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In this lesson we shall discuss about the restaurants. After completion of this lesson you will be able to understand

· Discuss about the catering industry.

· Identify catering segments.

· Define on-premise and off-premise catering.

· Understand the relationship between catering industry and other industrie

1.2 Introduction

Hospitality is probably the most diverse but specialized industry in the world. It is certainly one of the largest, employing millions of people in a bewildering array of jobs around the globe. Sectors range from the glamorous five-star resort to the less fashionable, but arguably more specialized, institutional areas such as hospitals, industrial outfits, schools and colleges. Yet of these many different sectors, catering has to be the most challenging. Whatever the size of the catering operation, the variety of opportunities available is endless. “The sky is the limit with catering”


The food service industry encompasses those places, institutions and companies that provide meals eaten away from home. This industry includes restaurants, schools and hospital cafeterias, catering operations, and many other formats, including ‘on-premises’ and ‘off-premises’ caterings.

Catering is a multifaceted segment of the food service industry. There is a niche for all types of catering businesses within the segment of catering. The food service industry is divided into three general classifications: commercial segment, noncommercial segment, and military segment. Catering management may be defined as the task of planning, organizing, controlling and executing. Each activity influences the preparation and delivery of food,beverage and related services at a competitive, yet profitable

price. These activities work together to meet and exceed the customer’s perception of value for his money


Catering management is executed in many diverse ways within each of the four segments. The first, commercial segment, traditionally considered the profit generating operation, includes the independent caterer, the restaurant caterer, and the home-based caterer. In addition, hotel / motel and private club catering operations are also found in this category.

· Military Segment

1. Military Functions

2. Diplomatic Functions

· Commercial Segment

1. Independent Caterers

2. Hotel / Motel Caterers

3. Private Clubs

4. Restaurant / Catering Firms

Non-commercial Segment

1. Business / Industry Accounts

2. School Catering

3. Health Care Facilities

4. Transportation Catering (in-flight catering)

5. Recreational food Service (amusement and theme parks, conference and sport arenas)

6. College and University Catering


There are two main types of catering on-premises and off- premises catering that may be a concern to a large and small caterer. On-premise catering differs from off-premise catering, whereby the function takes place in a remote location, such as a client’s home, a park, an art gallery, or even a parking lot, and the staff, food and decor must be transported to that location. Off-premise catering often involves producing, food at a central kitchen, with delivery to and service provided at the client’s location. Part or all of the production of, food may be executed or finished at the location of the event.

Catering can also be classified as social catering and corporate (or business) catering. Social catering includes such events as weddings, bar and mitzwahs, high school reunions, birthday parties, and charity events. Business catering includes such events as association conventions and meetings, civic meetings, corporate sales or stockholder meetings, recognition banquets, product launches, educational training sessions, seller-buyer meets, service awards banquets, and entertaining in hospitality suites. All of the required functions and services that the caterers execute are done exclusively at their own facility. For instance, caterer within a hotel or banquet hall will prepare and cater all of the requirements without taking any service or food outside the facility. Many restaurants have specialized rooms on-premise to cater to the private-party niche. A restaurant may have a layout strategically designed with three separate dining rooms attached to a centralized commercial food production kitchen. These separate dining rooms are available at the same time to support the restaurant’s operation and for reservation and overflow seating. In addition, any of the three dining rooms may be contracted out for private-event celebrations and may require their own specialized service and menu options. Other examples of on-premise catering include hospital catering, school, University/ college catering.

1.5.1 On-Premise Catering

All of the required functions and services that the caterers execute are done exclusively at their own facility. For instance, a caterer within a hotel or banquet hall will prepare and cater all of the requirements without taking any service or food outside the facility. Many restaurants have specialized rooms on-premise to cater to the private-party niche. A restaurant may have a layout strategically designed with three separate dining rooms attached to a centralized commercial food production kitchen. These separate dining rooms are available at the same time to support the restaurant’s operation and for reservation and overflow seating. In addition, any of the three dining rooms may be contracted out for private-event celebrations and may require their own specialized service and menu options. Other examples of on-premise catering include hospital catering, school, University/ college catering

1.5.2 Off-Premise Catering

Off-premise catering is serving food at a location away fromthe caterer’s food production facility. One example of a food production facility is a freestanding commissary, which is a kitchen facility used exclusively for the preparation of foods to be served at other locations. Other examples of production facilities include, but are not limited to, hotel, restaurant, and club kitchens. In most cases there is no existing kitchen facility at the location where the food is served. Caterers provide single-event foodservice, but not all caterers are created equal. They generally fall into one of three categories:

Party food Caterers:

Party food caterers supply only the food for an event. They drop off cold foods and leave any last-minute preparation, plus service and cleanup, to others.

Hot Buffet Caterers:

Hot buffet caterers provide hot foods that are delivered from their commissaries in insulated containers. They sometimes provide serving personnel at an additional charge.

Full-Service Caterers:

Full-service caterers not only provide food, but frequently cook it to order on-site. They also provide service personnel at the event, plus all the necessary food -related equipment— china, glassware, flatware, cutleries, tables and chairs, tents, and so forth. They can arrange for other services, like décor and music, as well. In short, a full-service caterer can plan and execute an entire event, not just the food for it


Various catering establishments are categorized by then attire of the demands they meet. The following are some of the catering establishments.

