Eve teasing is a very common social problem and everyday women come-across some form of eve teasing. In this case, do you think that women should be empowered to fight back due to end this civil act – Explain & IllustrateTable of Content
|Sl.||Name of the elements||Page|
|02.||Mainly affected areas||01|
|03.||3.1 Who are the eve teasers||02|
|3.2 Who are the victims||02|
|04.||4.1 Cause of eve teasing||02|
|4.2 Result of eve teasing||03|
|05.||5.1 Law against eve teasing||04|
|5.2 Lacking of the law||05|
|06.||Programme against eve teasing||06|
|07.||7.1 What should we do||06|
|7.2 What a victim should do||07|
|7.3 What should parents do||07|
|08.||Future threat of it||08|
Eve teasing is a euphemism used in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal(1) for public sexual harassment, street harassment or molestation of women by men, with Eve being a reference to the biblical Eve(2). As we know, the term ‘eve teasing’ is an Indian origin. The term itself has some demerits. Eve represents temptress and the term actually signifies that eves (women) tempt or provoke males for vulgar comments and behaviors. Ironically, that also means women cause the problem and are also a victim to it. But that is almost like blaming the victims for their sufferings. It also depicts an element of male chauvinism. Probing further, the problem of eve teasing took its roots during the 60s when women had started to venture out for schools, colleges and jobs(3). A social change was taking place in conservative India. The giant movement of women emancipation came with its own side effects and one of them was eve teasing. The term “eve-teasing” refers to the sexual harassment of women in an unusually harmless way-the women are “eves,” the original temptresses leading men to offense, and therefore men “tease” them. According to Double Tongue dictionary eve-teasing means harassment or sexually aggressive behavior toward, women or girls(4). When it comes to eve teasing, no matter what are the educational background, caste, complexion and race of women, many of them have gone through these unpleasant experiences(5). According to Bangladesh National Women Lawyers Association, almost 90 percent of girls between aged 10- 18 are victim of public harassment. Another study shows that almost 90 percent of only college going girls have experienced some sort of sexual harassment at different point of time(6).
2. Mainly affected areas:
Eve teasing is a huge issue in many metropolitan cities of south Asian countries(7). The concept of eve teasing is mostly common in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and some others neighbor countries. Nowadays it is a huge issue in our country because now it is increasing at a very alarming rate.
1. See, Here It is called eve-teasing Woman, Body, Desire in Post-colonial India: Narratives of Gender and Sexuality, by Jyoti Puri. Page 87. 2. See, Eve-Teasing The Official Dictionary of Unofficial English, by Grant Barrett. Page 109. 3. See, Eve-Teasing Time, Monday, September 12, 1960. 4. See, eve teasing, Double Tongue Dictionary by Grant Barrett, available at www.doubletongued.org/index.php/dictionary/eve_teasing/ 5. See, www.eveteasing.org/eve_teasing/ 6. See, www.eveteasing.org/eve_teasing/ 7. See, www.eveteasing.org/eve_teasing/
3.1 Who are the eve teasers:
Eve teasing is a threat that has grown to alarming proportions. Though, we are one of the developing countries in world but we have yet to ensure the safety of working women and students. One study shows that 35 percent of the eve teasers are anti-socials, 32 percent are students and 33 percent of eve teasers belong to middle age(8). Most of the eve teasers are young people and they are horrible people as well. If we can survey on it we will find that, most of the eve teasers are uneducated, drug addicted, the son of some rich people who are not much careful
about their child.
3.2 Who are the victims:
School girls, college going students, working women are mainly harassed by the eve teasers. Mainly the young girls and women are affected by eve teaser. In the list of victims includes garments worker, young school teachers, and the modern girls those are mostly influenced by western culture.
4.1 Cause of eve teasing:
The main cause of eve teasing is sexual attraction to the opposite gender. Some traditionalists blame it on females because of their dressing, nowadays teenagers and young girls like to wear western dress which influences people to tease(9). They recommend old-fashioned dresses for women. However, going by the records; it is hard to prove that conservatively dressed women have not gone through eve teasing(10). There are some extremely conservative society on that boys and girls are not much cooperative to each other. This type of mentality also provoke eve teasing sometimes. Some boys argue that at times girls dress in a stimulating manner that they themselves draw male’s attention(11). People are not much educated which is also a reason for eve teasing. There are some people who think that eve teasing is a fun and it is a part for their proper growing up, they don’t think that it is an offence. Lack of law enforcement agencies’
8. See, www.eveteasing.org/eve_teasing/
9. See, www.eveteasing.org/cause_of_eve_teasing/
10. See, www.eveteasing.org/cause_of_eve_teasing/
11. See, www.bangladesh2day.com, also available at, http://www.lawyersnjurists.com/category/best-law-firm/
awareness is also a reason for eve teasing as they are not serious about this matter. Education, family rearing and way of living are some of the factors that influence everybody’s mind. It is shown that if a girl is too smart and fashionable, boys tend to do such activities often out of frustration. Undue limitations and isolation from girls also give birth to sexual dissatisfaction and thus sort of aggression(12).
4.2 Result of eve teasing:
In recent era suicide is the only result for the victim. Sometimes a father and a daughter also committed suicide together – in an incident blamed by the authorities on “Eve teasing”. Police say three men who publicly protested against the harassment have been killed over the past 12 weeks(13). There are lots of example of suicide as a result of eve teasing(14)(15). In 2007, an eve-teasing resulted in the death of Pearl Gupta, a college student in Delhi(16). Based on empirical study (2008) the Hunger Project has identified some impacts of eve teasing in the society of rural Bangladesh. Sexual harassment increases girls’ drop-out rate from school(17). Parents concerned about their daughter’s honor or safety sometimes keep their daughters home(18) and/or marry them off at an early age because they think that a husband can take care of their daughter(19). Sometimes they pushed into marriage, before they are physically or mentally prepared. Eve teasing contributes to maintaining the low status of women. It also hinders women in participating in the formal employment sector. As nearly half of the population of the country are women, for the economic development of the country their participation in employment is a must.
12. See, http://www.lawyersnjurists.com/category/best-law-firm/ 13. See, Bangladesh ‘Eve teasing’ takes a terrible toll, published on 11 June 2010, By Salim Mia BBC News, Dhaka 14. Following the suicides of a young woman in Bangladesh in January and an Indian college student near Chennai in February, it seems these two countries might want to start rethinking their lax policies towards eve-teasing. Both students’ deaths have been linked to shame caused by eve-teasing; the women, harassed and humiliated by men, apparently felt they had no recourse but to kill themselves. Available at, Eve-Teasing Threatens Women In India and Bangladesh, by Sarah Menkedick · February 16, 2010, Global Women’s Rights, Oaxaca, Mexico. 15. The tragic story of 13-year-old Nashfia Akhand Pinky – known as Pinky – shows just how damaging “Eve teasing” can be. Pinky was a ninth-grade student of a school only half a kilometer away from where she lived with her uncle in central Dhaka. On her way to school, she was stalked by her 22-year-old male neighbor and some of his friends who, according to her family, persisted with “ribald comments, smutty jokes, coarse laughter, sly whistles and even indecent exposure”. Available at, Bangladesh ‘Eve teasing’ takes a terrible toll, published on 11 June 2010, By Salim Mia BBC News, Dhaka 16. Women Police in a Changing Society,p-54 17. See, Eve teasing: A punishable offence by Shadeka Jahan, available at, http://www.blogymate.com/ 18. See, Eve teasing: A punishable offence by Shadeka Jahan, available at, http://www.blogymate.com/ 19.See, Bangladesh ‘Eve teasing’ takes a terrible toll, 11 June 2010, By Salim Mia BBC News, Dhaka.
5.1 Law against eve teasing:
Eve teasing is the topmost problem in recent era and it is a non-bailable offense in India. Recently the court ruled that using the term ‘eve-teasing’ to describe sexual harassment makes light of a serious crime and it is highly punishable in Bangladesh. The court ruled that stalking, either physically or electronically, must be considered sexual harassment(20).
