Eve teasing is very common social problem and every day women come across some form of eve teasing. In this case, do you think that women should be empowered to fight back due to end this evil act.
Sexual harassment, often known as “eve teasing”, is a regular occurrence for the women and girls of Bangladesh. A recent study by the Bangladesh National Women Lawyers’ Association (BNWLA) showed that almost 90 percent of girls aged 10-18 have undergone the experience. The harassment can take a variety of forms and the perpetrators come from multiple walks of life; they are rich and poor, educated and uneducated; according to the BNWLA study, teenage boys, rickshaw pullers, bus drivers, street vendors, traffic police and often supervisors or colleagues of the working women had all been cited as “eve teasers”.
For the girls and women who are subject to sexual harassment, the experiences are traumatic and can leave deep psychological scars. The BNWLA study also noted that in the past two years, at least 12 girls have committed suicide in circumstances stemming from “eve teasing”. And the innocuousness of the label belies further violent implications. It is often associated with rape and
Rape is the most common form of violence against women in Bangladesh. Between 2002 and 2006, there were over five thousand reported incidents. Almost two thousand of those rapes were of girl children. 625 of the victims were killed after they were raped and 69 killed themselves. One has to wonder how many of these crimes could have been prevented if society took sexual harassment more seriously and did not wait until girls were raped and murdered to take action. No one should have to suffer the experience of sexual harassment or the physical and sexual assaults that often come with it. As vicious and tormenting as sexual harassment is for the girls and women who endure it, however, the implications extend to the entire nation.
Sexual harassment increases girls’ drop-out rate from school.5 Parents concerned about their daughter’s honor or safety sometimes keep their daughters home and/or marry them off at an early age.
Education is an inalienable right guaranteed under the Convention on the Rights of the Child to which Bangladesh is a signatory. But more than that, education for girls is key to improving the standard of living in a society. Anything that results in girls not being educated is a disaster for us all.
Study after study shows that educating girls yields a multiplicity of benefits, including later marriages; reduced fertility rates; decreased infant and maternal mortality; improved health and nutritional status; and greater participation of women in political and economic decisions.
According to the UN Population Fund study, educated women farmers perform exceptionally well compared to men. A study found that crop yields could rise up to 22 percent if women farmers had the same education and inputs (such as fertilizer, credit, investment) as men farmers. Kumud Sharma of the Centre for Women’s Development Studies in New Delhi has noted that even a basic education raises awareness on once-taboo issues, such as domestic violence. With education comes the confidence and the courage to ask questions and raise a voice against injustice. Educated women take active roles in economic and political decision making and are more likely to resist physical abuse at home.
Education helps women make calculated decisions about their futures. If a woman goes to school, she becomes an educated mother who has basic health care knowledge. An educated woman is less likely to die in pregnancy or childbirth, she provides better nutrition for her children, and she has fewer of them.10 UNICEF reported in 2007 that when mothers are educated through primary school, the mortality rate for their children is halved. Access to education passes through generations; an educated mother is two times more likely to send her child to school than an uneducated mother.
Through the same process in which eve teasing pushes girls out of education, girls who are harassed are also pushed into marriage, before they are physically or mentally prepared. Half of Bangladeshi girls are married before they reach 15 years old, and they usually bear their first child while they are still teenagers. Adolescent girls face the risks of childbirth often without medical care and have a high incidence of maternal mortality. Mothers in aged 15 to 19 face a 20 to 200 percent greater chance of dying in pregnancy than women aged 20 to 24. There are further implications of child marriages. Bangladesh has the highest rates of malnutrition in the world. The vicious cycle of malnutrition is perpetuated by the status of women and particularly young mothers within the family hierarchy. As the young wife, she usually eats last and least, taking whatever is left over after feeding the husband and sons. Hence, she gives birth to underweight, malnourished, unhealthy babies and this cycle continues with no respite in sight.
