Define terrorism. What is the distinction between terrorist and transnational criminal?


The concept “Terrorism” may itself be controversial. It is often used by state authorities to de-legitimize the political or other opponents and potentially legitimize the state’s own use of armed force military or police against the opponents. It has been practiced by a broad of the array of political organizations for furthering their activities. Terrorism has been practiced by right-wing and left-wing political parties, religious groups, revolutionary’s nationalistic groups, ruling governments etc. Terrorism has been described differently as a tactic and strategic patterns; a crime and a holy duty; a justified impact to oppression and an inexcusable abomination. Terrorism has often been an effective tactic pattern for the weaker part in a conflict. Due to the secretive nature in mind and the small size of terrorist organizations sometimes they offer the opponents no clear picture of the organization to defend against.

I would examine this essay in three parts. Firstly, I will discuss about the terrorism and terrorist; secondly, about transnational criminal and thirdly, about the distinction between terrorist and transnational criminal.


a) Define terrorism:

 Terrorism is a kind of political violence in an asymmetrical conflict which is designed to introduce the terror and psychic through the violent victimization and destruction in order to achieve political aims or to force a government to act. The main purpose of terrorism is to exploit the media in order to achieve maximum attainable publicity an d create a force towards multiplier in order to influence the targeted audiences to reach their desire political goals or desired long-term end states.

According to Hoffman terrorism is:

1. Ineluctably political in aims and motives

2. violent – or, equally important, threatens violence

3. Designed to have far-reaching psychological repercussions beyond the immediate victim or target

4. Conducted by an organization with an identifiable chain of command or conspiratorial cell structure (whose members wear no uniform or identifying insignia) and

5. Perpetrated by a sub national group or non-state entity

According to Saul’s notes:

“Despite the shifting and contested meaning of “terrorism” over time, the peculiar semantic power of the term, beyond its literal signification, is its capacity to stigmatize, delegitimize, denigrate, and dehumanize those at whom it is directed, including political opponents. The term is ideologically and politically loaded; pejorative; implies moral, social, and value judgment; and is “slippery and much-abused.”

b) Origin of the term :

 The word “Terrorism” comes from the French terrorisme, and it originally referred to specifically to the state terrorism as practiced by the time of then when the French government face the Reign of terror. The French word terrorisme in turn derives from


the Latin word “terre?” which mean “I frighten”. Although “terrorism” originally referred as the acts which is committed by government. Recently normally it refers to the killing of innocent people of a country by a non-government group in such a way that is to create a media spectacle for the whole world. According to Dr Myra Williamson, during the period of terror a system of terrorism was only used to as an instrument of governance and it established or makes a revolutionary state against the enemies of the people as whole as a country. But now-a-days the term “terrorism” is commonly and broadly used to describe terrorist’s attacks which is committed by the non-state or sub national individuals against a whole state.

c) The early history of terrorism:

 1. Terror has been used since for a long time to achieve a political ends and has a long history:

-As early as 66 – 72 A.D. Resistance to the Roman occupation, terrorists killed Roman soldiers brutally and they destroyed the Roman property as thy can,

2. Normally terror was used to resist the occupation

3. Suicidal martyrdom represented being killed by invaders which resulted in rewards in the heaven.  It dates back thousands of years in most societies and religions.

4. Terrorism against the enemy is broadly viewed as a religious and good act.


 d) Modern history of terrorism:

  1. 1.      The term “terrorism” was coined in the French Revolution’s Reign of Terror (1793 – 1794).
  2. 2.      This event was the birth of all Government-Sponsored Terrorism
  3. 3.      The line between the  terrorism and the political violence is sometimes blurred
  4. 4.      Anarchists were seen in the late 19th century
  5. 5.      Individual terrorism:

-The use of the selective terror against an individual or a nation is in order to bring down a government, e.g. Lincoln assassination

  1. 6.      In the middle of 20th century, terrorism became a way which is used by both parts of colonial conflicts.
  2. 7.      In the 20th century the last 20 years religious based terrorism has became very much frequent and easy.
  3. 8.      Economic terrorism is another kind of format, which destructs the industry and the agriculture system very harshly

9.  Today terrorism is a criminal act which influences an audience beyond the immediate       victim.

10.  Now there is a phrase on behalf of terrorism “one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter”.


e) Types of terrorism:

 There are some types of terrorism, these are given bellow:

Civil disorder terrorism – it is that kind of terrorism where a form of collective violence interferes with the peace, sovereignty, security and normal activities of the nation.