1.6.1 Restaurant

A restaurant is an establishment that serves the customers with prepared food and beverages to order, to be consumed on the premises. The term covers a multiplicity of venues and a diversity of styles of cuisine. Restaurants are sometimes also a feature of a larger complex, typically a hotel, where the dining amenities are Provided for the convenience of the residents and for the hotel to maximize their potential revenue. Such restaurants are often open to non-residents also

1.6.2 Transport Catering

The provision of food and beverages to passengers, before, during and after a journey on trains, aircraft and ships and in buses or private vehicles is termed as transport catering. These services may also be utilised by the general public, who are in the vicinity of a transport catering unit. The major forms of modern day transport catering are airline-catering, railways catering, ship catering and surface catering in coaches or buses which operate on long distance routes. Airline Catering

Catering to airline passengers on board the air craft, as well as at restaurants situated at airport terminals is termed as airline catering. Modern airports have a variety of food and beverage Fig 1.1 Airline catering outlets to cater to the increasing number of air passengers. Catering to passengers en route is normally contracted out to a flight catering unit of a reputed hotel or to a catering contractor or to the catering unit operated by the airline itself as an independent entity. Railway Catering

Catering to railway passengers both during the journey as well as during halts at different railway stations is called railway catering. Travelling by train for long distances can be very tiring; hence a constant supply of a variety of refreshment choices helps to make the journey less tedious. On-board meal services are also provided on long distance train Ship Catering

Ship catering is catering to cargo crew and passenger ship passengers. Ships have kitchens and restaurants on board. The quality of service and facilities offered depends on the class of the ship and the price the passengers are willing to pay. There are cruises to suit every pocket. They range from room service and cocktail bars to speciality dining restaurants. Surface Catering

Catering to passengers traveling by surface transport such as buses and private vehicles is called surface catering. These eating establishments are normally located around a bus terminus or on highways. They may be either government run restaurants, or privately owned establishments. Of late there has been a growing popularity of Punjabi style eateries called dhabas on the highways.

1.6.3 Outdoor Catering

This catering includes the provision food and drink away from home base and suppliers. The venue is left to the peoples’ choice. Hotels, restaurants and catering contractors meet this growing demand. The type of food and set up depends entirely on Fig 1.2 Outdoor Catering the price agreed upon. Outdoor catering includes catering for functions such as marriages, parties and conventions

1.6.4 Retail Store Catering

Some retail stores, apart from carrying on their primary activity of retailing their own wares, provide catering as an additional facility. This type of catering evolved when large departmental stores wished to provide food and beverages to their customers as a part of their retailing concept. It is inconvenient and time consuming for

customers to take a break from shopping, to have some refreshments at a different location. Thus arouse the need for some sort of a dining facility in the retail store itself. This style of catering is becoming more popular and varied nowadays.

1.6.5 Club Catering

Club catering refers to the provision of food and beverages to a restricted member clientele. Some examples of clubs for people with similar interests are turf clubs, golf clubs, cricket clubs etc. The service and food in these clubs tend to be of a fairly good standard and are economically priced. Night clubs are usually situated in large cities that have an affluent urban population. They offer entertainment with good food and expensive drinks

1.6.6 Welfare Catering

The provision of food and beverages to people to fulfill a social obligation, determined by a recognized authority, is known as welfare catering. This grew out of the welfare state concept, prevalent in western countries. It includes catering in hospitals, schools, colleges, the armed forces and prisons.

1.6.7 Industrial Catering

The provision of food and beverages to ‘people at work,’ in industries and factories at highly subsidized rates is called industrial catering. It is based on the assumption that better fed employees at concessional rates are happy and more productive. Catering for a large workforce may be undertaken by the management itself, or

may be contracted out to professional caterers. Depending on the choice of the menu suggested by the management, catering contractors undertake to feed the workforce for a fixed period of time at a predetermined price.

1.6.8 Leisure-Linked Catering

This type of catering refers to the provision of food and beverages to people engaged in ‘rest and recreation’ activities. This includes sale of food and beverages through different stalls and kiosks at exhibitions, theme parks, galleries and theatres. The increase in the availability of leisure time and a large disposable income for leisure activities has made it a very profitable form of catering



Food is the sustainer of life regardless of whether they belong to animal kingdom or plant kingdom. All living beings consume food as they come in nature. Subsequently they may convert the raw natural food into usable form on their own. This transformation never involves the art and science of coking, which is a speciality of human beings alone.

Importance food for the human beings is amply, accurately and appropriately stated in the following age old sayings: “hungry man is an angry man” and “even the army marches on stomach” where stomach implies food Employment of largest number of people in the world in general terms (at home) and in commercial terms (catering) is in food preparation and servicing. Roughly half the world population (women) is actively engaged in the art and science of food production and then alone comes reproduction.