Sexual harassment is a manifestation of the patriarchal cultural norms of Bangladesh. It also reinforces those norms; it is both a symptom and a cause. Inasmuch as the harassment contributes to maintaining the low status of women, it also interferes with ending hunger. A 2003 study by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), which utilizes data from over one hundred thousand children in 36 developing countries, demonstrates that when women’s status gets better, their nutrition improves and their children’s nutrition improves. In South Asia, where the status of women is the lowest, improvements in women’s status would have the strongest affect. The study concluded that if there were an equalization of men’s and women’s decision-making power in South Asia, the incidence of underweight children under three years old would fall by up to 13 percentage points, resulting in 13.4 million fewer undernourished children in the region.16 This study shows that elevating women’s overall status seems to be a crucial precondition to ending hunger.
Bangladesh is not a country that can afford to dally or placate traditional attitudes when it comes to ending hunger. It has one of the highest rates of child mortality in the world and the majority of those deaths are from causes related to hunger.17 Sexual harassment is implicated in those deaths. The phenomenon must be dealt with seriously and immediately. It affects not only the girls and women who are subject to the acts but also leads to social violence, stops girls from being educated, promotes maternal and child mortality, keeps women from being empowered, and ultimately prevents the end of hunger.
Article 76 of the Dhaka Metropolitan Police Ordinance and Article 509 of the Penal Code of 1860 affirm that any acts, conducts, or verbal abuses that are used to disgrace women are punishable by law.18 In other words, sexual harassment is illegal. However, state interventions have been inadequate in stopping it to date. The law enforcing authorities have failed to protect women and girls.
We must take sexual harassment seriously and bring it to a halt. We can do this through the legal system, by enforcing the laws, arresting the perpetrators, and bringing them to trial. Alongside a legal response, we must also work to alter the underlying conditions that give rise to the offenses. By raising the status of women and girls, and endeavoring to achieve gender equality, we can end the practice of sexual harassment, end hunger and uplift the quality of life for all.
The Hunger Project and National Girl Child Day
The Hunger Project (THP), a global, strategic organization committed to the sustainable end of world hunger, recognizes that the future of Bangladesh resides in the future of its girls. As long as girls are treated as inferior and less valuable than boys, the general well-being of society cannot advance. Former Secretary General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, has said: “There is no tool for development more effective than the education of girls. No other policy is as likely to raise economic productivity, lower infant and maternal mortality, improve nutrition and promote health.”
In accordance with these facts, The Hunger Project designed a strategy to cause a breakthrough in elevating status of girls in Bangladesh. In 2000, we organized the first National Girl Child Day on September 30th. Working with government ministries, women’s organizations, schools, the media, and more than 300 NGOs we seek to awaken Bangladeshi citizens to the critical importance of providing better health, education and nutrition to girls as the highest leverage investment for the future of the country.
National Girl Child Day is now celebrated in festivities across the entirety of the country. Hunger Project volunteers take a leadership role to ensure that the National Girl Child Day celebrations reach out to villagers in every district. Essay contests are held in schools throughout the nation. Both boys and girls win prizes for writing about the importance of better health and education for girls in Bangladeshi society. In festivities in Dhaka, as well as in remote rural areas, organizations rally their constituency to hold teach-ins and marches in support of National Girl Child Day.
National Girl Child day generates powerful media coverage in newspaper, television and radio – educating the public on the critical importance of this issue. The girl child is celebrated for who she is and what she means for the future of Bangladesh.
Violence against women is a common occurrence in most societies whether the violence is physical or mental. In South Asia it is a daily and often deadly fact of life for millions of women and girls. Women and girls are generally looked down upon, trapped within cultural framework, molded by rigid perceptions of patriarchy. As a result violence against women is viewed as a .normal. Phenomenon even from the women’s perspective. South Asian women suffer multiple forms of violence including domestic violence, rape, dowry deaths, sexual harassment, suicide, forced marriage, trafficking and other psychological and financial oppression. Violence against women has become one of the most visible social issues in this region.
Violence Against Women in Bangladesh
As a South Asian country, Bangladesh is no different from its neighbors. Violence against women is amongst the most serious threats to overall development and progress in Bangladesh. Widespread violence and repression in numerous forms puts women.s lives at risk in almost all parts of the country. This is further compounded by the gender bias against women in the society. Before discussing the nature and extent of violence against women it is important to focus on the general socio-economic and legal rights of women in Bangladesh.