Political terrorism For political purposes the behavior of violent criminal usually designed on a primary basis to generate some fear into the community.

Non-Political terrorism –All terrorism is not directly related to politics. It is that kind of terrorism where is conscious design to create and perfectly maintain a high degree of fear for coercive purposes, but at the last individual can find that is desired not only for the   collective gain but also desire the wish to achievement of a political objective.

Quasi-terrorism The activities of quasi terrorism is incidental to the commission of  the crime of violence which is  similar to in form and method to genuine terrorism but it nevertheless lack its essential or important ingredient or elements. This is not the main goal of the quasi-terrorists to introduce terror in the immediate victim as in the case of genuine terrorism. But in the time of quasi-terrorist uses the modalities and techniques of the genuine terrorist and produces similar consequences and reaction.

Religious terrorismThese types of terrorism is normally performed by groups or individuals, there motivation is typically based or rooted in faith-based tenets. Terrorist’s activity is throughout the centuries which have been performed on the base of religious

grounds with the hope that, they will either spread or enforce a system of belief, viewpoint or opinion towards the world.

Limited political terrorism – Normally genuine political terrorism is characterized by some kind of revolutionary approach; limited political terrorism refers to “acts of such terrorism those which are committed for the ideological or political motives and which are not as a part of a concerted campaign to capture on control of the state.

Official or state terrorismAnother name of this terrorism is structural Terrorism. It defined broadly as terrorist acts which are carried out by the government to pursuit of political objectives and often as part of their foreign policy.

f) Causes of terrorism:

 All terrorist acts those which are happening around us are motivated by many things: There are several causes of terrorism. These are given below:

Social and political injustice: Normally terrorist choose terrorism when they are trying to do right with the others according to them what they perceive to be a social or political or historical mislead.

Poverty and economic disadvantage:

Poverty and economic insolvency makes people rash, brutal to create violence against a state. When there is poverty then it comes to the people’s mind that the state ruler is not perfect for them. As a result they create violence against the government.


Extensive contemporary of the media and literature discussed about that the poverty argument happen when a group of people absolutely or relatively deprived they rebel what they want.


The democracy plays very important role as an instigator or facilitator for the terrorism which deserves a further exploration. A democratic government is supposed to represent the people by giving the all required facilities and provide them to raise their voice on political perspective. But when it cannot happen then terrorism may be arise.

Ethnicity, nationalism/separatism:

May be the most contested and important cause of the terrorism is about an aggrieved group of people resorting toward violence for nationalist or separatist reasons which depends on one’s point of view, it can be considered as resistance and protection against an (external) oppressor. For this, only Mahatma Gandhi and his followers those who wanted the freedom movement have managed to liberate and independent themselves from the foreign interferences by peaceful means

Disaffected intelligentsia:

According to philosopher Rubenstein’s thesis, the main causes of terrorism are disgruntled, disaffected, intelligentsia those who are take part in a social and moral crisis unable to mobilize or the masses. This is “a primary internal cause of terrorism, dictating to a degree its philosophy, tactics and consequences” (Rubenstein, 1987: xvii).

 Intellectuals, they are not the type of ambitious idealist, who does not have a rebellious from lower class to lead due to shifts from primary and manual work to the services sector. But they do not receive guidance from any people those who are from creative upper class and if they want they can follow them as well.


 Opposite concept of disaffected intelligentsia is the assertion that it is not intelligentsia but it is the simpleminded of the people those who are easy to indoctrinate that are perceived to be ‘the cause’ (Rat bone and Rowley, 2002) prevalent in more recent popular literature. Both of them and as well as others are essentially trying to reduce the dehumanize terrorists.

g) Impacts of Terrorism:

 Everything has some impact or consequence and terrorism has many impacts on people, society as well as the whole nation. Some of them are:

Impact of terrorism on Society:

 Terrorism creates a serious law in order to makes problem in the society and it leads to disintegration of society. Because of terrorism there can be many woeful situations in the society like: murder, torture, mutilation, kidnapping, arson, extortion and it can create atmosphere which is full of suspicion, fear and measurable all around. Life can also become uncertain. The terrorists brutally kill unarmed citizens including women and children.[7]

 Impact of terrorism on economy:

Terrorism’s impact on economy is very harsh. Many terrorist groups collect certain percentage of money from the employees and businessmen on regular basis and they deny then terrorist used to kill them. The economic condition’s development of the society or state comes to an end. Many governments of the world have to face heavy expenditure to meet and fulfill the challenges from terrorism.