Food production, simply stated, is the transformation of raw food material into palatable, appetizing and easily palatable tasty food Unlike all other living organisms, man has to “buy” food by paying money. Where does the money come from? It comes only from industries. Any industry in the world has the primary objective of making money. Money so generated by the industrial activity is shared between the employer and the employee, however disproportionate it may be. Money so shared is used to take care of the three important objectives: food, clothing and residence. Whatever left after meeting these primary objectives may go towards acquiring wealth.


In this lesson we shall discuss about the restaurants. After completion of this lesson you will be able to understand:

v Restaurant and their classification.

v Types of restaurant.

v Staff organization

v Duties and responsibilities of restaurant staffs


Eating is one of life’s pleasure and pride – so is cooking and serving good food to others. A restaurant is a commercial outfit which specializes in the preparation of quality food and to serve them to satisfy the customer’s demands. Their motto is “Customers are our assets and satisfied customers are our source of wealth”. Restaurants do have state of the art kitchens in their premises, where food items are prepared, following a fixed menu to serve the customers. Most restaurants are also equipped with infrastructure facilities, table settings, and dining halls of various sizes to cater to needs of small gatherings to grandiose banquets to suit customer demands and above all, trained personnel to provide a satisfactory service.

The term restaurant (from the French word trestaurer, to restore) first appeared in the 16th century, meaning “a food which restores”, and referred specifically to a rich, highly flavored soup. The modern sense of the word was born around 1765 when a Parisian soup-seller named Boulanger opened his establishment. Whilst inns and taverns were known from antiquity, these were establishments aimed at travelers, and in general locals would rarely eat there. The modern formal style of dining, where customers are given a plate with the food already arranged on it, is known as service à la russe, as it is said to have been introduced to France by the Russian Prince Kurakin in the 1810s, from where it spread rapidly to England and beyond.


A restaurant is a retail establishment that serves prepared food to customers. Service is generally for eating on premises, though the term has been used to include take-out establishments and food delivery services. The term covers many types of venues and a diversity of styles of cuisine and service.

Restaurants are sometimes a feature of a larger complex, typically a hotel, where the dining amenities are provided for the convenience of the residents and, of course, for the hotel with a singular objective to maximize their potential revenue. Such restaurants are often also open to non-residents.

Restaurants range from unpretentious lunching or dining places catering to people working nearby, with simple food and fixed menu served in simple settings at low prices, to expensive establishments serving expensive special food and wines in a formal setting. In the former case, customers usually wear casual clothing. In the latter case, depending on culture and local traditions, customers might wear semi-casual, semi-formal, or even in rare cases formal wear. Typically, customers sit at tables, their orders are taken by a waiter, who brings the food when it is ready, and the customers pay the bill before leaving. In class or porche restaurants there will be a host or hostess or even a maître d’hôtel to welcome customers and to seat them. Other staff’s waiting on customers include busboys and sommeliers.


Restaurants can be classified by whether they provide places to sit, whether they are served by wait-staff and the quality of the service, the formal atmosphere, and the price range. Restaurants are generally classified into three groups

1. Quick Service – Also known as fast food restaurants. They offer limited menus that are prepared quickly. They usually have drive-thru windows and take-out. They may also be self- service outfits.

2. Mid scale – They offer full meals at a medium price that customers perceive as “good value.” They can be of full service, buffets or limited service with customers ordering at the counter and having their food brought to them or self service.

3. Upscale – Offer high quality cuisine at a high end price. They offer full service and have a high quality of ambience.


Restaurants often specialize in certain types of food or present a certain unifying, and often entertaining, theme. For example, there are seafood restaurants, vegetarian restaurants or ethnic restaurants. Generally speaking, restaurants selling “local” food are simply called restaurants, while restaurants selling food of foreign origin are called accordingly, for example, a Chinese restaurant and a French restaurant.

Depending on local customs and the policy of the establishment, restaurants may or may not serve alcoholic beverages. Restaurants are often prohibited from selling alcohol without a meal by alcohol sale laws; such sale is considered to be activity for bars, which are meant to have more severe restrictions. Some restaurants are licensed to serve alcohol (‘fully licensed’), and / or permit customers to ‘bring your own’ alcohol.

2.4.1 Cafeterias

A cafeteria is a restaurant serving mostly cooked ready to food arranged behind a food -serving counter. There is little or no table service. Typically, a patron takes a tray and pushes it along a track in front of the counter. Depending on the establishment, servings may be ordered from attendants, selected as ready-made portions already on plates, or self-serve of food of their own choice. In some establishments, a few items such as steaks may be ordered specially prepared rare, medium and well done from the attendants. The patron waits for those items to be prepared or is given a number and they are brought to the table. Beverages may be filled from self- service dispensers or ordered from the attendants. At the end of the line a cashier rings up the purchases. At some self-service cafeterias, purchases are priced by weight, rather than by individual item.

The trays filled with selected items of food are taken to a table to eat. Institutional cafeterias may have common tables, but upscale cafeterias provide individual tables as in sit-down restaurants. Upscale cafeterias have traditional cutlery and crockery, and some have servers to carry the trays from the line to the patrons’ tables, and/ or bus the empty trays and used dishes

Cafeterias have a wider variety of prepared foods. For example, it may have a variety of roasts (beef, ham, turkey) ready for carving by a server, as well as other cooked entrées, rather than simply an offering of hamburgers or fried chicken.

