Design, Cost analysis and Testing of an Optical Fiber Based network for connecting all campuses of ADUST.
Overview of Optical Fiber Networking
The focus of this Project is the invention and subsequent development of a method for
Making optical fibers that within 20 years replaced copper wire as the transmission medium of choice for most commercial applications in telecommunications systems and computer networks worldwide. Optical fibers about the size of a human hair can carry several gigabit data rate more which is than copper wires many times larger, and they are stronger, lighter, and cheaper. In addition, the signal-carrying load of already installed optical fiber cables can be readily increased as signal-processing technologies is much more improved. Therefore we chose to dew and develop a cost effect the optical fiber base network.
1.2 Subject of the Project
We want a optical fiber base networking Project .Now a days when we think for a large or medium network at first we select optical fiber network, because it is more fesible and reliable networking in the world as bandwith and security. For that reason our project name is” Design, Cost analysis and Testing of an Optical Fiber Based network for connecting all campuses of ADUST”.
1.3 Objective of the Project
Our main objective to design cost analysis and testing of an optical fiber base networking for connecting all campuses of ADUST Campuses by using Optical fiber which is very expensive to implement. For this reason, first we prepare a network design then we test a small network between two computer using optical fiber for getting idea of the whole network. Since it is expensive to implement the proposed network that why we simulate the proposed network by using CISCO Packet Tracer Software. Also we intend to analyze the requirement and cost to implement this kind of large optical fiber Project.
As the name suggests, optical networks form a class of networks where optical, rather than electronic, components are the building blocks of the network. Compared to metallic cable, fiber optic systems offer greater bandwidths, lower attenuation, and no crosstalk or electrical interference. Those advantages have led to the dramatic growth of fiber optic systems worldwide. Today, nearly all long-haul telecommunications depend on the use of optical networks for their high capacity and robust performance.
Standards for fiber optic cable and other optical components have been developed over the last 20 years primarily by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). Standards for fiber optic transmission have been developed initially in North America under the name Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) and later by the ITU using the name Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH).
2.3 Historical Milestones
Ø 1958: Discovery of laser
Ø 1970: Production of low-loss fibers, which made long-distance optical transmission possible
Ø 1970: Invention of semiconductor laser diode, which made highly refined optical transceivers possible
Ø 1988: First trans-Atlantic optical fiber laid
Ø Late-80s: Development of EDFA (optical amplifier), which greatly alleviated distance limitations
Ø Mid/late-90s: DWDM systems explode
Ø Late-90s: Intelligent Optical networks
Using Optical Fiber based Networking: Why?
The “traditional” networks consist, for the most part, of a collection of electronic switches interconnected by point-to-point optical fiber links, which can span local, metropolitan, or wide area networks. To accommodate continually increasing demand for bandwidth and flexibility, such networks are being enhanced by adding more fibers and switches, increasing the bit rate per fiber, and upgrading the switches’ size, throughput and functionality. Such enhancements eventually lead to very large and complex networks that are difficult and expensive to construct, operate and maintain. Recent and emerging advances in optical technology promise revolutionary all-optical networks capable of providing improved economy, flexibility and robustness while still capable of making use of the large existing fiber base.
2.4 Principles and Operation
The choice between single-mode and multimode fiber depends on the desired repeater spacing or transmission rate; single mode is the preferred choice for long-haul or high data-rate systems. The earliest form of multimode fiber was the step-index, where the core has a uniform index of refraction and the concentric cladding also has a uniform but lower index. In this case the propagation velocity within the core is constant, so that rays traveling a longer path arrive behind rays traveling a shorter path, thus producing pulse spreading, or dispersion. These dispersive effects may be remedied by constructing a fiber whose refractive index increases toward the axis, with a resulting refractive index profile that is parabolic. With a graded-index fiber, rays that travel longer paths have greater velocity than rays traveling the shorter paths due to decreasing refractive index with radial distance. The various modes then tend to have the same arrival time, such that dispersion is minimized and greater bandwidths become possible for multimode fibers
Within the spectrum available in a fiber optic system, there are three low-loss windows, at wavelengths of approximately 850, 1300, and 1550 nm. Early applications of fiber optics for communications applications were based on the short-wavelength band of roughly 800 to 860 nm. Operation in the longer-wavelength bands, particularly at 1300 and 1550nm, is attractive because of improved attenuation and dispersion characteristics at these wavelengths. Typically today the shorter-wavelength band is used for short-haul, low data rate systems, and the longer-wavelength bands are applied to long-haul, high data rate systems. Special fibers have been developed that shift the minimum dispersion to about 1550 nm to take advantage of lower attenuation as well as minimum dispersion. These fibers are called dispersion-shifted fibers, and are important to single-mode fiber applications.
