FOREIGN EXCHANGE BUSINESS
OF Dhaka Bank Ltd.
BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT:
The organization from which we collected the related documents is The Dhaka Bank Ltd. one of the leading in the country. Like other commercial bank, accept deposit and lend money is the main function of this bank. Now a day’s banking industry is very competitive. The Dhaka Bank Ltd. holding a strong leadership position in this competitive market is continuously striving to maintain its position in the market.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:
The prime objectives of the orientation are
1. To study Foreign Exchange Trend of Dhaka Bank Ltd.
2. To assessment the foreign exchange policy of Dhaka Bank Ltd.
3. To analyze Foreign Exchange’s impact on profitability.
THE NATURE OF THE PROJECT:
The project involves an explanatory exercise on the topic. Foreign exchange will be examined and a survey of activities performed by Dhaka Bank Ltd. will be undertaken to comprehend the under consideration.
SOURCES OF INFORMATION:
Mainly datas have been collected from two sources.
These two sources are as following.
The primary sources of my information are as below:
Questioning the concerned persons.
The secondary sources of my information are as below-
1. Annual report of DBL
2. Desk report of the related department
3. Other manual information
4. Different reference books of the library
5. Some of my course elements as related to this report
The nature of this report is descriptive, so instead of doing any survey or using sampling method, observation method is used to complete this qualitative research. Most of the necessary information has been collected by face to face interview with the people working in different departments, personal investigation with officers, staffs and clients, circulars sent by Head Office, studying published materials such as previous Annual reports, Internet, books, journals and practical work with maintaining daily diary which contains all the activities that has been observed in the bank.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
Dhaka bank Islamic branch, the Islam based commercial bank is under general special guidelines of the central bank framed for the banking system as a whole and for bank of individual sectors. The concept of Private sector bank i.e. DBL in our country is not so old. DBL is now giving emphasis to cerate a constructive and meaningful competition with the private sector banking.
This study makes attempt to cover with in its scope all most all the significant aspects of investment activities of Dhaka bank limited as well as how the fund collects by the bank, its proper utilization and a comparison between interest based banking system and Islami banking system.
THE ECONOMY AND OVERALL BANKING SECTOR WORLD ECONOMY (2005-2006) AN OVERVIEW
As we enter into the new millennium, the process of trade liberalization and globalization have presented new challenges as well as greater opportunities. Economic boundaries of nation are being abolished and the world is becoming a global village. Global output growth continued to show moderate recovery in 2005-2006.
The major economics employed accommodative monetary policies to counteract the lingering affected of the equity price burst, and the uncertainties associated with the Iraq war eased of as major hostilities ended quickly. The sluggishness in the world economy is also seen in a reduction in private capital flows to developing countries both commercial lending and foreign direct investment (FDI). The precious market conditions have also reduced infrastructure investment supply. Besides the fall of investment in absolute terms, investors are becoming more selective in choosing their investment destinations. As a result, investment is flowing to countries with better domestic investment climate, good governance and sound institutions.
GDP: In 2005-2006 GDP Growth rate 6.6% (2006 est.)
GDP – composition by sector:
|NAME OF SECTOR||COMPOSITION RATE|
|SERVICES||59.5% (2006 est.)|
GNI: In 2005-2006 per capita income is US$ 480
RESERVE: Around $6.00 billion (update recent)
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX(HDI): (Medium Human Development)
According to UNDP Bangladesh’s position are 140
Out of 155 countries. (2007-2008)
LITERACY RATE: 62.66%(according to Primary and Mass
Education Ministry)(2004-2005 est.)
Organized Banks in Bangladesh:
In 1971, Bangladesh, which were then East Pakistan, emerged as an independent country. It immediately nationalized all the banks except three foreign banks, six nationalized banks were formed. In 1976, the Government started to denationalize the industries. Subsequently, in 1982, a New Industrial Policy (NIP) was implemented allowing private sector participation in industrialization. As part of this process, two nationalized commercial banks were again denationalized and a number of private commercial banks are allowed to operate.