2.4.2 Fast-Food Restaurants

Fig: 2.1 Fast food restaurant

Fast- food restaurants emphasize speed of service and low cost over all other considerations. A common feature of newer fast- food restaurants that distinguishes them from traditional cafeteria is a lack of cutlery or crockery; the customer is expected to eat the food directly from the disposable container it was served in using their fingers.

There are various types of fast- food restaurant:

· one collects food from a counter and pays, then sits down and starts eating (as in a self-service restaurant orcafeteria); sub-varieties:

· one collects ready portions

· one serves oneself from containers

· one is served at the counter

· a special procedure is that one first pays at the cash desk, collects a coupon and then goes to the food counter, where one gets the food in exchange for the coupon.

· one orders at the counter; after preparation the food is brought to one’s table; paying may be on ordering or after eating.

· a drive-through is a type of fast- food restaurant without seating; diners receive their food in their cars and drive away to eat

Most fast- food restaurants offer take-out: ready-to-eat hot food in disposable packaging for the customer to eat off-site.

2.4.3 Casual Restaurants

A casual dining restaurant is a restaurant that serves moderately-priced food in a casual atmosphere. Except for buffet- style restaurants, casual dining restaurants typically provide table service. Casual dining comprises of a market segment between fast food establishments and fine dining restaurants.

2.4.4 Fast Casual-Dining Restaurants

A fast casual restaurant is similar to a fast- food restaurant in that it does not offer full table service, but promises a somewhat higher quality of food and atmosphere. Average prices charged are higher than fast- food prices and non-disposable plates and cutlery are usually offered. This category is a growing concept that fills the space between fast food and casual dining. Counter service accompanied by handmade food (often visible via an open kitchen) is typical. Alcohol may be served. Dishes like steak, which require experience on the part of the cook to get it right, may be offered. The menu is usually limited to an extended over-counter display, and options in the way the food is prepared are emphasized.

Many fast casual-dining restaurants are marketed as health- conscious: healthful items may have a larger number of items than normal portion of the menu and high-quality ingredients such as free- range chicken and freshly made salsas may be advertised. Overall, the quality of the food is presented as a much higher class than conventional factory-made fast food. An obvious ethnic theme may or may not be present in the menu.

2.4.5 Other Restaurants

Most of these establishments can be considered subtypes of fast casual-dining restaurants or casual-dining restaurants

i) Café

Cafés and coffee shops are informal restaurants offering a range of hot meals and made-to-order sandwiches. Cafés offer table service. Many cafés are open for breakfast and serve full hot breakfasts. In some areas, cafés offer outdoor seating.

ii) Coffeehouse

Coffeehouses are casual restaurants without table service that emphasize coffee and other beverages; typically a limited selection of cold foods such as pastries and perhaps sandwiches are offered as well. Their distinguishing feature is that they allow patrons to relax and socialize on their premises for long periods of time without pressure to leave promptly after eating.

iii) Pub

A pub (short for public house) is a bar that serves fare. Traditionally, pubs were primarily drinking

establishments with .food in a decidedly secondary position, whereas the modern pub business relies on .food as well, to the point where gastropubs are known for their high-quality pub .food. A typical pub has a large selection of beers and ales on tap. Fig:2.2 pub

iv) Bistros and Brasserie

A brasserie is a café doubling as a restaurant and serving single dishes and other meals in a relaxed setting. A bistro is a familiar name for a café serving moderately priced simple meals in an unpretentious setting. Especially in Paris, bistros have become increasingly popular with tourists. When used in English, the term bistro usually indicates either a fast casual-dining restaurant with a European-influenced menu or a café with a larger menu of food.

v) Family Style

“Family style restaurants” are restaurants that have a fixed menu and fixed price, usually with diners seated at a communal table such as on bench seats. More common in the 19th and early 20th century, they can still be found in rural communities, or as theme restaurants, or in vacation lodges. There is no menu to choose from; rather food is brought out in courses, usually with communal serving dishes, like at a family meal. Typical examples can include crabhouses, German-style beer halls, BBQ restaurants, hunting lodges, etc. Some normal restaurants will mix elements of family style, such as a table salad or bread bowl that is included as part of the meal.

vi) BYO Restaurant

BYO Restaurants are restaurants and bistros which do not have a liquor license.

vii) Delicatessens Restaurant

Restaurants offering foods intended for immediate consumption. The main product line is normally luncheon meats and cheeses. They may offer sandwiches, soups, and salads as well. Most foods are precooked prior to delivery. Preparation of food products is generally simple and only involves one or two steps.

viii) Ethnic Restaurants

They range from quick-service to upscale. Their menus usually include ethnic dishes and / or authentic ethnic foods. Specialize in a particular multicultural cuisine not specifically accommodated by any other listed categories. Example: Asian Cuisine, Chinese cuisine, Indian Cuisine, American Cuisine etc.

ix) Destination Restaurants

A destination restaurant is one that has a strong enough appeal to draw customers from beyond its community. Example: Michelin Guide 3-star restaurant in Europe, which according to the restaurant guides is “worthy of a journey”.


Staff organization is basically concerned with matters such as the decision of tasks within the restaurant, position of responsibility and authority and the relationship between them. It helps in introducing the concept s of span of control, level of management and delegation of power and responsibilities.

French American English











All types of catering establishments require a variety of staff positions in order to operate effectively and efficiently. The food and beverage service department usually has the largest staff. Able leadership and supervision is required to effectively direct the department and guide the staff. The personnel in the food and service industry require practical knowledge of operations as even a small error can cause displeasure to the guest. Coordination of activities of all outlets is essential to provide the guest with quality service at all times. Teamwork is the watchword in any food and beverage service department. A dedicated and committed team, with able leadership, under ideal working conditions, helps in fulfilling the establishment’s ultimate goal of guest satisfaction The important duties and responsibilities of the restaurant staffs are discussed in this section.

2.6.1 Food and Beverage Manager

The food & Beverage manager is the head of the food & Beverage service department, and is responsible for its administrative and operational work. Food & Beverage Managers direct, plan and control all aspects of food & Beverage services.

Food & Beverage Managers require excellent sales and customer service skills, proven human resource management skills, and good communication and leadership skills. Desired knowledge for this position includes knowledge of the products, services, sector, industry and local area, and knowledge of relevant legislation and regulations, as well. Hence it is said that food & Beverage manager is a Jack-of-all-trades, as the job covers a wide variety of duties.

In general, food & Beverage manager is responsible for:

i) Budgeting

The food & Beverage manager is responsible for preparing the budget for the department. He should ensure that each outlet in the department achieves the estimated profit margins.

ii) Compiling New Menus and Wine Lists

In consultation with the chef, and based on the availability of ingredients and prevailing trends, the food & Bevrage manager should update and if necessary, compile new menus. New and updated wine lists should also be introduced regularly.

iii) Quality Control

The food and beverage manager should ensure quality control in terms of efficiency in all service areas.

iv) Manpower Development

The food and beverage manager is responsible for recruitment, promotions, transfers and dismissals in the department. He should hold regular meetings with section heads, to ensure that both routine as well as projected activities of the department go on as planned. He must also give training, motivate and effectively control staff.

2.6.2 Assistant Food and Beverage Manager

The assistant food and beverage manager assists the food and beverage manager in running the department by being more involved in the actual day-to-day operations. This position exists only in large organizations. An assistant food and beverage manager’s job includes:

i) Assisting section heads during busy periods.

ii) Taking charge of an outlet, when an outlet manager is on leave.

iii) Setting duty schedules for all the outlet managers and monitoring their performance.

iv) Running the department independently in the absence of the food and beverage manager.

2.6.3 Restaurant Manager

Restaurant Manager is responsible for directing and supervising all activities pertaining to employee relation, food production, sanitation, guest service and operating profits. The restaurant manager is either the coffee shop manager, bar manager or the specialist restaurant manager. The restaurant manager reports directly to the food and beverage manager and has overall responsibility for the organization and administration of a particular outlet or a section of the food and beverage service department. The restaurant manager’s job includes:

i) Setting and monitoring the standards of service in the outlets.

ii) Administrative duties such as setting duty charts, granting leave, monitoring staff positions, recommending staff promotions and handling issues relating to discipline.

iii) Training the staff by conducting a daily briefing in the outlet.

iv) Playing a vital role in public relations, meeting guests in the outlets and attending to guest complaints, if any.

v) Formulating the sales and expenditure budget for the outlet.

vi) Planning food festivals to increase the revenue and organizing advertisement campaign of the outlet along with the chef and the food and beverage manager.

2.6.4 Room Service Manager

The room service manager reports directly to the food and beverage manager and is responsible for the room service outlet. The room service manager checks that the service rendered to the guests conforms to the standards set by the hotel. He also monitors all operational aspects of the outlet such as service, billing, duty charts, leave and absenteeism, in addition to attending to guest complaints regarding food and beverage service.

The room service manager is also in charge of the sales and expenditure budget. The room service is most liable to have problems. The room service manager should ensure coordination among the room service order taker, the captain and the waiter. It is necessary for the room service manager to be present in the outlet during peak hours to interact with other departments of the hotel and to take regular momentums of all the equipment used In the event of the hotel offering valet service and the room service manager takes charge of that service as well .

2.6.5 Bar Manager

Bar Manager organizes and controls a bar’s operations. A bar manager arranges the purchase and pricing of beverages according to budget; selects, trains and supervises bar staff; maintains records of stock levels and financial transactions; makes sure bar staff follow liquor laws and regulations; and checks on customer satisfaction and preferences

The bar manager should have good interpersonal skills and good memory. He must be efficient and speedy, must enjoy working with people. He should have good cash-handling skills.

2.6.6 Banquet Manager

The banquet manager supervises the banquet operations, sets up break-down service according to the standards established by the hotel. He co-ordinates the

banquet service in conjunction with other departments involved and prepares weekly schedules for the banquet personnel.

From the time the bookings are done till the guest settles the bill, the banquet manager is in charge of all aspects of banquet and conference operations. He supervises the work of the banquet sales assistants, who do the banquet bookings and the captains and waiters who perform the food and beverage service activities under his guidance. He is responsible for organizing everything right down

to the finest detail.

The banquet manager projects the budget of the banquets, and works in close coordination with the chef in preparing menus. He is responsible for making an inventory of all the banquet equipment and maintaining a balance between revenue and expenditure. Banquet managers may also be designated as assistant managers in the food and beverage service department.

2.6.7 Other Staff Designations at Various Levels

The following are the various designations with their job specifications in the food and beverage department.

i) Senior Captain or Maitre d’ Hotel

The senior captain has overall responsibility for operations. He prepares the duty charts in consultation with the outlet manager. He oversees the Mise-en-place, cleaning, setting up of the outlet and staffing to ensure that the outlet is always ready for service. The senior captain receives the guests and hands them over to the captain or station holder. He takes orders from guests if the captain is unable to do so. The senior captain should be an able organiser and also be prepared to take over the duties of any member of the staff as and when required.

ii) Reception Head Waiter

This staff member is responsible for accepting any booking and for keeping the booking diary up-to-date. He / she will reserve tables and allocate these reservations

to particular stations. The reception head waiter greets guests on arrival and takes them to the table and seats them.

iii) Captain / Chef de Rang

This position exists in large restaurants, as well as in the food and beverage service department of all major hotels. The captain is basically a supervisor and is in charge of a particular section. A restaurant may be divided into sections called Sations, each consisting of 4 to 5 tables or 20 to 24 covers. A captain is responsible for the efficient performance of the staff in his station. A captain should possess a sound knowledge of food and beverage beverage ‘s

order and be an efficient salesperson. Specialized service such as gueridon work involves a certain degree of skill, and it is the captain who usually takes the responsibility to do this work.

iv) Waiters / Commis de Rang / Server

The waiters serve the food and beverage ordered by a guest and is part of a team under a station captain. They should be able to perform the duties of a captain to a certain extent and be a substitute for the captain if he is busy or not on duty. They should; also be knowledgeable about all types of food and beverages, so that they can effectively take an order from a guest, execute the order and serve the correct dish with its appropriate garnish and accompaniment. They should be able to efficiently coordinate with the other staff in the outlet.

v) Trainee / Commis De Barraseur

The trainees work closely with the waiters, fetching orders from the kitchen and the bar, and clearing the side station in a restaurant. They serve water and assist the waiter. They are mainly responsible for the mise-en-place, and stacking the side board with the necessary equipment for service. The debarrasseur is the ‘learner’, having just joined the food service staff, and possibly wishing to take up food service as a carreer.

vi) Wine Waiter / Sommelier

Wine waiters have an important role to play in reputed establishments. Their job is to take orders for the service of wine and alcoholic beverages and serve them during the meal. Hence they should be knowledgeable about wines that accompany a particular dish and the manner in which they should be served. They should also be aware of the licensing laws prevalent in the city and should be efficient sales persons.

vii) Room Service Waiters / Chef D’etage

Room service waiters work in the room service outlet, serving food and beverage to guests in their rooms. The order is placed by the guest on telephone, and is recorded on a Kitchen Order Ticket (K.O.T). It is then passed on to the duty captain. The duty captain in turn places the order in the kitchen or the bar, as the case may be. The room service waiter who has been assigned that order, sets the tray according to the food or beverage ordered, picks up and delivers the order when it is ready.

viii) Carver / Trancheur

The carver is responsible for the carving trolley and the carving of joints at the table as required. The carver will plate up each portion with the appropriate accompaniment.

ix) Floor Service Staff / Floor Waiter

The floor service staffs are often responsible for an entire floor in an establishment or, depending on the size of the establishment, a number of rooms or suites. Floor service of all meals and breakfast is offered either throughout the day or in a limited time depending on the size of the establishment. The floor service staff would normally work from a floor pantry or from a central kitchen with all food and drink reaching the appropriate floor and the required room by lift and in a heated trolley.

x) Lounge staff / Chef de sale

Lounge staff may deal with lounge service as a specific duty only in a first class establishment. The lounge staff is responsible for the service of morning coffee, afternoon teas, aperitifs and liqueurs before and after both lunch and dinner, and any coffee top ups required after meals. They would be responsible for setting up the lounge in the morning and maintain its cleanliness and presentation throughout the day.

xi) Cocktail Bar Staff

The person who works on the cocktail bar must be responsible, well versed in the skills of shaking and stirring cocktails and should have thorough knowledge of all alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks, the ingredients necessary for the making of cocktails and of the licensing laws.

xii) Buffet Assistant / Buffet Chef / Chef de buffet

The chef de buffet is in charge of the buffet in the room, its presentation, the carving and portioning of food and its service. This staff would normally be a member of the kitchen team. The cashier is responsible for the takings of the food and beverage operation. This may include making up bills from food and drink check or, alternatively, in a cafeteria, for example, charging customers for their selection of items on a tray

xiii) Counter Assistants

Counter assistants are found in cafeterias where they would tock the counter and sometimes serve or portion food for customers. Duties may also include some cooking of call order items.

xiv) Table Clearers

Table clearers are responsible for clearing tables and trolleys, specially designed for good stacking of crockery, glassware, cutlery, etc.