Low-data rate, short-haul fiber optic systems tend toward multimode cable, LED transmitters, and PIN diode receivers. High-data rate, long-haul systems tend toward single-mode cable, laser diode transmitters, and avalanche photodiode receivers. Latest generation fiber optic systems have introduced innovations that have significantly improved the bandwidth and repeater spacing possible. Coherent detection via either homodyne or heterodyne techniques allows much greater bandwidths to be realized. Several wavelengths can be transmitted simultaneously in wavelength-division multiplexing, analogous to frequency-division multiplexing used in telephony. Optical amplifiers are now available that eliminate electronics and instead use specially doped fiber or semiconductor laser devices. The use of optical amplifiers will allow a fiber optic system to be upgraded in bit rate without replacement of the repeaters. Optical amplifiers have also been used to achieve ultra-long distances via solution transmission, which is the transmission of an idealized pulse without loss of pulse shape.
2.5 Types of Optical Networks
Optical networks may be passive or active. A passive optical network (PON) is an all-optical network that utilizes only passive optical components, e.g., fibers, directional couplers, star couplers, wavelength routers, wavelength multiplexers, and filters. The intended applications are fiber-in-the-loop (local loop) and fiber-to-the-home (FTTH). The optical signaling formats in PONs can employ wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), subcarrier multiplexing, time-division multiplexing (TDM) or any combination of these. An active all-optical network (AON) enables each of a large number of optical WDM channels (wavelengths) to propagate from source to destination over long distances and high bit rates without optical-to-electronic format conversion within the network.
2.6 Optical Networking Vs Other Technologies
Ø Size and Weight: Since individual optic fibers are typically only 125 ?m in diameter, a multiple fiber cable can be made that is much smaller than corresponding metallic cables.
Ø Bandwidth: Fiber optic cables have bandwidths that can be orders of magnitude greater than metallic cable. Low data rate systems can be easily upgraded to higher rate systems without the need to replace the fibers. Upgrading can be achieved by changing light sources (LED to laser), improving the modulation technique, improving the receiver, or using wavelength division multiplexing.
Ø Repeater spacing: With low-loss fiber optic cable, the distance between repeaters can be significantly greater than in metallic cable systems. More over, losses in optical fibers are independent of bandwidth, whereas with coaxial or twisted pair cable the losses increase with bandwidth. Thus this advantage in repeater spacing increases with the system’s bandwidth.
Ø Electrical isolation: Fiber optic cable is electrically no conducting, which eliminates all electrical problems that now beset metallic cable. Fiber optic systems are immune to power surges, lightning induced currents, ground loops, and short circuits. Fibers are not susceptible to electromagnetic interference from power lines, radio signals, adjacent cable systems, or other electromagnetic sources.
Ø Crosstalk: Because there is no optical coupling from one fiber to another within a cable, fiber optic systems are free from crosstalk. In metallic cable systems, by contrast, crosstalk is a common problem and is often the limiting factor in performance.
Ø Environment: Properly designed fiber optic systems are relatively unaffected by adverse temperature and moisture conditions and therefore have application to underwater cable. For metallic cable, however, moisture is a constant problem particularly in underground (buried) applications, resulting in short circuits, increased attenuation, corrosion, and increased crosstalk.
Ø Reliability: The reliability of optical fibers, optical drivers, and optical receivers has reached the point where the limiting factor is usually the associated electronics circuitry.
Ø Cost: The numerous advantages listed here for fiber optic systems have resulted in dramatic growth in their application with attendant reductions in cost due to technological improvements and sales volume.
Ø Frequency allocations: Fiber (and metallic) cable systems do not require frequency allocations from an already crowded frequency spectrum. Moreover, cable systems do not have the terrain clearance, multipath fading, and interference problems common to radio systems.
Today fiber optic systems are much more cost effective than metallic cable, satellite, and radio for long haul, high bit rate applications. Fiber optic cable is also expected eventually to overtake metallic cable in short haul applications, including metro facilities and local networks. One final cost factor in favor of fiber optics is the choice of material, namely silicon, which of course is one of the earth’s most abundant elements, versus copper, which may someday be in short supply, or the radio spectrum, which is already in short supply
Design/Description of the method
There are many technology used in the world for communication. now a days optical fibere is the faster communication medium in the world for telecom and other data communication.