In all 52 banks operate in poles apart categories of banking in Bangladesh-
Nationalized commercial Banks………………………………………….04
Private commercial Banks………………………………………………..26
Banks play a very important role in international trade. Now-a-days, no country can survive without international trade. Moreover banks provide some other non-traditional services like factoring, issuing guarantees etc, which are very much supportive to modern business.
CHAPPTER THREE: ORGANIZATIONAL PART
PROFILE OF THE DHAKA BANK LIMITED
AN OVERVIEW OF DHAKA BANK LIMITED (DBL)
Dhaka Bank Limited is the leading private sector bank in Bangladesh offering full range of Personal, Corporate, International Trade, Foreign Exchange, Lease Finance and Capital Market Services. Dhaka Bank Limited is the preferred choice in banking for friendly and personalized services, cutting edge technology, tailored solutions for business needs, global reach in trade and commerce and high yield on investments, assuring Excellence in Banking Services.
Background of Dhaka Bank Limited:
Dhaka Bank Limited is a scheduled bank that was incorporated under the Companies Act 1994, started its operation on July 1995 with a target to play the vital role on the socio-economic development of the country. Aiming at offering commercial banking service to the customers’ door around the country, the Dhaka Bank limited established 30 branches up-to this year. This organization achieved customers’ confidence immediately after its establishment.
Within this short time the bank has been successful in positioning itself as progressive and dynamic financial institution in the country. This is now widely acclaimed by the business community, from small entrepreneur to big merchant and conglomerates, including top rated corporate and foreign investors, for modern and innovative ideas and financial solution.
Authorized Capital: BDT 1000.00 million.
Paid up Capital: BDT 531.07 million (as on 31.12.2003)
To be the premier financial institution in the country providing high quality products and services backed by latest technology and a team of highly motivated personnel to deliver Excellence in Banking.
At DBL, they draw their inspiration from the distant stars. Their team is committed to assure a standard that makes every banking transaction a pleasurable experience. Their endeavor is to offer the client razor sharp sparkle through accuracy, liability, timely delivery, cutting edge technology & tailored solution for business needs, global reach in trade & commerce & high yield on the client’s investments.
Their people, products & processes are aligned to meet the demand of their discerning customers. Their goal is to achieve a distinction like the luminaries in the sky. Their prime objective is to deliver a quality that demonstrates a true reflection of their vision-Excellence in Banking.
CHAPTER FOUR: FOREIGN EXCHANGE
Foreign exchange means and covers all business activities relating to import, inward and outward remittance and buying and selling of currency. One of the largest business carried out by the commercial bank is foreign trading. The trade among various countries falls for close link between the parties dealing in trade. The situation calls for expertise in the field of foreign operations. The bank, which provides such operation, is referred to as rending international banking operation. Mainly transactions with overseas countries are respects of import, export and foreign remittance come under the preview of foreign exchange transactions. International trade demands a flow of goods from seller to buyer and of payment from buyer to seller.
In Dhaka Bank Ltd. (Islamic Banking branch) foreign exchange division has one part which is foreign trade.
Foreign Trade Department:
Mainly foreign trade deals with import and export business, that is two parties in foreign trade department in Dhaka Bank Ltd.
- Import department
- Export department
Import department deals with the import oriented foreign trade while export department deals with export oriented foreign trade.
Import and export means flow of goods/services purchased by a party of one location from a party of another location. Normally import/export is done through letter of credit (L/C).
Wide-ranging changes and expansion in the world trade owing to the process of evolution in globalization and free market economy have facilitated free flow of goods, which resulted in worldwide trade competition.
For engaging in international trade every trader must maintain the following steps:
Import trade in Bangladesh is controlled under the import and export control Act 1950. Authorized dealer banks will import the goods into Bangladesh following the import policy, public notice, F, E, circular and other instructions from competent authorities from time to time.
- Registration of importer
In terms of the importers, exporters and indenters (Registration) order 1981, no person can import goods into Bangladesh unless he is registered with the chief controller of import and export or exempted from the provisions of the said order. So the following documents are required to be submitted to the licensing authority for registration as importers
Questionnaire from duly filled in and signed.
Income tax registration certificate.
Trade license from the municipal for local authority.
Partnership deed where applicable.