Impact of terrorism on psychological state:

Terrorist’s attacks not only create panic and miserable situation in a country but also to breakdown the confidence of the government and the political leadership of the target country.  It is designs to make psychological effects on people especially for the women and children and which reach the immediate impacts on the situation.


 “Terrorist” is a person who takes part in terrorism.

It is a word often used too loosely that it has lost a clear meaning. This is a proposal to lend some types of clarity to the definition and thus hopefully to the use of the word “terrorist.”

Recently, the term “terrorist” is considered as the use of creating force most often on the basis of whether the speaker agrees or not with the goal or intention of the violence.  [8]

If a group of people fighting to overthrow into a government or tries to end an occupation by any foreign power sends a suicide bomber to the blow up of a civilian pizzeria, this event also would be a guerrilla act or it is about terrorism. And the people involved on these attacks are terrorists.


Transnational crimes are crimes which have actual or potential effect across national borders and crimes which are intra-state but which offend fundamental values of the international community. The term is commonly used in the law of the enforcement and about the academic communities. Those people who are involve in these types of crime is called “transnational criminal”.

According to Wilkins the word “transnational” describes crimes that are not only international (that is, crimes that cross borders between countries), but crimes that by their nature involve border crossings as an essential part of the criminal activity. Transnational crimes also include crimes that take place in one country, but their consequences significantly affect another country. Examples of transnational crimes include: human trafficking, people smuggling, smuggling/trafficking of goods (such as arms trafficking and drug trafficking), sex slavery, terrorism offences, torture and apartheid. Transnational organized crime (TOC) refers specifically to transnational crime carried out by organized crime organizations.[9]

There is a law about “Transnational Criminal Law” .Philosophers offer an overview of the law as “international criminal law” (ICL) and “transnational criminal law” (TCL). These survey that the history and major important developments behind a major legal and philosophical force of the twentieth century, those individuals who can be liable for the horrendous crimes which are committed not only just against the criminal laws of a single state or a country but also against international law and that means for the entire world community.

a) Features of International and Transnational Criminal Law:

There are some features of International and Transnational Criminal Law .This new laws carefully examines the procedural issues, transnational crimes and international crimes for the welfare of all citizens all over the whole world.

International and Transnational Criminal Law features:

A dynamic author team combines a scholarship with the classroom and practical experience that includes:

1. Negotiation and drafting of international agreements

2. The policy and the practice of international human rights and criminal law

3. Transnational crime in the white-collar context

4. Procedural and jurisdictional issues bring into consideration crucial to transnational practice

5. Transnational criminal tribunals.

b) Types of Transnational Crime:

 Transnational crimes are those crimes which occur across the national borders. These crimes are normally of heightened concern. Reason behind it is the countries affected do


not have the jurisdiction to prosecute the criminals those who are committing such kinds of transnational crimes from other countries. There are many types of transnational crimes, these are:

1. Drug Trafficking:

The meaning of drug trafficking is to illegal drugs are being to sold and distributed. Normally, these types of events are happen in the United States as well as in other countries. The main concern with transnational drug trafficking for the United States is illegal drugs being transported the forms of other countries and sold.

2. Human Trafficking:

Human trafficking is such kind of crime which is against the humanity. It involves with various bad things such as sale, transportation, receipt and harboring of human beings through the use of force, threats or coercion with the individuals. It often includes the payment or money transfer from a trafficker to a person in control of the victim. Common reasons behind the humans are trafficked include for prostitution, sexual exploitation or forced slavery. Human trafficking often happens to the across state lines as well as across the international borders.

3. Money Laundering:

The meaning of money laundering is that process where criminals are disguising the illegal origins of their money. Basically, money laundering is occurred in main three ways. Such as

1. Disguising the sources of the money

2. Change of the form and

3.  Moving the funds to other place.

4. Arms Trafficking:

 The meaning of arms trafficking is to involve with the smuggling of guns, ammunition and other weapons. When weapons are enter into a country by smuggled and criminals used to sell illegally that time buyers do not have to take any kind of license or waiting period in order to buy arms, that is why arms trafficking is illegal..