In this lesson we shall discuss about the restaurant operating equipments. After completion of this lesson you will be able to understand:

· Food and beverage service equipments needed for table setting such as glassware, chinaware and table ware

· Furniture, fixtures and linen

· Safe handling of equipments


The operating equipments used in hotels / restaurants play an important role in attracting customers. The restaurant operating equipments include service equipments, furniture’s, fixtures and linen all of which squarely reflects the standard and style of the restaurant. The atmosphere of a restaurant is largely affected by the kind of furniture used. The furniture should be utilitarian and elegant to look at. Very often by using different materials, designs and finishes and by careful arrangement, one can change the atmosphere and appearance of the food service area to suit different occasions.


Elegant and attractive service ware, colorful and clean dishes, quality plates and glassware add to the decor of a restaurant. However, several factors have to be considered while selecting the equipment.

· Standard of the restaurant

· Types of service

· Décor and theme of the restaurant

· Type of clientele

· Durability of equipment

· Ease of maintenance

· Availability when stocks run out for replacement Storage

· Flexibility of use

· Price factors

· Standardization

A hotel / restaurant should be well stocked with appropriate equipment to provide quality service. For multipurpose use and to cut down costs, most hotels / restaurants standardize equipment in terms of size and color. Food and beverage service equipment may be divided into glassware, chinaware and tableware which are further subdivided into flatware, cutlery and hollowware.


Fig: 3.1 Glass ware

Fig: 3.2 Glass ware

Glassware refers to glass and drink ware items besides tableware, such as dishes, cutlery and flatware, used to set a table for eating a meal. The term usually refers to the drinking vessels, unless the dinnerware is also made of glass. The choice of the right qulity glass is a vital element if the cocktail is to be invitingly presented and give satisfaction to the consumer. Well designed glassware combines elegance, strength and stability, and should be fine and smooth rimmed and of clear glass

3.3.1 Types of Glassware

Many standard patterns and sizes of glassware are available to serve each drink. Most glass drinking vessels are either tumblers, flat-bottomed glasses with no handle, foot, or stem; footed glasses, which have a bowl above a flat base, but no stem; or stemware, which have a bowl on a stem above a flat base. Neither a tumbler, footed, nor a stem, yard (beer) is a very tall, conical beer glass, with a round ball base, usually hung on the wall when empty.

Collins Glassware

A Collins glass is a glass tumbler, holding 240 to 350 ml, used to serve a mixed drink, named after Tom Collins. This glass is somewhat narrower, andholds less than the similar highball glass.

Highball Glass

A highball glass is a glass tumbler, holding between 8 and 12 fluid ounces (240 to 350 mL), used to serve a mixed drink, or highball. This glass is taller than an Old-Fashioned glass, and shorter than a Collins glass.

Shot Glass

It is a small glass used for measuring or serving up to three ounces of liquor. Modern shot glass holds a thicker base and sides than the whiskey glass.

Pint Glass

A pint glass is a drinking vessel holding an imperial pint (568 ml) of liquid and is usually used for beer. Three common shapes of pint glass are found (conical, jug, and flared top), though others are available. Pints are considered good for serving stouts, porters and English ales

Pilsner Glass

A pilsner glass is a glass used to serve many types of light beers, but is intended for its namesake, the pilsner. Pilsner glasses are generally smaller than a pint glass, usually in 250 ml or 330 ml sizes. They are tall, slender and tapered. Wheat beer glasses are often mistakenly referred to as pilsner glasses, but a true pilsner glass has an even taper without curvature. Pilsner glasses are made to showcase the color, effervescence, and clarity of the pilsner, as well as to maintain a nice head

Beer Stein

A beer stein is a traditionally-German beer tankard or mug, made of pewter, silver, wood, porcelain, earthenware or glass; usually with a hinged lid and levered thumb blitz.

Flute Glass

A flute glass is the preferred serving vessel for Belgian iambics and fruit beers. The narrow shape helps maintain carbonation, while providing a strong aromatic front. Flute glasses display the lively carbonation, sparkling color, and soft lacing of this distinct style

Goblet or Chalice

Chalices and goblets are large, stemmed, bowl- shaped glasses adequate for serving heavy Belgian ales, German bocks, and other big sipping beers. The distinction between goblet and chalice is typically in the glass thickness. Goblets tend to be more delicate and thin, while the chalice is heavy and thick walled.


Typically used for serving brandy and cognac, a snifter is ideal for capturing the volatiles of aromatic beers, such as Belgian ales, India pale ales, barleywines and wheat wines. The shape helps trap the volatiles, while allowing swirling to agitate them and produce an intense aroma.

Wheat Beer Glass

A wheat beer glass is a glass used to serve wheat beer, known also as Weizenbier or Webber. The German glass generally holds 500 milliliters with room for foam or “head”. It is much taller than a pint glass. It is very narrow at the bottom and slightly wider at the top. In other countries such as Belgium, the glass may hold 250 ml or 330 ml. The tall glass provides room for the often thick, fluffy heads produced by the style, which traps aromas and is visually pleasing.