Certificate of registration with the Registrar of joint stock companies and Memorandum and Articles of Association in case of private and public Ltd. Company.
Certificate from the chamber of commerce/registered trade Association.
Ownership documents or rent receipts of the place of business.
Any other documents required under the relevant important policy.
After submission of the above documents and payment of requisite fees, if the documents are found in order and the C, C, E & I is satisfied, the import Registration certificate (IRC) is issued to the applicant-importer.
IMPORT PROCEDURE IN FLOW CHART
Purchase contract between importers and exporters:
Now the importer has to contact with the seller outside the country to obtain the pro-forma invoice/ indent, which describes goods.
Indent is got through indentures a local agent of the sellers.
After the importer accept the preformed invoices, he makes purchase contact with the terms and conditions of the import.
Import procedure differs with different means of payment. In most cases import payment is made by the documentary letter of credit(L/C) in our country.
Then the importer collects a letter of credit Authorization (LCA) from Dhaka Bank Ltd. principal branch.
Bank gives export guarantee that it will pay for the goods on behalf of the buyer. This guarantee is called letter of credit. The buyer and seller conclude a sales contract providing for payment by a documentary credit.
Restricted Items Of Imported Goods:
- Maps, charts and geographical globes, which indicate the territory of Bangladesh but do not do so in accordance with the maps published by the Department of survey, Government pf the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Horror comics, obscene and subversive literature including such pamphlets, posters, newspapers, periodicals, photographs, films, gramophone records and audio and videocassette tapes etc.
- Books, newspaper, periodicals, documents and other papers, posters, photographs, films, gramophone records, audio and video cassette tapes etc. containing matters likely to outrage the religious feelings and beliefs of any class of the citizens of Bangladesh.
- Unless otherwise specified in this order, old, second-hand and recondition goods, factory rejects and goods of job-lot/stock-lot of secondary/substandard quality.
- Reconditioned office equipment, photocopier, typewriter, telex, phone, computer and fax.
- Unless or otherwise specified in this order, all kinds of waste.
- Goods (including their contains) hearing any words or inscriptions of a religious connotation the use or disposal of which may injure the religious feelings and beliefs of any class of the citizens of Bangladesh; and
- Goods (including their containers) bearing any obscene picture, writing inscription or visible representation.
Term Related To Import/Export:
The following terms are related to the import/export business
(A) Letter of credit (L/C)
A-1 Definition of letter of credit.
A-2 Consideration of letter of credit.
A-3 Types of letter of credit.
A-4 Parties of letter of credit.
(B) Commercial Invoice
(C) Bill of lading
(D) Certificate of origin
(E) Inspection certificate
(F) Certificate of manufacture
(G) Insurance certificate
(H) Pro-forma invoice
(I) Bills of exchange
(J) Packing list
(K) Shipment advice
(L) Bill of entry
(A)Letter of Credit (L/C)
A-1, Definition of letter of credit (L/C):
It goes without saying that you, the exporter, what to be paid as quickly as possible, whereas your overseas customer may well want to defer payment for as long as possible. The answer of course is credit.
A letter of credit is a financing instrument opened by a foreign buyer with a bank in her or his locality. The letter of credit stipulates the purchase price agreed upon by the buyer and seller, the quantity of merchandise during shipment. The letter of credit names the seller as beneficiary (that is, you are the party who gets paid) and identifies the definite time period, the terms remain in force. The letter of credit authorized the buyers to pay when all the stipulated conditions have been met.
A letter of credit gives some assurance to the seller that the buyer is solvent. Most letter of credit (L/C) is irrevocable and often confirmed when requested by the seller’s bank before the seller accepts them. This confirmation obligates the confirming bank to pay you once have meet all the stated condition in the particular letter of credit (L/C).
Consideration of letter of credit:
There are two simple considerations when using letter of credit (L/C):
(I) Specify as fully as possible to your buyer the amount of credit (payment) needed, the length of time for which this letter of credit (L/C) should be valid, whether partial shipments are acceptable and all necessary documents.
(II) When the letter of credit(L/C) is delivered to you through the advising bank, check to see that you can meet all provisions specified. If not, request an amendment by the foreign buyer before proceeding.