Socio-economic status of women
Women in Bangladesh are not a homogenous group; they belong to the rich, middle and poor classes and are from different cultural and ethnic minority groups. They are also differentiated by rural and urban settings. Although women constitute half of the population, various indicators reveal that the status of women is much lower than that of men. Their literacy rate is only 43.2 percent, much lower than that of men 61.0. Excessive mortality among women due to discrimination has resulted in a sex ratio in the population of 105 men to every 100 women.1 Despite constitutional guarantees of gender equality and legislative and other affirmative interventions, the status of Bangladeshi women is on the whole dismal. Women are subjected to discrimination and violence within the household, at the workplace and in the society. Their inferior status can be traced to the patriarchal values entrenched in the society which keep women subjugated, assigns them a subordinate and dependent role, and, prevents them from accessing power and resources. Men hold the power and resource within families and control any property and family income. Women are considered as men.s property, their sexual activity, income and labor being systemically controlled by the men in their family. Social expectations still pivot around child rearing and household management. The practice of Purda (seclusion), although changing, is still socially valued. Social norms, education, employment and legal rights and gender inequality in Bangladesh are all perpetuated by patriarchy. From their childhood, women are forced to live in a culture, which tolerates and even permits inhuman treatment to them. As more women are entering the workforce, conflict is growing between the patriarchal social norms and women.s urge for economic independence. In recent years there has been a significant change in the attitude towards women taking up outside employment. With the breakup of the extended family, greater numbers of women are seeking employment. At home, however, workingwomen do not have control over their own income, rather her husband dictates how to spend the money. The influx of women into the employment market has result in further potential forms of violence. Working women face the threat of violence from the public because they are outside the home and from their employer, who are usually male, who are skeptical about women holding positions of responsibility. Furthermore, it is difficult for a woman to get paid employment and when they do there is a lack of parity between her wages and her male counterpart who undertakes similar work.
Women.s Legal Status
A reflection of the low status accorded to women is the discrimination against them in the law. Although the Constitution of Bangladesh states that women have equal footing with men in all spheres of public life2, it also recognizes religious personal laws3, which are unequal to women. According to the Constitution, the State takes responsibility to ensure non-discrimination among its citizens and maintain gender equality. However, in the personal sphere, the state does not specify its responsibility to ensure non-discrimination. Similarly in spite of the declaration of equality in the Constitution, women are deprived of their guaranteed rights by some of the discriminatory civil and religious laws. For example, according to the Citizenship Act, 1951 the right of citizenship can be transferred from the father, neither a woman.s husband nor her children have entitlement of citizen through her. Apart from this, the four most important events in the life of a woman: marriage; divorce; custody of children; and, inheritance rights are governed by personal laws. Since personal laws are based on religious and social value systems, and male dominance is entrenched in the culture, personal laws have reinforced age-old patriarchy and hindered women.s enjoyment of equal rights under the law. In Bangladesh, the majority of the population is Muslim, although several other minority groups exist. Both Muslim and non-Muslim women face gender discrimination under their personal laws. For example, under the Muslim law of inheritance a son receives double what a daughter receives. Similarly a Muslim mother.s custodial right is severely restricted; a mother looses her custodial right the moment she marries a man unrelated to her child. This reinforces the patriarchal notion that children belong to their father.s family. Polygamy of up to four wives is permitted for a Muslim man if he has legally take written permission from his current wife. In practice, however, the wife.s permission is obtained through coercion, threat and violence. Similarly, a Hindu woman receives only a limited share of the paternal property. Under no circumstances does she have recourse to bring a suit of divorce. The situation is awful when a Hindu widow is incapable of contracting a second valid marriage.