 Terrorist and transnational criminal both are illegal and they take the law in their own hand. Both of them are international criminal. As a criminal they have more similarities than difference. But besides similarities they have some differences. These are:

1. Terrorist groups are take part in usually ideologically or politically motivated, sometimes they want to do really well for their nation, such as: sometimes terrorist try to

move their imperfect ruler, they going against the law, state, they are doing crime but their mind is clear but transnational criminal groups are  totally profit-oriented;

2. Terrorist groups sometimes wish to compete or try to change with the government’s ruling procedures  for legitimacy and as well as the good for whole citizens but transnational criminal do not have to do such types of things. They just deal with the money.[11]

 3. Terrorist groups usually try to make attention by media because they want that there will be for public; they used to make publicity, according to them all of there activities should be take public’s attention. On the other hand transnational criminal groups do not do such things; they do not need publicity they want to hide their activities from the people as well as from the world.

4. Sometimes terrorists are misleading by the religious leader; they listen to their leader even though they do not know what will be the consequences they just do that what they hear from their boss. But transnational criminals do all types of crime by knowing that these are against the law.

5. Terrorist’s activities harms towards a state or a whole nation, their activities create violence to a vast area, whole nation have to face difficulty and they also need to attract media’s attention. On the other hand transnational criminals do not have such kind of works.

6. Terrorist’s activities are more open than transnational criminal’s. Criminal’s role is much secret than terrorist’s. There are many countries which face many problems for terrorism, such as- Pakistan, Libya, Iraq, Iran etc. [12]

Recently a research team of the US Library of Congress has suggested that and attempted to identify some factors which is making a nation “hospitable” towards transnational crime and terrorism. Some of them are

– Official and employment corruption

– Incomplete and weak legislature procedures

– Poor enforcement of existing laws in the country

– Non-transparent financial system or institutions

– Lack of showing respect for the rules which is given by the law in society

– Poorly guarded national borders, such as Somalia, Pakistan etc.


Thus we can say that, In line with the increasing of amount world population, poverty level globally and globalization all factors influenced transnational crime action scales worldwide. Various kinds of the transnational crime extent capacity from one country border to the others, involving more than one country. As well as today terrorism event has become threaten to all over the world. Every nation, every state is afraid of terrorism

Both of them plays brutal and ruthless role for human and for the world. Both operate a secretly and usually from a strong underground network with others; both of them use ‘muscle and ruthlessness’ on primarily civilian victims. So, as a normal people we all want that terrorism and transnational crime should far away from our country as well as from all over the world.


1. Bruce Hoffman, inside terrorism, 2 ed., Columbia University Press, 2006, p. 34.

2.  Hill Vales, Yuban Yang, Hussein A. Abbess, Disciplinary Approaches to Terrorism: A Survey, University of South Wales, p. 7. For similar surveys see also: Hoffman, Bruce Inside terrorism, 2 ed. Columbia University Press, 2006, p. 34; and Alex Schmidt, Statistics on Terrorism: The Challenge of Measuring Trends in Global Terrorism” in Forum on Crime and Society, v. 4, N. 1-2 (2004) pp. 52-53.

3. Abrahams, Max. “Limpers versus Splitters: A Pivotal Battle in the Field of Terrorism Studies.” Cato.

4.  Ali Khan, a Legal Theory of International Terrorism, Connecticut Law Review,

5. Academic Consensus Definition of “Terrorism,” Schmidt 1988, United Nations website. See also: Schmidt, Longman et al. Political terrorism: a new guide to actors, authors, concepts, data bases, theories, and literature. Amsterdam: North Holland, Transaction Books, 1988.p.28

6. Dallas A. Blanchard, Terry James Prewitt. Religious Violence and Abortion: The Gideon Project, 303,333. Cites Gibbs, Jack P. 1989. “The Conceptualization of Terrorism.” American Sociological Review 54, no. 2 (June): 329-40.

7. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Definitions of Terrorism

8. Rosalyn Higgins, “The General International Law of Terrorism” in Rosalyn Higgins and M. Floury, International Law and Terrorism (1997) p. 28.

9. Tony Cody, et al. Terrorism and Justice: Moral Argument in a Threatened World Melbourne University Publishing, 2002 p. 8. Cites Walter Liqueur the Age of Terrorism

10. Ste Liberation of terrorism, Lantern Books, 2004

11. A.K.M. Antique Raman Economic Cost Of Terrorism In South Asia: The Case Of Bangladesh p. 3. Paper presented at the International Conference on Terrorism in South Asia: Impact on Development and Democratic Process Salted Crowned Plaza, Katmandu, Nepal November 23–25, 2002.