Letter of credits are most often used when initiating business with a new account, when a check of the importer’s credit reveals it would be unwise to make shipment on a less secure basis or when large purchases are requested by an unknown buyer.
A-3 Types of letter of credit:
Letter of credit may be-
Revolving letter of credit(L/C)
Revolving letter of credit:
This is useful when shipping a variety of goods to an established customer. It normally run far a period less than one year and it previous for prompt reinstatement when drawn against.
Assigned letter of credit:
This type is the same as the normal letter of credit (L/C) except that is includes the phrase “and/or assignees” following the names of the beneficiary. This allows the exporter to make his or her domestic purchase by using the overseas buyer’s credit. That is you are agreeing that payment for the letter of credit may be made to your supplier. This is a way for an exporter to conduct business with limited capital.
As your business grows you will want to extend credit to your importer. One of the most efficient methods of doing this is through a banker’s acceptance, after agreeing to the terms (e.g. 90 days at sight) the importer opens a draft (check) under a L/C in favor of the exporter (beneficiary). The exporter presents the draft and the requested shipping documents to the paying bank. The bank review the documentation for correctness, the “accept” the draft to become payable (mature) in 90 days, or if the exporter requires “accepts” the draft and discounts the amount because of the need for immediate funds.
Letter of credit also may be
A revocable credit is a credit, which can be amended or cancelled by the issuing bank at any time without prior notice to the seller.
An irrevocable credit constitutes a definite undertaking of the issuing bank (since it can not be amended or cancelled without the agreement of all parties thereto), provided that the stipulated documents are presented and the terms and conditions are satisfied by the seller. This sort of credit always referred to revocable letter of credit.
A-4. Parties of letter of credit:
Various parties are related to the letter of credit, such as-
The issuing Bank
The confirming Bank, if any
The beneficiary( other parties, which facilitate the documentary credit)
The advising Bank
The negotiating Bank/ applicant Bank
The transferring Bank, if any
Importer: Buyer who applies for opening a L/C.
Confirming Bank: It is the bank, which adds its confirmation to the credit and it is done at the request of issuing bank. Confirming bank may or may not be advising bank
Issuing Bank: It is the bank which opens/issues a L/C on behalf of the importer.
Advising/ Notifying Bank: It is the bank through which the L/C is advised to the exporters. This bank is actually situated in exporter’s country. It may also assume the role of confirming and/or negotiating bank depending upon the condition of the credit.
Negotiating Bank: It is the bank, which negotiates the bill and pays the amount of the beneficiary. The advising bank and the negotiating bank may or may not be the same. Sometimes it can also be confirming bank.
Paying/ Accepting Bank: It is the bank on which the bill will be drawn (as per condition of the credit). Usually it is the issuing bank.
Reimbursing Bank: It is the bank, which would reimburse the negotiating bank after getting payment-instructions from issuing bank.
B. Commercial Invoice:
As in a domestic shipment, good business practice dictates that a commercial invoice include-
1. Full address of the shipper, seller and consignee, if different;
2. The respective reference number
3. Date of the order
4. Shipping date
5. Mode of shipment
6. Delivery and payment terms
7. A complete description of the merchandise and prices
8. Discounts and quantities
In addition, if payment is to be against a letter of credit (L/C) reference to the bank and the corresponding credit or advice numbers must be given.
In some instances, it is necessary for the seller to sign his her invoices and even have them notarized or countersigned by the local chamber of commerce or both.
Example of Commercial Invoice:
NAME OF THE COMPANY:
TERM OF PAYMENT: AT SIGHT
OTHER TERMS & CONDITIONS:
Beneficiary bank charge will be on beneficiary a/c
Buyer bank charge and overdue interest will be buyer a/c
Buyer confirmation Company’s name (sale)
C. Bills Of Lading:
These may be overland (truck or rail) air or ocean bills of lading, depending on destination or terms of sales. As in domestic shipment, there are two basic types of bills of lading-
Straight (or nonnegotiable)
Shipper’s order (negotiable).