“In Women and Children “Repression and Prevention Act 2000 an excellent provision was included in section article 10 that teasing of women like making obscene comments or gestures was an offence covered by it providing for up to seven years of simple imprisonment or meticulous imprisonment for two years”(21). But the act was amended in 2003 where no one could be charged with sexual abuse of a woman until it is physical(22). And thus those who bother/tease women in public places such as streets, shopping places and buses can no longer be tied under this law. Defending the amendment, the government has said the provision had been abused to harass rivals(23). The change has come when harassment of women has increased in Bangladesh. But one can enforce her right under section 509 of the Penal code where it is clearly stated that if “anybody intending to insult the modesty of any women, utters any word, make any sound or gesture or exhibits any object, intending that such word or sound shall be heard, or that such gesture or object shall be seen, by such women, or intrudes upon the privacy of such women, shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine or with both(24).” Not only that, in Metropolitan Police Ordinances, 1976 it is clearly described about the punishment of harassments of women(25). Recently the government of Bangladesh gave power to the assistant magistrate to stop eve teasing. It was declared that now the eve teasing judgment will be passed on mobile court. The teaser will be punished on the spot
20. The High Court has ordered that from now on, any kind of harassment of women, which is known as ‘eve-teasing’ in Bangladesh, must be considered sexual harassment. Available at, Bangladesh says ‘eve-teasing’ belittles sex crimes, Thu Jan 27, DHAKA (AFP). 21. See, www.bangladesh2day.com 22. See, www.bangladesh2day.com 23. See, www.thedailystar.net 24.See, www.thedailystar.net 25. Whoever willfully and indecently exposes himself in any street or public place within sight of and in such manner as may be seen by, any woman, whether from within any house or building or not, or willfully obstructs any woman in a street or public place or insults or annoys any woman by using indecent language or making indecent sounds, gestures, or remarks in any street or public place, shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year , or with fine which may extend to two thousand taka, or with both. See, www.thedailystar.net
with maximum 1 year of imprisonment or will have to pay fine or both. The section 509 has been included in the mobile court(26). Using this section the magistrate can declare judgment on the spot. This law will help to stop eve teasing and will create among the stalkers.”(27)
In the Indian Penal Code (IPC), doesn’t use the term ‘eve-teasing’, victims usually take recourse to Section 298 (A) and (B) of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), which sentences a man found guilty of making a girl or woman the target of obscene gestures, remarks, songs or recitation for a maximum tenure of three months. Section 292 of the IPC clearly spells out that showing pornographic or obscene pictures, books or slips to a woman or girl draws a fine of Rs.2000 with two years of rigorous imprisonment for first offenders. In case of repeated offence, when and if proved, the offender will be slapped with a fine of Rs.5000 with five years imprisonment. Under Section 509 of the IPC, obscene gestures, indecent body language and acidic comments directed at any woman or girl carries a penalty of rigorous imprisonment for one year or a fine or both(28)(29). The ‘National Commission for Women‘ (NCW) has also proposed No 9. Eve Teasing (New Legislation) 1988(30). There are many other examples of punishment which are not in the law, it may be the normal punishment given by the police(31). That’s the initial punishment as well.
5.2 Lacking of the law:
Critics argue that laws which should prohibit sexual harassment are so poorly drafted that victims get virtually no help from the law enforcement agencies(32). Most of the time eve teasers does not get enough punishment for their offence. Sometimes our polices are responsible for it and sometimes the victims don’t go to court because of their social problems. The most important lacking of the law is still eve teasing is not counted as a sexual harassment because mental harassment is not described by the law. Though recently Govt. declared that both mental and physical harassment will be count as a sexual harassment but still it is not properly applied
26. See, prothom-alo, November 10, 2010 27. See, http://www.lawyersnjurists.com/category/best-law-firm/ 28. See, Eve teasing Encyclopaedia of Social Change, by Laxmi DeviPage 159-160. 29. See, Sexual Harassment Indian Feminisms: Law, Patriarchies and Violence in India, by Geetanjali Gangoli. Page 63. 30. See, Laws and Legislative Measures Affecting Women by National Commission for Women (NCW) National Commission for Women 31. Many other cases go unreported for fear of reprisals and exposure to public shame. In some cases police let the offenders go, after public humiliation through the murga punishment. Available at, Pak police reins in eve-teasers with ‘murga’ punishment Daily Excelsior, October 10, 2007. And Public prosecution: Crime and instant punishment! The Times of India, June 29, 2006. 32. See, Bangladesh ‘Eve teasing’ takes a terrible toll, 11 June 2010, By Salim Mia BBC News, Dhaka,
6. Programme against eve teasing:
The number of women’s organization and those working for women’s rights also saw a rise, especially as this period also saw a rise in reports of bride burning. The increase in violent incidents towards women meant previously lackadaisical attitudes towards women’s rights had to be abandoned by law makers. In the coming years, such organizations played a key role in lobbying for the eventual passing of legislation designed to protect women from violent eve-teasing. Bangladeshi students protest against uncontrolled ‘eve teasing, sexual harassment of women(33). Many Bangladeshi college and university students are taking different steps to stop eve teasing(34).