3.2 Types of Research
By using Optitical Fiber Networking of ADUST five Campuses
For above networking have to include following topics-
3.2.1. Optical Fiber Cable
3.2.2 Optical Media Converter
3.2.3 Distance of the Network
3.3 Sample Design
For analyzing all the existing Optical Fiber Network, we are taken as sample design of Optical Fiber Network.
Fig1: Sample Design of Network
3.4 Project Architectural Design
Fig2:Project Archetecture Design
PTZ-100WSC-60S,Single mode Optical fiber is used to connect different campus. It’s Wavelength is 1310/1550nm, Typical Distance is 60 Km, Min TX PWR is -5.0 dBm, Max TX PWR is 0 dBm, Sensitivity is 35.0 dBm, we will use the above type fiber cable because that’s are available in our market and it give better performance.
The 10/100/100 Base-TX to 100 Base-FX Fast Ethernet Converter is fully compliant with all IEEE 802.3µ standerds and Six LEDs display instant status monitoring for power, Fdx/Col, FX(Link/Act),TX(Link/Act),Fx 100,Tx 100. So we used this type of Media Converter.
We used SC-SC patch cord,becouse this type patch cord are used for The 10/100/100 Base-TX to 100 Base-FX Fast Ethernet Converter and It is able able in our market.
3.5 Project Milestone & Timelines
Our project total time is 6 months. According our deadline, project milestone and timeline are as like following:
|S/N||Milestone Name||Milestone Description||Timeline(Week)|
Table 1: Milestones and Timeline.
After collecting our required data from different source, we study all data as perspective our objectives and all data that are presented in this report. Then we make milestone and a timeline which maintain our time schedule and project deadline.
A fiber-optic network uses light signals through an optical fiber for the transmission of data from point A to point B. The transmitted light signal converts into a modulated electromagnetic carrier wave that carries vital information. Fiber-optic communication has revolutionized technology and made possible the transfer of data at speeds faster than those before. Optical fibers have numerous advantages over copper-wire-based networks and are the backbone of core networks. Fiber-optic networks are used by telecommunications companies for the transmission of cable television signals, Internet communication and IIntranet communication.
We need two types requirement for our proposed network. This are-
1) Essential Requirement for Fiber Link
2) Testing & Others Requirement for Fiber Link
4.2 Essential Requirement for Fiber Link (Materials list excluding Server & PC):
|1||Optical Fiber Cable||4 F Optical Fiber Cable||Km||39|
|4||Joint Box||TJ Box||each||25|
|5||UTP Cable(Cat-5E)||RJ45 cable (Cat-5E)||meter||75|
Table 2: Materials list.
4.3 Testing tools & Others Requirement for Fiber Link:
|2||Optical Power meter||OLA-18B||each||2|
|3||Splice Machine||Splice Machine||each||1|
Table 3: Testing tools list.
4.4 Description of Requirements:
Optical Fiber Cable:
From Architectural Design we know that ADUST’s five campuses distance are follows:
Table 4: Location distance
So total cable require:
Table 5: Total cable hope wise.
Fig 3: Top view of Optical Fiber Cable.
|Typical Distance||60 Km|
|Min TX PWR||-5.0 dBm|
|Max TX PWR||0 dBm|
|Link Budget||30.0 dBm|
Table 6: Cable specification
Fiber Patch cord:
Fig 4: SC-SC Optical Fiber Patch cord
We used SC-SC type patch cord. We need two patch cords per point to point connection. So we need 4×2=8(Eight) Patch cord.
We used 10/100/100 Base-TX to 100 Base-FX Fast Ethernet Converter. We need one (1) pair media converter per point to point connection. So we need 4×2=8(Eight) Pcs media converter
Fig 5: 10/100/100 Base-TX to 100 Base-FX Fast Ethernet Converter
Media Converter Specification:
Overview: The 10/100/100 Base-TX to 100 Base-FX Fast Ethernet Converter is fully compliant with all IEEE 802.3µ standerds.
Ø PTZ-100W-2M SC/ST Fiber Connector(Multi mode)
Ø PTZ-100W-20S SC Fiber Connector(Single mode)
Six LEDs display instant status monitoring for power, Fdx/Col, FX(Link/Act),
TX(Link/Act),Fx 100,Tx 100.