The shipper’s order (negotiable) is used for sight draft or letter of credit shipments. This shipment must endorse the original copy of the “order” bill of lading before it is presented to the bank for collection. The endorsement may either be “in bank” or “to the order of” a third party, such as the negotiating bank. The letter of credit will stipulate which endorsement to use with the exception of ocean shipments; the carrier issues only one original bill of lading. Any number of original ocean bills of lading may be issued depending on the requirements of the buyer. Normally, all original copies are endorsed and submitted to the bank.
D. Certificate Of Origin:
Even though a commercial invoice may contain a statement of origin of the merchandise a few countries require a separate certificate sometimes countersigned by a chamber of commerce and possibly even visage by the country’s resident consul at the port of export. These may be on a special form of the foreign government, or in other cases, a certificate on the shipper’s own letterhead will suffice. Statements of origin are required to establish possible preferential rates of import duties under a most favored nation arrangement.
E. Inspection Certificates:
In order to protect themselves, many foreign firms request certificates of inspection. This may be either an affidavit by the shipper or by an independent inspection from, as dictated by the buyer, certifying to the quality, quantity and conformity of goods in relation to the order. This is usually done before the goods are shipped.
F. Certificate Of Manufacture:
This document is used when a buyer intends to pay for the goods prior to shipment but the lead time for the manufacture of the products is lengthy and the buyer does not desire to allocate the money so far in advance. If the seller feels that the buyer is a good credit risk, the seller will produce with the manufacture of the products with perhaps only a down payment. After the merchandise is ready, the seller prepare a certificate stating that the ordered goods have been produced in accordance with the contract and have been set a side for the account of the buyer. Commercial invoice and packing list are sent as supporting documents.
G. Insurance Certificates:
Where the seller provides ocean marine insurance it is necessary to furnish insurance certificates, usually in duplicate indicating the type and amount of coverage involved. Here again these are negotiable documents and must be endorsed before submitting them to the bank.
H. Pro-forma Invoice:
When a commercial invoice is required but it is not available at the time of foreign shipment arrives at importer’s customs, the importer (not the foreign exporter) may prepare a pro-forma invoice. This invoice contains generally the same information required on the proper commercial invoice, which is prepared by the exporter.
Example Of Pro-forma Invoice:
NAME OF THE COMPANY:
TERM OF PAYMENT: AT SIGHT
OTHER TERMS & CONDITIONS:
Beneficiary bank charge will be on beneficiary a/c
Buyer bank charge and overdue interest will be buyer a/c
Buyer confirmation Company’s name (sale)
I. Bill Of Exchange;
An unconditional order in writing, addressed by one person (the drawer) to another (the drawee) and signed by the person giving it, requiring the drawee to pay on demand or at a fixed or determinable future time a specified sum of money to or to the order of a specified person(the payee) or to the bearer. If the bill is payable at a future time the drawee signifies acceptance, which makes the drawee the party primarily liable upon a bill. The use of bills of exchange enables one person to transfer to another an enforceable right to a sum of money. A bill of Exchange is not only transferable right to the money transfers a bill to a holder in due course, the latter obtains a good title to it.
J. Packing List:
Packing list is the letter describing the number of packets, packet’s weight and their size. If there are several copies, then two copies should be given to the client and the remaining should be kept in the bank but if there is only one copy, then the photocopy should be kept in the bank and the original copy should be given to the client.
EXAMPLE OF PACKING LIST
NAME OF THE COMPANY
TO: IMPORTER ADDRESS
L/C NUMBER………DATED……….ISSUED BY……..…BANK
RECEIVED BY FOR EXPORTER
K. Shipment Advice:
The copy mentioning the name of the insurance company should be given to the client and the remaining copies should be kept in the bank but if only one copy is given, then the photocopy should be kept in the bank and the original copy should be given to the bank.
L. Bill Of Entry:
Bill of entry is a custom clearance copy. Custom authority certifies that imported goods are legal or illegal. Bill of entry must deposit into the importer’s bank by the importer because central bank (Bangladesh Bank) examines the parties’ bill of entry.
