. com/ new index. 
       php?archive _ last visited on 10 September 2010].
[11]    Md. Shah Alam,‘A New Challenge For Law Enforcers’, American Journal of Public,  94(6), 951-
       957(April. 2004), p.2, [ visited on 20July 2010].
[12]    [ last visited on 12 July 2010].
[13]    The Daily Star (6 September 2008), [ last
       visited on July 23, 2010].
[14]    The Bangladesh Observer (6 September 2008), [ last visited
       on May 14, 2010].
[15]     [ last visited on August 16, 2010].
[16]     The Information Technology Act, 2006.
[17]      [ last visited on 19 October 2010].
[18]      New age (March14, 2008), [ / last visited on 01
         Jun 2010].
[19]      Government study conducted by the Bangladesh Computer Council in the year 2003,[http://www. /2003/mar/11/index.html / last visited on 01 Jun 2010].
[20]      [ last visited on 20 October 2010].
[21]      [http://www.facebook.Com.  Face book is a Social utility-last visited on 01 October 2010].   
[22]      The Bangladesh observer (11 July 2008), [ last visited on
         September 2010].
[23]     The Daily star (24August 2004), p. 9, [ last
        visited on   June  2010].
[24], [
        php?Date= last visited on 29 August 2010].
[25]     [ last visited on 15 July 2010].
[26]     The Information and Technology Act, 2006.
[27]    The Information and Technology Act, 2006, Ss. 66-68.
[28]    [ internationalperspectiveonfightingcybercrime/,
       last  visited on 25 September 2010].
[29]    [, last visited on 01October  2010].
[30]    [, last visited 01 October 2010].
[31]    [, last visited on 02 October 2010].
[32]    [, last visited on 02October 2010].
[33]     [, last visited on 03October 2010].
[34]     [, last visited on 03October 2010].