Tulip Glass

A tulip glass not only helps trap the aroma, but also aids in maintaining large heads, creating a a visual and olfactory sensation. The body is bulbous, but the top flares out to form a lip which helps head retention. It is recommended for serving Scottish ales, barley wines, Belgian ales and other aromatic beers

Cocktail Glass

A cocktail glass, martini glass, or champagne glass, or stem cocktail glass, is a drinking glass with a cone-shaped bowl (the tip of the cone forming approximately a 90 degree angle in the cross section) on a stem above a flat base, used to serve a cocktail or champagne. As with other stemware, the stem allows the drinker to hold the glass without affecting the temperature of the drink. One variation is the double martini glass which is taller and wider at the opening than a standard martini glass

Red Wine Glasses

Glasses for red wine are characterized by their rounder, wider bowl, which gives the wine a chance to breathe. Since most reds are meant to be consumed at room temperature, the wider bowl also allows the wine to cool more quickly after hand contact has warmed it. Red wine glasses can have particular styles of their own, such as:

· Bordeaux glass: Tall with a wide bowl, and is designed for full bodied red wines like Cabernet and Merlot as it directs wine to the back of the mouth.

· Burgundy glass: Larger than the Bordeaux glass, it has a larger bowl to accumulate aromas of more delicate red wines such as Pinot Noir. This style of glass directs wine to the tip of the tongue.

White Wine Glass

White wine glasses are generally narrower, although not as narrow as champagne flutes, with somewhat straight or tulip-shaped sides. The narrowness of the white wine glass allows the chilled wine to retain its temperature for two reasons;

· The reduced surface area of the glass (in comparison to red wine glasses) means less air circulating around the glass and warming the wine.

· The smaller bowl of the glass means less contact between the hand and the glass, and so body heat does not transfer as easily or as fast to the wine

Champagne Flutes

Champagne flutes are characterized by a long stem with a tall, narrow bowl on top. The shape is designed to keep sparkling wine attractive and inviting during its consumption. The glass is designed to be held by the stem to help prevent the heat from the hand warming up the champagne. The bowl itself is designed in a manner to help retain the signature carbonation in the beverage. This is achieved by reducing the surface area at the opening of the bowl. Champagne flutes are often used at formal engagements, such as award ceremonies and weddings.

Sherry Glass

A sherry glass is a drinkware generally used for serving aromatic alcoholic beverages, such as sherry, port, aperitifs and liqueurs, and layered shooters. An ISO-standard sized sherry glass is 120 ml. The copita, with its aroma-enhancing narrow taper, is a type of sherry glass.

Coupette Glass

A modified version of the cocktail glass. Used for serving drinks where the rim of the glass is required to be coated in either sugar or salt or any other condiments used to make some of the more exotic drinks such as margaritas.


This larger container usually has a handle and a lip or spout for pouring the contents into several glasses. Available in glass or plastic. Generally used for serving beer for a beer keg for draft beer.

Old Fashioned Glass

The Old-Fashioned glass, rocks glass, or “lowball”, is a short tumbler used for serving liquor “on the rocks”, meaning over ice, or cocktails having few ingredients. It is named after the old fashioned cocktail, traditionally served in such a glass. A White Russian is traditionally served in the Old Fahioned Glass


China is a term used for crockery whether bone china (expensive and fine), earthenware (opaque and cheaper) or vitrified (metallised). Most catering crockery used nowadays tends to be vitrified earthenware, which is very durable and haven been strengthened. Crockery is also usually given rolled edges to make it more chip resistant.

Chinaware is made of silica, soda ash, and china clay, glazed to give a fine finish. Chinaware can be found in different colours and designs which are always coated with glaze. Chinaware is more resistant to heat than glassware. There are various classification of catering china. They are:


Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating selected and refined materials, which often includes clay of kaolinite clay, to high temperatures. The raw materials for porcelain, when mixed with water, form a plastic body that can be worked to a required shape before firing in a kiln at temperatures between 1200°C and 1400°C. The toughness, strength, and translucence of porcelain arise mainly from the formation of glass at high temperatures and the mineral mullite within the fired body.

Bone China

Bone china is porcelain made of clay mixed with bone ash. This is very fine, hard china that is very expensive. The decorations are to be found under the glaze only. The price of bone china puts it out of reach of the majority of everyday caterers, and only a few of the top class hotels and restaurants would use it. The range of design, pattern and colour is very wide and there is something to suit all occasions and situations.


Earthenware may sometimes be as thin as bone china and other porcelains, though it is not translucent and is more easily chipped. Earthenware is also less strong, less tough, and more porous than stoneware, but its low cost and easier working compensate for these deficiencies. Due to its higher porosity,

earthenware must usually be glazed in order to be watertight.


Stoneware is a hard pottery made from siliceous paste, fired at high temperature to vitrify (make glassy) the body. Stoneware is heavier and more opaque than porcelain. The usual color of fired stoneware tends to be grayish, though there may be a wide range of colors, depending on the clay. It has been produced in China since ancient times and is the forerunner of Chinese porcelain.


Tableware includes the dishes, glassware, cutlery, and flatware eating utensils (knives, forks, and spoons) used to set a table for eating a meal. The