Bill of entry includes:
Name of exporter
Name of importer
Origin of product
Details about imported goods (such as unit price, quantity, total amount)
At the time of bill of entry Custom authority charge taxes following way
|Name of charge||Rate of charge|
|VAT(Value added tax)||15%|
|Advanced income tax||3%|
|Advance trade VAT||0|
|PSI service charge||1%|
Declaration of authorities:
I/we confirm that the documents relating to this consignment are genuine and correct. All these records and documentation will be preserved and produced before customs authorities, if and when demanded, within three years.
Dealing with Foreign Currency:
Banks buy and sell convertible currency “at” spot (immediate) or for future delivery. You, as an importer, may contract with a bank to buy the currency for future delivery at fixed rate of exchange because you know that, at some specific future time, you must make payment in that foreign currency.
Conversely, as an exporter you may protect yourself by contracting to sell to a bank, at a fixed rate of exchange. The foreign currency proceeds you expectation a given date. These contracts provide a “hedge” against currency fluctuation. That is, importers and exporters avoid the risk of fluctuating exchange rates and can better determine their true costs and profits when they enter into such a contract. The bank does not charge interest on these contracts because no payments are due in advance of the due date of the contract.
How L/C Used in Import:
A letter of credit (L/C) is an instrument for payment of international trade. It is a written instrument. On the request of the customer (Importer) a bank (issuing bank) will issue a L/C in which it obligates itself to pay the seller (exporter) against presentation of draft and certain documents. Those documents are evidences of shipment and include all of the terms and conditions stipulated in the L/C. The issuing bank advises the exporter that a L/C has been obtained by the importer through its correspondent (advising bank) in the exporter’s country. The exporter may require that the credit be confirmed by another bank (confirming bank). After presentation of the documents in compliance with the terms and conditions of the L/C, the exporter is usually paid through a local bank (Paying bank).
The process of L/C opening is given below:
A. Exporter and importer sign a sales contract, providing for payment by a L/C.
B. Importer requests bank to open a L/C in favor of the exporter.
C. Issuing bank requests a second bank to advise (or confirm and advise) the credit.
D. Advising bank informs beneficiary that the L/C has been issued.
E. When satisfied with the terms of the L/C, exporter is ready to ship goods.
F. Exporter sends the required documents to wherever the credit will be available (perhaps at the issuing bank, confirming bank, a named negotiating bank or any other bank willing to negotiate the credit).
G. Bank checks documents against the requirements of the L/C. if in order; bank will pay, negotiate or accept, according to the terms of the credit.
H. The bank, if not the issuing bank, will send the documents to the issuing bank.
I. The issuing bank checks the documents and, if they meet requirements, will either make payment in accordance with the terms of the credit, or reimburse the bank that has already paid, accepted or negotiated the credit.
J. (A) When the issuing bank is satisfied with the documents, they are released to the importer upon payment of the amount due (or upon other terms agreed upon between importer and his bank).
(B) Ultimately, the importer pays the issuing (opening) bank for the cost of the goods purchased.
K. The buyers then deliver the documents to the carrier and receive the goods. The trade transaction under an L/C is made up of three (Sometimes four) separate and independent contracts:
Sales contract defining buyer and seller’s obligation to each other.
L/C application, which includes the credit agreement between buyer and opening bank, in which the importer promises to repay any payments made under the credit
The letter of credit is representing the issuing bank’s obligation to the beneficiary.
Confirmation of the L/C represents the issuing bank’s obligation to the beneficiary.
Confirmation to the L/C is the contractual obligation between the confirming banks the exporter to pay upon presentation of complying documents.
FOREIGN EXCHANGE ACTIVITIES OF
The Dhaka Bank Limited (Islamic Banking Branch)
Foreign letter of credit (L/C):
In case of foreign letter of credit (L/C), Islamic Banking Branch provides the following services:
1. L/C Application Form:
L/C application form is a sort of an agreement between customer and bank on the basis of which letter of credit is opened. This is a printed form bearing stamps of prescribed amount in accordance with stamps act in force. It stipulates the conditions governing the letter of credit, contains an undertaking by the customer to make funds available in his account with the bank when bills would be presented under the credit. The following documents are required to be submitted by the importer to his banker for opening:
- The L/C application (LCA) form properly filled and signed by the importer.