Please follow the procedure outlined below:
Ø Turn off the power of the device/station in the network in which the PTZ-100 WSC-20 will be installed.
Ø Ensure that there is no activity in the network.
Ø Attach finer cable from the PTZ-100WSC-20S to the fiber network.The transmit socket thoreceive socket.
Ø Attach a UTP cable from the 100 base-tx network to the RJ-45 port on PT-100 WSC-20S
Ø Connect the power cord to the PT-100 WSC-20 S and check that the power led lights up. The tp link and fx link leds will light when all the cable.
Ø Connections are satisfactory turn on the power of the device/station.
|FX 100||Green||Lit when 100 Base-FX operation|
|FX Link/ACT||Green||Lit when fiber cable connection with remote device is good. Blinks when any FX traffic is present.|
|Power||Green||Lit when +5V power is available.|
|FDX/Col||Green||Lit when Full Duplex Mode is enabled. Blinking when fliker is present.|
|TX 100||Green||Lit when 100 Base-TX operation.|
|TX Link/ACT||Green||Lit when TP cable connection with remote device is good. Blinks when any TX traffic is present|
Table 7: LED description
The converter conforms to the following standards:
Standards: IEEE802.3µ Fast Ethernet 10/100 Base-TX and 100 Base-FX
Connectors (RJ45-UTP and Fiber SC or ST)
Ø PT-100W20S RJ-45 and SC Connector (Single-mode)
LED: POWER,FDX/Col, FX Link/Act, TX Link/Act, FX 100,TX100.
Data Transfer Mode: 10/100/100Mbps
Duplex Mode: Full Half Duplex Mode
Power Requirement: AC 110-250V, DC 1A+5V
Ambient Temperature: 0?C to 70?C
Humidity: 5% to 90%
Dimensions: 26×71×97 mm(H×W×D)
UTP: Cat.5 UTP cable
Single mode: 8.3/125, 8.7/125, 9/125, or 10/125 um
4.5 Cost analysis
|SL||Items||Description||Unit||Quantity||Unite Price||Total price(BDT)|
|1||Optical Fiber Cable||4 F Optical Fiber Cable||Km||39||20000||7,80000|
|4||Joint Box||TJ Box||each||25||800||20,000|
|5||UTP Cable(Cat-5E)||RJ45 cable (Cat-5E)||meter||75||50||3750|
|7||Switch||Cisco Switch 24 Ports||each||6||1,00000||6,00000|
|Sub total (A)||19,07,950|
Table 8: Material cost
|SL||Items||Description||Unit||Quantity||Unite Price||Total price(BDT)|
|1||Optical Fiber Cable||4 F Optical Fiber Cable||Km||39||5000||1,95,000|
|2||Splicing||Splicing 4 FO||each||25||2000||50,000|
|3||RJ45 Cable||Serial RJ45 cable||each||30||100||3,000|
|Sub total (B)||2,73,000|
Table 9: Installation work cost
Total cost (A+ B) = 19, 07,950+ 2, 73,000) =21, 80950 Taka only
4.6 OTDR Testing:
Fig 6: FTB200 OTDR
As we mentioned earlier, OTDRs are always used on OSP cables to verify the loss of each splice. But they are also used as troubleshooting tools. Let’s look at how an OTDR works and see how it can help testing and troubleshooting
How OTDRs Work
Unlike sources and power meters which measure the loss of the fiber optic cable plant directly, the OTDR works indirectly. The source and meter duplicate the transmitter and receiver of the fiber optic transmission link, so the measurement correlates well with actual system loss.
The OTDR, however, uses backscattered light of the fiber to imply loss. The OTDR works like RADAR, sending a high power laser light pulse down the fiber and looking for return signals from backscattered light in the fiber itself or reflected light from connector or splice interfaces.
At any point in time, the light the OTDR sees is the light scattered from the pulse passing through a region of the fiber. Only a small amount of light is scattered back toward the OTDR, but with sensitive receivers and signal averaging, it is possible to make measurements over relatively long distances. Since it is possible to calibrate the speed of the pulse as it passes down the fiber, the OTDR can measure time, calculate the pulse position in the fiber and correlate what it sees in backscattered light with an actual location in the fiber. Thus it can create a display of the amount of backscattered light at any point in the fiber.
Since the pulse is attenuated in the fiber as it passes along the fiber and suffers loss in connectors and splices, the amount of power in the test pulse decreases as it passes along the fiber in the cable plant under test. Thus the portion of the light being backscattered will be reduced accordingly, producing a picture of the actual loss occurring in the fiber. Some calculations are necessary to convert this information into a display, since the process occurs twice, once going out from the OTDR and once on the return path from the scattering at the test pulse.
There is a lot of information in an OTDR display. The slope of the fiber trace shows the attenuation coefficient of the fiber and is calibrated in dB/km by the OTDR. In order to measure fiber attenuation, you need a fairly long length of fiber with no distortions on either end from the OTDR resolution or overloading due to large reflections. If the fiber looks nonlinear at either end, especially near a reflective event like a connector, avoid that section when measuring loss.
Connectors and splices are called “events” in OTDR jargon. Both should show a loss, but connectors and mechanical splices will also show a reflective peak so you can distinguish them from fusion splices. Also, the height of that peak will indicate the amount of reflection at the event, unless it is so large that it saturates the OTDR receiver. Then peak will have a flat top and tail on the far end, indicating the receiver was overloaded. The width of the peak shows the distance resolution of the OTDR, or how close it can detect events.
OTDRs can also detect problems in the cable caused during installation. If a fiber is broken, it will show up as the end of the fiber much shorter than the cable or a high loss splice at the wrong place. If excessive stress is placed on the cable due to kinking or too tight a bend radius, it will look like a splice at the wrong location.
Using the OTDR
When using an OTDR, there are a few cautions that will make testing easier and more understandable. First always use a long launch cable, which allows the OTDR to settle down after the initial pulse and provides a reference cable for testing the first connector on the cable. Always start with the OTDR set for the shortest pulse width for best resolution and a range at least 2 times the length of the cable you are testing. Make an initial trace and see how you need to change the parameters to get better results.
Above all – never simply attach an OTDR to the cable plant and hit the “auto-test” button! We know of applications where that was done that cost the installers and users big bucks! ODTRs are not smart enough to make the decisions on setup and pass/fail themselves – they are easily fooled. If you do the setup correctly yourself, you can try “auto-test” and see if it gives reliable results, but never use it without knowledgeable operator oversight.
4.7 Optical power meter:
Fig 7: Fluke Networks Optical Power Meter
An optical power meter (OPM) is a device used to measure the energy in an optical signal.
A typical OPM device consists of a calibrated sensor, display and measurement units. The sensor primarily consists of photodiode which fit to measure appropriate range of wavelengths. On the display unit, measured optical power and the wavelength being measured is displayed. Depending on the set measurement wave on power meter, measured power can vary due to the calibration of the device. Power meters are calibrated using a traceable calibration standard such as a NIST standard.
Sometimes optical power meters are combined with different optical devices such us Optical Light Sources (OLS) and Visual Fault Locators (VFL).
Such combinations allow optical network builders to test their fibers with different wavelengths at the same time.
4.8 Splice Machine:
Fig 8:Fiber Splice Machine.
Ø Understand that fusion splicing is basically two or more optical fibers being permanently joined together by welding using an an electronic arc. The need for a precise cleaver is mandatory if you desire less light loss and reflection problems. Keep in mind that a quality cleaver for this precise work can run anywhere from $1000 to $4000. If a poor spice is made, the fiber ends may not melt together properly and problems can arise.
Ø Prepare the fiber by stripping the coatings, jackets and tubes’, making sure that only bare fiber is left showing. You will want to clean all the fibers of any filling gel. A clean environment is imperative for a good connection.
Ø Cleave the fiber. A good cleaver is mandatory to obtain a successful splice. When fusing the fibers together, you can either align the fibers manually or automatic, depending on what type of machinery you have. Once you’ve obtained a proper alignment, an electrical arc is used to melt the fibers together creating a permanent weld of the two fiber ends.
Ø Protect the fiber with heat shrink tubing, silicone get. This will keep the optical fiber safe from any outside elements it may encounter or future breakage.
Ø Understand that the basic difference between mechanical splicing and fusion splicing is you don’t require a fusion splicer. It’s also considered a quicker method and there is no heat involved.
Ø Prepare the fiber by stripping all the protective coatings away. You will then want to cleave the fiber as in fusion, but precision is not as critical to the splice. The ends are then mechanically joined together by positioning them inside the mechanical splice unit. In this step a connector or an adhesive cover is used to join the splice together.
Ø Protect the fiber with heat shrink tubing. As in fusion splicing, this will keep the optical fiber cable safe from the outside elements or breakage.
An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet protocol technology to securely share any part of an organization’s information or network operating system within that organization. The term is used in contrast to internet, a network between organizations, and instead refers to a network within an organization. Sometimes the term refers only to the organization’s internal website, but may be a more extensive part of the organization’s information technology infrastructure. It may host multiple private websites and constitute an important component and focal point of internal communication and collaboration.
5.2 Project Implementation
Implementation is the carrying out, execution, or practice of a plan, a method, or any design for doing something. As such, implementation is the action that must follow any preliminary thinking in order for something to actually happen. In the information technology context, implementation encompasses all the processes involved in getting all equipment operating properly in its environment, including installation, configuration, running, testing and making necessary changes.
We know our given project is a large project, so if we want to implement the project we need many types of equipment, that’s costly. That’s why we have to simulation this project. For simulation we used Cisco Packet tracer software.
5.4 Duel core
Fig 9: Duel core Point to point connection
Point to Point Connection:
Duel core data transmissionsystem is a conventional technology. We used this technology few years ago. In this technology we have to use two core fiber for data transmission, one core used for Tx, another one for Rx. In Fig: we used two switch which is connected fiber optic cable.
5.5 Single Core Point to Point Connection:
Fig 10: Single core Point to point Connection
Single core optical fiber networking is a modern technology. We used only single core optical fiber cable for data transmission. If we want to create a long distance network we will use single mode optical fiber cable, otherwise we can used multimode cable. In this network Fig: we used three routers, three hubs, and three computers. We connected H/o and two branches.
The last and final step of network project is implementation or simulation.
Sample Network Testing
Testing & Evaluation
After the cables are installed and terminated, it’s time for testing. For every fiber optic cable plant, we will need to test for continuity, end-to-end loss and then troubleshoot the problems. It’s a long outside plant cable with intermediate splices; we will probably want to verify the individual splices with an OTDR also, since that’s the only way to make sure that each one is good. we are the network user, we will also be interested in testing power, as power is the measurement that tells us whether the system is operating properly.
6.2 Sample network test in ADUST campus:
Since, our proposed Network project is among five campus of ADUST and it is not possible to implement that why we make a network between two computers as a test basis at ADUST Lab room. To do the following connectivity used these items:
|1||Optical Fiber Cable(Patch cord SC/SC)||Each||2||Single Mode Step Index.|
|2||RJ45 Cable||Each||2||Serial connection.|
|4||PTZ-100W-20S SC Fiber Connector(Single mode)||each||2||Different Wave length MC, because, used single mode Optical fiber|
Table 10: Material list for sample network
Ø At first laid optical connection between two Media converter.
Ø Then we make connection by using RJ45 between the computers and the media converters in both ends.( Fig : Two PC networking Using Fiber)
Ø Power up the media converters. (Fig: Media converter connectivity)
Ø Then we ensure the connection to see the LED status of the Media converters.
Ø Then we configure IP of the both computer as same subnet mask.
Ø IP Address and SUB net mask of Computer 1
Ø IP Address and SUB net mask of Computer 2
Ø Finally transfer data between two computers.
Fig 11: Two PC networking Using Fiber
Fig 12: participants of the Networking Project.
Fig 13: Media converter connectivity
6.4 Different types of Testing:
To measure power, attach the meter to the cable that has the output you want to measure. That can be at the receiver to measure receiver power, or to a reference test cable (tested and known to be good) that is attached to the transmitter, acting as the “source”, to measure transmitter power. Turn on the transmitter/source and note the power the meter measures. Compare it to the specified power for the system and make sure it’s enough power but not too much.
As we mentioned earlier, OTDRs are always used on OSP cables to verify the loss of each splice. But they are also used as troubleshooting tools. So we test the loss and other things.
We have tested all the network equipment properly and found all equipments are working properly
Summary & Conclusion
After analyzing existing system, we gather idea to develop “Optical Fiber Networking System”. First we research on online data connectivity system and make a sample design. We make a timeline and milestone.
Then define all requirements such as Optical cable, transmitter, and receiver
This project was a challenge for us from the very beginning. We were frightened that we would not be able to finish the project on time. We feel proud and happy for implementing this vast an important project successfully.