It is clear therefore that inequalities in the personal laws act as a considerable obstacle to achieving women.s right. It must be remembered that the enactment of legislation alone does not result in immediate change in women.s actual situation. The government of Bangladesh has from time to time enacted or amended several Acts to safeguard women.s legal right or to improve their status. These laws however are often hardly enforced or are misused. Since women form the most vulnerable group in the society, they repeatedly suffer from the existing discriminative legal system also. In Bangladesh, a victimized woman usually tries to avoid the legal process as she becomes more stigmatized by the society. She dares not file complaints; fearing negligence and harassment in police station, courts and society. The members of the police in most of the cases look down upon the oppressed women and will not take their complaints, unless they are compelled to do so by pressure from a higher authority. In cases of sexual violence the police often advise the victim to submit a medical document. However, the offender may .manage. the police, the medical officer or witness to say that the offence did not happen and the case is not pursed further. The existing legal process is elaborate, time consuming, expensive and often discourages women from taking legal action and enforcing their rights in the court. As a result of the harassment and complexities of the court procedure, survivors are often compelled to accept out of court settlements. The expenses involved in seeking legal redress; lawyer.s fees, court fees, and other incidental expenses, make it very hard for poor, illiterate, and disadvantaged rural women to even consider legal action. Moreover, whilst government legal aid is available, the aid procedure is complicated and the majority of women are unaware of this provision. As a result Non- Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and private volunteer organizations, rather than the State, become the main actors in undertaking legal awareness campaign.
Violence against Women: An Overview
Violence against women remains a prevailing social problem in contemporary Bangladesh. Brutal attacks on women have become commonplace and widespread across the country. Daily news reports are filled with atrocities including physical and psychological torture, sexual harassment, sexual assault, rape, dowry related violence, trafficking, forced prostitution, coerced suicide and murder. The rate of reported violent acts against women has risen consistently and at an alarming rate, especially since the early 1990.s4. The following data has been taken from 22 police stations in the capital city over the last three years.
Reported incidents of violence against women in police stations
Considering that violence against women remains one of the most under reported crimes in Bangladeshi it is implicit that the reported figures are a gross underestimate. Therefore, whilst statistical data is incomplete there is a consensus that the general trend overwhelmingly suggests that women in Bangladesh are at increasing risk of being victimized. Several factors have contributed to this situation. First, as has been mentioned earlier, patriarchal attitudes are deeply entrenched in society. Traditionally men have been in a dominant position and women in a submissive one. This is perceived not only traditional but also natural. Furthermore, there is a tendency, particularly in village areas, to legitimize the patriarchal attitudes on the basis of tradition and orthodox religion. Secondly, various community leaders actively oppose women.s rights in order to maintain their own power positions within the community. Local leaders try to enforce age-old patriarchal traditions and discourage women’s empowerment. Furthermore, they often remain silent and fail to protest against violent acts against women, sometimes blaming the victims for the crimes. In this way, they legitimize violation of women who assert rights outside their traditional roles. Thirdly, although many laws are in place to protect women, enforcement of these laws is lax and ineffective. Without proper law enforcement and court procedures, laws are virtually useless. The general public is well aware that law enforcement agencies often accepts bribes, ignores serious complaints, destroys or loses evidence, and frees criminals. In addition, the judicial system has several structural and procedural barriers. Political affiliations and motivations often affect court decisions. The lack of separation of the judiciary has resulted in a compromise of impartial justice in Bangladesh. As a result of the lax law enforcement, the general public has diminished trust and confidence in the system. On the other hand, criminals recognize that there are loopholes in the system, and they might easily avoid punishment. Finally, the community has become desensitized to the sufferings of others. Community members, having a host of problems themselves, fearing retaliation by gangsters and hoodlums, and perhaps aware of the lax law enforcement; they fail to take a proactive role to end violence against women Many other factors have also contributed to the current situation of women in Bangladesh and the alarming increase in the rate of violent acts against women. The factors are interrelated and the problem is very complicated. Unfortunately, there is no quick fix to the current problem of violence against women. It has become increasingly evident that laws and policies alone will be ineffective, rather collaborative multifaceted efforts are required to address this serious social problem.
UN Definition on violence against Women
In 1993, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, the first collaborative international human rights declaration exclusively addressing the issue. The UN declaration emphasizes that the global problem of violence against women crosses national boundaries into the realm of basic human rights. As such, the declaration states that violence against women violates a woman’s fundamental human rights and freedoms and that the international community has an obligation to protect and promote those rights. Article 2 of the declaration takes on the difficult task of defining violence against women. The definition of violence against women in the declaration is the internationally accepted definition and states violence against women shall be understood to encompass, but not limited to, physical, sexual, and psychological violence perpetrated by family members, the community, or the state. The forms of violence specifically mentioned in the document include battery, dowry related violence, sexual abuse of children, marital rape, rape, female genital mutilation, sexual harassment, trafficking, forced prostitution, and others. This definition does not claim to be all-inclusive and recognizes that various other forms of violence exist around the globe. The declaration is, therefore, somewhat arbitrary in that it does not provide sufficient guidance regarding controversial issues such as, for example, whether control over a woman’s reproductive rights constitutes violence against women. Nevertheless, despite its lacking, the declaration offers the first internationally accepted definition of violence against women and a strong basis for the struggle to eliminate gender violence around the world.
Major trends in violence
In light of the above discussion the most common manifestations of violence in Bangladesh are detailed below. Available data from the Police Department give some indication of the extent of these types of violence. This data indicates that in 2004 there were 3081 crimes for dowry, 3083 women were raped, and 198 women were injured from acid attack. The most significant part of this data is only one seventh (5584) of the total (34061) number of accused were arrested.
Outbreak of violence against women January ~ December 2010
Domestic violence, or violence perpetuated in the home or family environment, is a major social problem in Bangladesh. Domestic violence incidences are fairly common and widespread across the country. Women of all economic strata are vulnerable to maltreatment and abuse by husbands, in-laws, and other family members. Available data suggests that the number of cases of domestic violence is increasingly being reported in the newspaper.
Reports of Domestic Violence in 9 Daily Newspapers 2001-2004
Despite the severe consequences to women’s physical and emotional health, domestic violence is not recognized as a serious social problem and society does not perceive domestic violence to be a serious crime. Rather, it is viewed as a personal matter that should be resolved privately within the family. As a result, law enforcement agencies are reluctant to get involved in cases of domestic violence and women are often victimized with no recourse.The implicit indifference of society in matters of domestic violence perpetuates the notion that domestic violence is legitimate and male domination in the family is acceptable. While men take advantage of this right to exert authority, women’s tolerance of domestic violence further entrenches domestic violence into the fabric of daily life in Bangladesh. Naturally, questions arise as to why women are silent and do not speak out against domestic violence? Why do so many victims continue to stay with abusive spouses? First, one has to bear in mind the social context in which women are raised. Bangladeshi women, as part of a patriarchal society, are from an early age, taught to be submissive, tolerant, and self-sacrificing. Furthermore, the social belief that a woman’s place is in her husband’s home is also deeply rooted in women’s self-view and self-worth.These social values make it extremely difficult for women to assert themselves and speak out against domestic violence. In cases of marital and family conflict, society generally places the blame on the wife and holds her exclusively responsible for failing to build a strong foundation in the family. Consequently, women are reluctant to complain of domestic violence or file cases against their husbands out of fear of unrelenting social stigmatization. A second major reason that women rarely assert themselves in these matters is that women have few alternatives to staying with their husbands. In some cases a woman might return to her paternal home and find shelter with her parents or siblings, but in most cases, women lack family or community support. With no alternative, women realize that they have no choice but to tolerate domestic violence and make the best of their tragic situation.
Torture by Husband/Wife Beating
Wife beating is the most commonly occurring act of domestic violence in Bangladesh. An international report published by the United Nations in September of 2000 ranked the country first in wife beating and found that nearly half of the adult female population surveyed reported physical abuse by their husbands. This fact may be startling to the international community, however, in Bangladesh it is common knowledge that husbands exert their authority and physically assault wives for even minor mistakes, such as an unsatisfactory meal, an untidy room, a conversation with another man, or any act of disagreement or disobedience. Men have been socially conditioned to genuinely believe in their own superiority. From childhood they are treated differently from their sisters. They grow to believe that they are more valuable and more deserving than women, and that there opinions and views should have more weight than any woman’s. Furthermore, predominant religious misinterpretations have further legitimized these feelings. These religious interpretations have also provided men with the justification to chastise wives for disobedience and bring them back to the so-called correct path. In this way, men are able to delude themselves into believing that abuse of their wives amounts to a religious duty and they are completely justified in their actions.
The practice of dowry demand (Joutuk) is not deeply rooted in Bengali Muslim tradition, but has emerged as a major social evil in recent years. Generally dowry means the property that the bride.s family gives to the groom or his family upon marriage. However, in Bangladeshi law, dowry has been given an extended meaning .whatever is presented whether before or after marriage under demand, compulsion or pressure as consideration for the marriage can be said to be dowry. The emergence of dowry is more due to greed and commercialization of marriage than the impact of traditional culture. Rising unemployment has contributed to the phenomenon; as more and more young men are unable to find employment, their families use marriage and
dowry demand as a source of income8. Prospective grooms and their families demand large sums of money or property from the would-be bride’s family as a precondition to the marriage agreement. Although dowry demand is illegal the practice persists in the rural communities. In fact, few marriages in the rural areas are performed without a dowry condition. In most cases the complete dowry is not paid at the time of marriage. Rather the bride’s family pays part of the dowry before the marriage and promises to pay the remainder soon after the marriage. When the bride’s family fails to meet the deadline, her husband and in-laws verbally and physically abuse her to compel her family to pay. In many cases the abuse becomes severe in nature, for example, the woman has acid throw on her face, is burnt, severely beaten, and in some cases even murdered.
For the most part, married women in Bangladesh are not aware of their own sexual and reproductive rights, and have only limited control over their own bodies. A woman’s freedom of choice regarding sexual intercourse, birth control, pregnancy, pre-natal care, and abortion is restricted by the collaborative decision-making of her husband and his family. A man has complete autonomy to determine when he will have intercourse with his wife. In this situation, the husband is the aggressor and the wife merely a passive participant. Similarly, a wife’s personal convictions on birth control and family planning are irrelevant in decision-making; once again she plays a passive role to her husband’s wishes. If the husband dislikes birth control, for whatever reason, then the wife has no way of protecting herself from unwanted pregnancies.
Often there is a pressure from the husband’s family for the wife to produce offspring, particularly male offspring. The family is mainly concerned with the birth of heirs, not the good health of the mother. As a result, a young woman might begin conceiving at a very early age and endure several consecutive pregnancies in the hope of a male offspring. The in-law family pressures the woman to give birth to sons, as if she has control over biology, and if she fails to meet their expectations, they inflict various forms of physical and psychological abuse on her. Although everyone is involved in the decision for the couple to have a child, nobody is involved in providing adequate pre-natal care to the expectant mother. Only 5% of the reproductive aged women access existing health care facilities. Many women remain neglected and abused in the in-law.s home; they often endure low calorie intake, insufficient nutrition and insufficient medical attention through the course of their pregnancy and as a result are at serious risk of birth complications and maternal mortality. In fact, 37% of all deaths of reproductive aged women are due to maternity related issues. In Bangladesh three women die every hour because of maternal related complexities and nine million women whose lives have been saved following maternity related complications continue to suffer from other long-term diseases.
Rape is one of the most brutal forms of violence against women in Bangladesh. In a culture that holds a woman’s chastity sacred, rape crimes are particularly injurious to a woman’s self-identity and social future as well as her physical and psychological wellbeing. The ever-increasing rate of rape crimes is an alarming phenomenon and depicts the diminishing value of women in society.
Reported Cases of Rape in 9 Daily Newspapers 2000-2004
It appears that increasing numbers of men perceive women to be nothing more than an object used to satisfy one’s sexual urges. Furthermore there is evidence that men not only rape women, but also physically torture and murder the victims as well. In the last few years, gang rape has become the prevalent form of rape in Bangladesh. Several men kidnap a woman, take her to an isolated place, and take turns raping her. This new trend is particularly alarming; first because the attack is much more brutal and damaging to a woman, and second because it shows that rape is an accepted activity in many men’s peer groups. Men are discussing and planning gang rapes with their friends, no longer ashamed of their disgusting intentions. As such, rape is being normalized in the male community.
Acid violence is a crime that has been popularized in Bangladesh. The flinging of acid on the bodies and faces of women became a common means of taking revenge by rejected suitors in the 1980s but has reached the highest peak in recent years. Bangladesh has the highest worldwide incidence of acid violence and, acid burns constitute 9% of the total burn injuries in Bangladesh11. Acid violence involves throwing acid at a person’s body to disfigure and scar the person for life. A recent study reveals that land disputes account for 27% of acid attacks, followed by 18% for family disputes, 10% for refusal of sex, 8% for refusal of romantic relationship, 5% for dowry conflicts, 4% for marital disputes, 3% for refusal of marriage proposal, 2% for political enmity, and the remaining 23% for unknown reasons. Despite new harsh laws, acid violence has bas been increasing over the last few years.
Numbers of Cases of Acid Violence Reported….. 2000 ~ 2004
1 Bangladesh National Women’s Lawyers Association (BNWLA). “81% Girls Fall Victim to Eve Teasing: Study.” BNWLA, July 2008.
http://www.bnwla.org.bd/content/view/186/lang,en/. (accessed September 23rd, 2008).
2 Bangladesh National Women’s Lawyers Association (BNWLA). “81% Girls Fall Victim to Eve Teasing: Study.” BNWLA, July 2008.
http://www.bnwla.org.bd/content/view/186/lang,en/. (accessed September 23rd, 2008).
3 Bangladesh National Women’s Lawyers Association (BNLWA). “Eve Teasing.” BNWLA. http://www.bnwla.org.bd/content/view/165/133/lang,en/. (accessed September 23rd,
4 Fahmina, Taskin. “Violence Against Women: Statistics of the Last Five Years.” Law and Our Rights 10. (2008). http://www.thedailystar.net/law/2007/03/02/investigation.htm.
5 Rashid, Mamunur. “Letting Eve-Teasing Go Unpunished.” The Daily Star. September 9, 2007.
6 Rashid, Mamunur. “Letting Eve-Teasing Go Unpunished.” The Daily Star. September 9, 2007.
7 Statement by H.E. Barrister Ziaur Rahman Khan, MP Hon’ble Chairman Parliamentary Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs Government of the People’s Republic of
Bangladesh at the Third Committee of the 60th Session of the UN General Assembly on Agenda item 67: Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Children. New
York, 18 October 2005.
8 United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). State of World Population 2005: The Promise of Equality. UNFPA: New York, 2005, p. 47.
9 Quoted in “In India, Domestic Violence Rises with Education”. Majumdar, Swapna. November, 6th 2003. http://www.womensenews.org/article.cfm/dyn/aid/1591. (accessed
September 22nd, 2008).
10 UNICEF. The State of the World’s Children 2007. New York: UNICEF, 2007.
11 UNICEF. The State of the World’s Children 2007. New York: UNICEF, 2007.
12 UNICEF. The State of the World’s Children 2007. New York: UNICEF, 2007.
13 UNICEF, “Info by Country.” UNICEF. http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/bangladesh_35505.html. (accesssed September 21, 2008).
14 UNICEF. “Early Marriage: Child Spouses.” Innocenti Report. No. 7. UNICEF, March 2001.
15 Centre for Social Research (CSR). “CSR Story.” CSR. http://www.csrindia.org/story.html. (accessed September 20th, 2008).
16 Quisumbin, Agnes R. “Reducing Poverty and Hunger in Asia: Women’s Status and the Changing Nature of Rural Livelihoods in Asia.” 2020 Vision for Food, Agriculture and
the Environment.15. Washington D.C.: IFPRI, March, 2008.
17 UNICEF. The State of the World’s Children 2007. New York: 2007.
18 Rashid, Mamunur. “Letting Eve-Teasing Go Unpunished.” The Daily Star. September 9, 2007.
Harassment: the effects of “eve teasing” on development in Bangladesh Emma Weisfeld-Adams
September 26th, 2008