- L/C application duly signed by the importer.
- Purchase contract, i.e., indent for the goods issued by an indenter or pro-forma invoice as the case may be.
- Insurance cover note.
- Membership certificate from a recognized chamber of commerce and industry or Town Association or registered Trade Association.
- Proof of payment of renewal fees for the Import Registration Certificate.
- A declaration in triplicate, that the importer has paid income tax or submitted income tax return for the preceding year.
- In case of public sector, attested photocopy of allocation letter issued by the allocation authority, administrative minister or division specifying the source, amount, purpose, validity and other terms and conditions against imports.
- Chief controller of imports as may be required as per instruction issued/ issue any such documents from time to time.
- On receipt of LCA form and the other documents, the banks carefully scrutinize the documents and lodge the same in their respective registration books and duly verify the signature of the importer given on LCA form. If everything is ok, bank takes preparation to prepare the L/C.
- Check the important point of L/C:
To prepare a L/C the branch takes care on the following points:
Import L/C number.
L/C opening date.
Name of the L/C opening bank.
Name of the beneficiary.
Name of the importer.
Whether it is irrevocable.
Whether it is transferable.
Whether it is confirmed by third bank.
Whether it is restricted.
Expire date of import L/C.
Amounts of import L/C.
Port of destination.
Bill of lading clause/ Airways bill.
Basis of L/C where FOB/C&F/CIF.
Quantities of importable goods.
Name of the country from import.
Pre shipment inspection.
- Scrutinizing of L/C application:
The Dhaka bank (Islamic Banking Branch) officially scrutinizes the application in the following manner:
- The terms and conditions of the L/C must be complied with UCPDC 500 and exchange control & import trade regulation.
- Eligibility of the goods to be imported.
- The L/C must not be opened in favor of the importer.
- Radioactivity report in case of food item.
- Survey reports or certificate in case of old machinery.
- Certificate declaring that the items is in operation not more than 5 years in case of car.
4. Transmission of L/C to beneficiary through advising bank:
Then the transmission of L/C is done through tasted telex, fax or SWIFT to advise the L/C to the advising bank. The advising bank verifies the authenticity of the L/C. Actually the advising bank does not take any liability if otherwise not requested.
5. Additional confirmation to import L/C:
At times, beneficiary of letter of credit does not accept letter of credit (issued by issuing bank), as he is not aware of the credit worthiness of issuing bank. The beneficiary, therefore, insist that a bank in seller’s country further confirm such letter of credit. The advising bank can do this if there is prior arrangement between advising and issuing bank. When the correspondent bank (advising bank) in seller’s country adds its confirmation to the credit and advises the letter of credit to the beneficiary (seller), the correspondent bank becomes both confirming as well as advising banker and steps into the shoes of the issuing banker by undertaking obligations, which are identical to those of issuing banker. The obligations are to effect payment to the beneficiary if documents confirm the letter of credit terms.
The advising bank sometimes receives credits address to it containing the name of the beneficiary in the body of accredit. In such cases, the advising bank prepares fresh letter of credit addressed to the beneficiary containing all the terms and conditions of the original credit duly signed by itself.
6. Amendment of L/C:
Parties involved in L/C, particularly the seller and the buyer cannot always satisfy the terms and conditions in full as expected due to some obvious and genuine reasons. In such a situation, the credit should be amended. These amendments involve changes in:
Extension of validity of the L/C
Documentary requirements etc.
Such amendments can be affected only if all the concerned parties agree i.e. the beneficiary, the issuing bank and the advising bank.
For any amendment the importer must request the issuing bank in writing duly supported by revised indent/pro-forma invoice. The issuing bank then advises the required amendment to the advising bank. L/C amendment commission including postage is charged to the clients account.
7. Presentation of the documents:
The seller is being satisfied with the terms and conditions of the credit makes shipment of the goods as per L/C terms. After making the shipment of the goods in favor of the importer the exporter submits the documents to the negotiating bank.
After receiving all the documents against the credit. If the documents are found in order, the bank will pay, accept or negotiate to Dhaka Bank Ltd.