7.1 What should we do:
The government should take strict decision to restrict it. And finally the parents or guardians of the victim and eve teasers should take a huge role to stop eve teasing. “Protecting and establishing human rights, strengthening rural governance and ensuring gender parity could be the effective tools for eliminating the social curse. Only the law enforcing agencies or any single organization is not capable to combat the crimes but a determined effort is a must in this regard. Education system must be deliberated in a way as to promote positive relationship between girls and boys, especially at a younger age. Parents’ role is very significant. They should keep their children away from bad influences. Parents must educate their children ‘what to’ or ‘what not to’ do/watch. They should adopt friendly relations with their children rather than being harsh with them. Teachers must play their role to repeat moral teachings in the young minds in a more rational and modern way”(35). Girls should not lose courage in this regard. Different socio-cultural organizations need to chalk out elaborate programmes highlighting the negative impacts of eve teasing to make the young generation conscious. But above all is the law enforcement, laws are there, quietly sitting on the papers without being disturbed by us. This should end.
33. See, www.thaindian.com 34. We the students of DIU Let’s come together, & teach the world & show the community the power of students I think we the students can lead a great source by our commitment & we do believe we one day can make it a great success our university management has taken necessary steps to demobilize the situation so let’s help them help ourselves…………..available at, “EVE-Teasing”…..we should protest……, December 23, 2010, 09:02:44 PM by Md. Abul Hossain Shajib, http://forum.daffodilvarsity.edu.bd/index.php? 35. See, http://www.lawyersnjurists.com/category/best-law-firm/
Police and Legal system should take stern actions against the eve-teasers and sexual harassers and bring them to justice. Only then eve teasing can be affectively curbed down(36).
7.2 What a victim should do:
The victim should go to the nearest police station and file a FIR within the mandatory rules. She should note that the FIR is written down in the register and take the registration number or ask for a receipt of the same. It is then the duty of the police to investigate into the incident. It is better to consult a lawyer before registering the F.I.R.(37). There are many other things which may save girls from eve teasing. The expression and mentality and behave of a girls can prevent eve teasing, most of the time a smart girl can stay save from this occurrence(38). The girl should not ignore the teasing of eve teasers and should not bother about what people would say or think of her if she gives objection to such activities. They should protest strongly against such boys otherwise nobody can do anything against such eve teasers (39)
7.3 What should parents do:
First, parents should make girl child comfortable enough that she can share anything with them. If a girl has been harassed or been subject to molestation, the first place she would expect to be understood is her parents. It is the responsibility of the parents to bring up their children whether male or female with love, patience, honesty, respect for other sex and confidence. Parents can play a major role in healing the psychological scare inflicted on their daughter. They need to work as role models for their children(40). Parents should pay close attention to their teenage son, his activities and his friend circle. The truth is no parents like to have eve teasers son. They
38. If a girl wants to protect herself against eve teasing, she must to be street smart. Her personality should reflect that you know your mind. While going out, avoid dark lonely streets as that can invite trouble. If you are being followed by a sick youth, you can walk up to him and shout from the top of your lungs. It is suggested not to wear skimpy clothes if you are going to spend your day in a crowded area. Dress appropriately as provocative dresses can invite unwanted attention. Lastly, try to travel with a male escort. Though it may not always be possible but try to have arrangements where male escort is accompanying you. It is always better to be safe than sorry. Available at, May.06, 2010, http://www.evete asing.org/protection-against-eve-teasers.html 39. See, www.thedailystar.net
40. See, http://www.eveteasing.org/eve_teasing\role-of-parents-in-stopping-eve-teasing.html, May, 04, 2010,
will not approve such behavior from their son. But the seeds of the right behavior are needed to be implanted from the childhood only. Parents should impart education in a way that child can understand both sexes are equal. A son should not be made to believe that he can go away with any crime or atrocity against a female. He should also be taught about respecting a woman(41). And finally, Parents should focus on proper girl education. They need to work on girl empowerment. It is their job to make their children behave in an appropriate way and take necessary actions whenever needed. Parents of teenage girls should deal with them in a friendly manner. It is a sign of successful parenting when the offspring reposes absolute faith in his/her parents and share agonies and sorrows. If the parents are alert they can always help in avoiding a major tragedy(42).
8. Future threat of it:
If it is not stopped right now by taking proper steps, within few years it will be the most arising and dangerous crime not only in South Asia but also in the whole world. If we observe the recent phenomenon we can see that the proportion of eve teasing is increasing day by day. And it results a lots of death of girls which is really a great threat for our future. If it can’t stop right now by imposing proper law and its strict use all of the eve teasers will be most powerful criminal within few days. To stop this offence the rule should be hard as much as possible.
Eve teasing is the Indian term which is now used in all over the South Asia. In short, eve teasing described different types of sexual harassment of women. When eve teasing occur it doesn’t maintain any kind of limit based on age or status of the victim. Most of the eve teasers are uneducated and not from any good family. Though the school and college going girls are mainly affected by eve teasers but nobody can get rid of them. Nowadays most of the suicides are the results of eve teasing. Because of eve teasing some cities are became more dangerous for women(43). To stop eve teasing govt. should take proper step and have to impose strict law. The
41. See, http://www.eveteasing.org/eve_teasing\role-of-parents-in-stopping-eve-teasing.html, May, 04, 2010
42. See, http://www.eveteasing.org/eve_teasing\role-of-parents-in-stopping-eve-teasing.html, May, 04, 2010,
society have to be aware to stop eve teasing. In Mumbai, Ladies Special trains have been introduced to allow women working and studying in the city to travel without the fear of Eve-teasing, for the length of the journey at least. With the number of women needing to travel doubling since 1995, there is a very strong demand for these kinds of services(44). So we should do this type of thing more and the girls should not take eve teasing easily, they should protest it strongly. The parents of both party have to be careful about their child. There are some law against eve teasing authority have take proper step to implement it. Then eve teasing can be protected. If recently we can’t stop it, upcoming future will be very dangerous and threat for girls and young women. Finally to stop this offence not only the victims family and victim but also the whole society should came ahead.
- Puri, J. (1999). Here It is called eve-teasing Woman, Body, Desire in Post-colonial India: Narratives of Gender and Sexuality, Published by Routledge. ISBN 0415921287. Page 87.
- 2. See, Barrett, G. (2006) Eve-Teasing The Official Dictionary of Unofficial English, Published by McGraw-Hill Professional, ISBN 0071458042. Page 109.
- Eve-Teasing Time, Monday, September 12, 1960.
- Barrett, G. Double Tongue Dictionary. Available at www.doubletongued.org/index.php/ dictionary/eve_teasing/
- www.bangladesh2day.com, also available at, resources.lawyersnjurists.com/category/best-law-firm/
- By Mia, S. (11 June 2010). Bangladesh ‘Eve teasing’ takes a terrible toll. Published on BBC News, Dhaka, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world/asia_pacific/
10. Maguire M. and C. Corbett (1987) “ Patterns and Profiles of Complaints Against the Police’. In R. Morgan and D. Smith (eds). Coming to Terms with Policing. London: Routledge.
12. By Mia, S. (11 June 2010). Bangladesh ‘Eve teasing’ takes a terrible toll. Published on BBC News, Dhaka, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world/asia_pacific/
13. Women Police in a Changing Society,p-54
14. Jahan, S. Eve teasing: A punishable offence available at, http://www.blogymate.com/
15. Jahan, S. Eve teasing: A punishable offence available at, http://www.blogymate.com/
16. By Mia, S. (11 June 2010). Bangladesh ‘Eve teasing’ takes a terrible toll. Published on BBC News, Dhaka, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world/asia_pacific/
17. Thu Jan 27, DHAKA (AFP), Bangladesh says ‘eve-teasing’ belittles sex crimes. Available on http://news.yahoo.com/entertainment,
20. Neyroud, R & P Beckley (2001) Policing, ethics and human rights. Willan publishing.
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22. prothom-alo, November 10, 2010
24. Devi, L. (2004), Eve teasing Encyclopedia of Social Change Published by Anmol Publications PVT. LTD.,ISBN 8174881611. Page 159-160.
27. Daily Excelsior, (October 10, 2007). Pak police reins in eve-teasers with ‘murga’ punishment
29. By Mia, S. (11 June 2010). Bangladesh ‘Eve teasing’ takes a terrible toll. Published on BBC News, Dhaka, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world/asia_pacific/
30. Walker, S. (1993) Taming the System: The Control of Discretion in Criminal Justice 1950–1990, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
32. Thomas, D A (1998), ‘Sentencing: Some Current Questions’, 41 Current Legal Problems 115.
33. Shajib M. A. H. (December 23, 2010, 09:02:44 PM), “EVE-Teasing”…we should protest……, by http://forum.daffodilvarsity.edu.bd/index.php?
34. Stenning, P. (ed.) (1995) Accountability for Criminal Justice: Selected Essays, Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
38. protection-against-eve-teasers, (May.06, 2010), http://www.eveteasing.org/protection-against-eve-teasers.html
39. Rossi, M, et al (1985), ‘Beyond Crime Seriousness: fitting the punishment to the crime’, J Quantitative Criminology 59.
40. role-of-parents-in-stopping-eve-teasing, (May, 04, 2010), http://www.eveteasing.org/eve_ teasing\role-of-parents-in-stopping-eve-teasing.html
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