12.36 Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 2&3, 2004, p. 305

13.  Wilkins of Columbia University Press, 2006, p. 41.

14. Chicago Journals – Ethics 114 (July 2004): 647–649

15. Owe Stein off. On the Ethics of War and Terrorism p. 119

16. The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, “The Relationship between International and Localized Terrorism”, Vol. 4, No. 26, 28 June 2005

17. Linden, Edward V., ed. (2006). “2”. What is Terrorism?. Focus on Terrorism. 8. Nova Publishers. pp. 23–32..

18. James M. Lutz and Brenda J. Lutz, Global Terrorism. London: Rutledge, 2008, p. 9


20. Backsets, Cars ten (December 2008). Jihads Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques, George C. Marshall Center for European Security Studies no 20, p. 1-28

21. Burgess, Mark. A Brief History of Terrorism, Center for Defense Information.

Byrnes, Andrew (2002). Apocalyptic Visions and the Law: The Legacy of September 11 A professorial addresses by Andrew Byrnes at the ANU Law School for the Faculty’s ‘Inaugural and Valedictory Lecture Series’, May 30, 2002.

22. Diaz-Managua, Carlos Fernando (2008), Negotiating terrorism: The negotiation dynamics of four UN counter-terrorism treaties, 1997-2005, Ph.D. dissertation, City University of New York, July 2008,

23. Cassese, A. (2002), International Law, Oxford University Press, 2002.

24. Crenshaw, Martha, Terrorism in Context

25. Gardam, Judith Gail (1993). Non-combatant Immunity as a Norm of International Humanitarian, Martinus Inhofe

26. Grist, Pamela L. & Mahan, Sue (2003). Terrorism in perspective, SAGE, 2003, ISBN 0761924043, 9780761924043

27. Harper, Douglas. “Terrorism”, Online Etymology Dictionary. (Accessed: August 10, 2007).

28. Hoffman, Bruce (1998). “Inside Terrorism” Columbia University Press 1998 ISBN 0-231-11468-0.

29. Hoffman, Bruce (2006), inside terrorism, Edition 2, Columbia University Press, 2006.

30. Khan, Ali (Washburn University – School of Law. 1987). A Theory of International Terrorism, Connecticut Law Review, Vol. 19, p. 945, 1987

31. Record, Jeffrey (December 2003). Bounding the Global War on Terrorism, December 1, 2003

32. Wynn Rees and Richard J. Aldrich, “Contending Cultures of Counter-terrorism: 33. 33. International Affairs on terrorism. (October 2005): 905-23.

34. M. Luther, Mark, Henry Lord. A detailed History of Terrorism, Gatherer from the Defense Information.

35. Smelter, Neil J.; et al. (2002). Terrorism: perspectives from the behavioral and social sciences, National Academies Press, 2002,

36. Pinehurst, Rupert. The Martens Clause and the Laws of Armed Conflict 30 April 1997, International Review of the Red Cross no 317, p. 125-134

[3]There are multiple ways of defining terrorism, and all are subjective. Most define terrorism as “the use or threat of serious violence” to advance some kind of “cause”. Some state clearly the kinds of group (“sub-national”, “non-state”) or cause (political, ideological, religious) to which they refer. Others merely rely on the instinct of most people when confronted with innocent civilians being killed or maimed by men armed with explosives, firearms or other weapons. by Jason Blake.

[4]  Angus Martin, The Right of Self-Defense under International Law-the Response to the Terrorist Attacks of 11 September, Australian Law and Bills Digest Group, Parliament of Australia Web Site, 12 February 2002.

^Thai Deon. POLITICS: U.N. Member States Struggle to Define Terrorism, Inter Press Service, 25 July 2005. The history of terrorism

[5]The following terrorism databases are or were made publicly available for research purposes, and track specific acts of terrorism:

MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base on ancient history of terrorism

Global Terrorism Database

Worldwide Incidents Tracking System

Williamson, Myra (2009). Terrorism, the types of terrorism: the legality of the use of force against Afghanistan in 2001. Ash gate Publishing. p. 38.

Schmidt, Alex P. (2011). “The Definition of Terrorism”. The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research. Routledge. p. 39, various types of terrorism.

a b Hoffman (1998), p. 32, See review in The New York Times Inside Terrorism

John Martin, The types of terrorism and the Terrorist Attacks of 11 September, Australian Law and Bills Digest Group, Parliament of Australia Web Site, 12 February 2002.

[6] Hoffman, (2006) pp. 28–30 also see Wilkins.

Burgess the causes of terrorism

Early History of Terrorism, Harper

Crenshaw, p.77 causes of terrorism Terrorism is a forceful and unlawful method to achieve the desired goal. Its sole motive is to overthrow the existing law and order machinery.

Crenshaw, p. 44. Main causes of terrorism.

Harper It is a deliberate use of violence against civilians and armed personnel and the state.

[7] Organized crime and violence cause social disharmony. The inter relationship among various insurgent groups and their foreign linkages bring illegal money and encourages smuggling. Many insurgent groups collect certain percentage of money from the employees and businessmen on regular basis. Economic development of the area comes to an end. Every government should take care about the impact or result of terrorism, otherwise there may be problem.

[8] Currently, the term “terrorist” is applied to the use of force most often on the basis of whether the speaker agrees with the goal of the violence.  Hence the expression “One man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter.” In determining whether an act is “terrorist” or not, it would be more useful to eliminate subjective evaluations of the goals of the violence,

[9] The control of the new transnational crime industry of counterfeiting medicines by foreign terrorist organizations and transnational criminal organizations cost the international community over $438,000,000 and increase the rate of super bugs that are antibacterial anti viral resistant Control of Spread of Counterfeit Medicines As technology evolves so do the opportunities for transnational criminal organizations.

[10] Over the past decade the problem of transnational crime has been a major threat to the European and developing nations of the world. According to United Nations convention transnational crime is defined as the group of three or more persons who aim to commit one or more serious offences in order to achieve some material or financial benefits. It is clear by definition that transnational crime is the crime that violates laws of one or more state. In Result, Transnational crime is a specific kind of crime which mainly deals with low risk and high margin of profits by the exploiting boundaries and jurisdiction as its strategic advantages.  We are going to put light on the different aspects or forms of Transnational  crime which will unfold major problems associated with the organized crime. Later in the second part of article we will be discussing what are the various strategies adopted by the contemporary policing organizations in context to the Transnational criminal activities carried out in developed countries like USA and Australia. By Ramey Sing

[11] Human Traffic and Transnational Crime by Sally Stocker and Louise Shelley

G8 Recommendations on Transnational Crime

Terrorism, Transnational Crime and Corruption Center, official site

Web Law – Transnational Crime

Havoc scope Black Markets-Global Database of Transnational Crime Activities.

[12]  Williams, P. & Savanna, E.U. (1996). The United Nations and Transnational Organized Crime. Abington, Oxon.: Frank Cass Publishers.

Septic, J. (2007) ‘Transnational Crime and Transnational Policing’, Sociology Compass 1 (2007):

Gill, P. (2000) Rounding Up the Usual Suspects? Developments in contemporary law enforcement intelligence, Alders hot, Hants.: Ash gate

Edwards, A. and Septic, J. (eds.) (2009) Guns, Crime and Social Order; A Special Issue of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Vol. 9 No. 3

Byrne, P. and South, N. (2007) Issues in Green Criminology: Confronting Harms against Environments, Humanity, and Other Animals. Devon: Willan Publishing

Beare, M. (2003) Critical Reflections on Transnational Organized Crime, Money Laundering and Corruption. Toronto: Toronto University Press 2003,.

^Green, Penny & Ward, Tony. (2004) State Crime: Governments, Violence and Corruption. London: Pluto Press

Septic, J. and Warden, A. (2004) Transnational and Comparative Criminology, London: Taylor and Francis^ Goldsmith, A. and Septic, J. (2007) Crafting Transnational Policing. Oxford Hart Publishing

Edwards, A. and Gill, P. (2003) Transnational Organized Crime; perspectives on global security London: Routledge Farmer, Lindsay (2000). “Reconstructing the English Codification Debate: The Criminal Law Commissioners, 1833-45”. Law and History Review 18 (2).

Fletcher, George P. (1998). Basic Concepts of Criminal Law and terrorism. Oxford University Press..

Fletcher, George P. (2000). Rethinking transnational Criminal Oxford University Press. .