Branch and bank received seal to be affixed on the forwarding schedule.
The Bills of Exchange & transport documents must immediately be crossed to protect loss or fraudulent.
8. L/C Advising:
The L/C duly signed by two authorized officers, whose specimen signatures are already recorded with the correspondent banks, must be addressed to the beneficiary. Bank generally does not enter into direct contract with the beneficiary. Instead they utilize the services of its own branch office (if any) or correspondent bank at seller’s country for the purpose of advising it to the seller (beneficiary). Thus the correspondent bank becomes the “Advising Bank”.
The process of advising a credit consists of forwarding the original credit to the beneficiary to whom it is addressed. Before forwarding/advising the credit to the seller under appropriate forwarding coverage, the advising bank has to verify the signatures of the officers of the opening bank and ensure that the terms and condition of the credit are not in violation of regulations relating to export. While advising, the advising bank does not undertake any liability.
9. Examination and scrutiny of import documents:
After shipment of the goods, the exporter submits the export documents to the negotiating bank. Negotiating bank checks and sends the documents to the issuing bank after negotiation. Upon receipt of the import documents issuing bank will examine the documents carefully. If there is any discrepancy in the documents, bank will decide within 7 banking days, following the day of receipt of the documents, whether it will accept the documents or will refuse. If the issuing bank fails to communicate the refusal to the negotiating bank within 7 days, the documents deem to be accepted.
At time of scrutiny the following documents to be checked specially:
Bill of Exchange
Pre- shipment inspection report
Besides the above, the bank examines and scrutinizes the following:
Whether all of the documents required by the credit is submitted.
Documents to be consistent with one another.
Documents to be presented within the stipulated time.
Documents to be issued by the authorized person as stipulated in the credit.
Documents to be examined as per credit terms and international standard banking practice.
10. Lodgment of documents:
Lodgment means retirement of funds. Usually payment is made within seven days after the documents have been received. If the payment is become deferred, the negotiating bank may claim interest for making delay.
11. Intimation to the applicant:
As soon as above formalities are completed, the importers are served with PAD bill intimations for retirement of concerned import document. A letter of intimation regarding
receipt of the documents should be sent to the applicant with request to take delivery of the documents on settlement of all dues against it.
12. Retirement of document:
On intimation the importer approaches with a letter for retirement of the document against full payment with up to date interest and charges payable. Bank prepares cost memo in printed form on account of the concerned party giving details head of charges payable.
After completion of all official requirements C & F agent submits the bill of entry of the banks. The bill of entry is wanted from the party for maintaining the evidence as the goods has been arrived.
13. Shipping guarantee:
When goods arrive prior to arrival of documents this happens mostly in case of air shipment, shipment by truck from land or shipment by post parcel. In such cases bank endorses non-negotiable shipping documents for clearance of the goods subject to security and the documents being in order and settlement of the bank dues against the relative bills.
14. Payment of import bills:
In case of back to back insurance bills payment to be made on or before maturity date of the bill out of the realized export proceeds. In case of cash sight import bills bank makes payment from its F.C deposit account and will realize the value of foreign currency from the client account.
15. Accounting treatment:
In the foreign exchange the bank maintains accounting journal entries at the following stages-
- At the time of L/C opening.
- At the time of lodgment.
- At the time of document retirement.
1. At the time of L/C opening:
At the time of L/C opening following entries are given to realize the L/C margin, commission, VAT, SWIFT charge, postage, stamp and miscellaneous expenses.
Sundry Deposit Margin on L/C………………….Credit
Income Account (commission)………………….Credit
Income Account (postage charge)……………….Credit
Income Account (SWIFT charge)……………….Credit
Income Account (stamp charge)…………………Credit
Income Account (miscellaneous income)………..Credit
VAT on L/C (15% of commission)………………Credit
After that, L/C number and the above entries are given in the L/C register. The contra entries stating the liability of the bank and the client are as follows:
2. At the time of lodgment:
(Converted the bill amount at BC rate)
(Converted bill amount at T.T clear rate)
Income Account profit on exchange…………………………Credit
(Difference between B.C and T.T clear rate)
(when lodgment is given)
3. At the time of document retirement: