Human Impact on Coastal Environment: a Case Study on Cox’s Bazaar Sea Beach
The sea Beach of Cox’s Bazaar at present is being eroded with the site of sedimentation shifting back to inland, and the coastal plain streams have started filling their own valleys with sand size sediments, perhaps as a response to a recent, small rise in sea level in the region’ everywhere along the coast sand coiffed clay banks characterize the backshore and beaches experience an alarming rate of erosion.
A high energy macro-tidal environment dominates the coast with waves produced by a Long fetch across. The Bay of Bengal, couple with predominant southwesterly monsoon winds blowing onshore and easterly a southerly winds encouraged by the visiting cyclone over the bay head coast in the summer months. The beaches are flattened by storm attracts and associated wave related phenomenon. Sediment mobilization is very also significant along the passage of the cyclones over the coastal wetland, lowlands, and offshore and wide funnel shaped estuaries. The climate is seasonally wet and dry with predominant monsoon season. Average annual precipitation is over 1600 mm, and mangroves and salt marshes fringe the large tidal mud flats.
1.1 Coastal issues of Cox’s Bazaar
There are many coastal issues, which have already created conflicted between various resources user and interest group, between developers and ecologist, engineers and geoscientist and landowners and economists in Cox’s Bazaar. Coastal resources provide opportunities to use the coast in different ways within the hazard prone environment. The risk has been increased considerably in the interactive zone of human activities and coastal hazards, only the burning issues are discuses in the chapter such as.
Sea level rise
The exposure to sea level rise is very serious in Cox’s Bazaar. The area is densely populated and cultivated except the remaining swampy forests to the sea. The loss of habitable land, population as well as the reactive agricultural land would be very significant if the local sea is raised by 0.83m by 2050 with the global sea level rise (0.13m) and the local subsidence (0.07m) in this region (Millimanet,19g9).
1.1 Coastal Erosion Control Measure
Engineering structures adopted in the shore face to protect or minimize the coastal erosion will be a risk. Environment problems relating to the sea walls tike falling beach levels, toe scour .Materials rock boulders ,brick pitched blocks and concrete slabs of different shaped used for the coastal protection works. The long brick pitch along the shore face of estuaries and distributor channels are affected both undercutting an over slumping problems. The embankments are not strong enough to prevent the tidal energy at the channel bank and the tidal waves or the surge waves particularly in the cyclone.
Storm Hazard Mitigation
People of Cox’s Bazaar are more vulnerable to cyclones than they had ever been before, as more as more people are now living within the hazard zone of the coastal plain. Rescue operation, supply of food and drinking water and health care of the cyclone victim are to be improved in the vulnerable areas.
People who are now displaced from different island use to severe bank erosion are term as ‘environmental refugees”. Hundreds of displaced families are rehabilitated on the physical space of the public road .thousands have already been displaced for the landless people which are the most vulnerable community to diseases or disaster in the dangerous environment.
Sustaining Productivity and Diversity in Coastal Ecosystem
Highly threatened due to continuous pressure of ever increasing population on the natural habitats, deposals of pollutants from the agricultural lands, industrials areas, and urban areas other settlement areas, oil slicks from ships and fish in the process of the catching tiger prawn seeds .fishing communities dement on the sustaining productivity of the coastal ecosystems.
1.2 Coastal Pollution through Waste Disposal
Pollution of coastal water and estuaries is an issue of great public concern at present. Estuarine pollution sourness at the coast Pollution sources; sewage discharge, industrial effluents, biological indicator discharge from the ship.
Natural habitats of thee wetland swamps are affected seriously, as they are use for industrials aquaculture to foreign money and improved the economy. Increased soil salinity, decreased soil fertility, viral infection among the fishes and contribution of pollutant to the sea water s are the adverse consequences of the resent rapid growth of fish farming in absence of coastal zone regulation acts.
Coastal Recreational Exploitation
Cox’s Bazaar sea beach is the largest revenue -earning tourist centre of Bangladesh. Walking a birds watching on the land, bathing in the beaches covered by sea water and riving on the beaches are major feature of recreational exploitation of the coast along the seaside records.
1.3 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
We are using the coastal resources for several development activities in the coastal zone at the coast of environment .social environmental costs must be considered at the initial planning stage of the projects like thermal power generation plants, atomic power lands and large chemical industries in the coastal zone.
The role of NGOs: Co-operation between different NGOs, scientist or researcher who are
Working on the environmental problem of the coast .there are many NGOs who are talking on the public heaths and few are campaigning for public awareness of the local environment in the region .NGOs may work at various levels of the coastal society.
1.4 Minor Changes in the Instrumental Records
In coastal studies, much of the information may be derived from historical sources related to the position of beaches, bars, beach ridge, island, forest patches, swamps and rivers at particular time and, shapes, orientation, characteristics, of these features.
Maps of various kinds, historical records and literature, hydrographic chart, S.O.I.,s topographical maps, aerial photographs and land sat imageries used to detect minor changes of the physical environmental during the last three centuries (1700-1996 A.D.) .In the coastal zone of Bangladesh. Other evidences like settlement records, land revenue records, agricultural statistics, census data, and the salt marsh or mangroves swamp discontinuities with documentary evidence of their development are also very useful sources of information to assess the historical change in the physical environment.
Table 01: Historical change s in physical environment by human activities
|Human activity types||Environmental impact
|Historical changes of the physical
|Delta catchments activities||Damaging the river,
flood control measures
|Coastal erosion increased. Inland
|Coastal zone activities||increasing coastal
population, tidal flood
|Loss of coastal wetland
In addition, sediment controls.
|Increase flooding and
|Offshore activities||Shipping and overseas
Source: (Paul, 2002, pp-43)
l. 5 Tectonic setting of the coastal plain
The coastal plain of Bangladesh which lie on the “south Bengal Basin” are now covered nr resent to sub-resent alluvium of very thick Tertiary sediments. The basement of the Bengal basin is the part of the eastern edge of the Indian plate which is being sub ducted beneath the Eurasian or china plate along the Sunday seduction zone and Naga- Lushai organic be1t. According to Sen Sarma (1990) the enter setup from the Assam Valley in the northeast to the Ganga floodplain in the northwest, which extends southward over the oceanic crust in the form of sedimentary basin to the distal end of Bengal and Nicobar fans, is considered to constitute a single structural domain.
In the geological past, sediment bypassing of the Ganga -Brahmmaputra –meghna through the “Swacth of No Ground”, a submarine canyon or the delta head through, contributed the largest sedimentary fan (Bengal fan) under submarine environment on the oceanic crust of Northern Indian Ocean @ay of Bengal). A relationship between Himalayan orogeny and the sedimentary growth of the Bengal deep sea fan is well established by Several workers (Curry an Moore, 1971,1974,1982).
I.6 Bengal Basin
4.3.1 Stratigraphic Evidence
4.3.2 Laterite Uland Tracts
4.3.3 Newer Alluvial Series
4.3.4 Recent Coastal Plain and Delta Plain Sediments
A Tectonic map of Bangladesh and adjoining area is show on the next page.
1.7 Aim and Objectives of the Study
Geomorphology’ ecology and society of the coasts offer most significant aspects of modern environmental issues for the coastal studies in different disciplines.
Coastal features at the interface of land and sea (beach, sand dunes, wetlands, barrier islands’ reefs etc’) Act as physical barriers against storms damages. This shoreline buffers are very much dynamic under the influence s of fluvial-marine process, e) extreme event (storm and sea river rise), and anthropogenic activities.
Coastal areas may be more vulnerable to erosion, if these buffers are lost due to development related activities of man. Coastal geomorphology attracts academicians Because of the dynamic nature of the coastal landforms and significant process response
Studies on the genesis evolution and processes involved in the formation of the surface forms of the coast represent its dynamic systems which must be considered for management policies to be adopted by environmental managers along the coast.
Parts of the coast are subject to natural hazards ranging from cyclone and flood dung to erosion and deposition’ People are displaced and their activities are affected by such hazard’ s over the year’ occupational grounds of the people are most in many places due to severe land erosion.
Coastal sand dunes’ sandy sea beaches, tidal flats of finer sediments, salt marshes and mangrove swamps’ estuaries’ Buffer Island and the coastal and the lowland provide a particular set of environment conditions for the organisms inhabiting there.
Geomorphology or the non living factors of this diverse coastal habitual are in a delicate balance under the dynamic processes of waves, tides, currents, winds, riverine freshets of the coastal zone.
The more specific objectives of the study are as below:
§ To understand the nature of sea beach shifting occurred along the sea beach of Cox’s Bazaar
§ Identification of the relationship between coastal sea beach and population displacement.
§ To evaluate the physical, environmental and socio economic impact of sea beach.
1.8 Literature review
The 155 km long coast line of Cox’s Bazaar along the Bay of Bengal. The literature review primarily direct t an overview of coastal geography .different institution and organizations involved with the coastal land. Coastal region: since the ancient time, river delta and coastal areas has been the site of economic and commercial activities and were of fundamental important to civilization. As a result, the study of coastal region receives considerable attention from the ancient scholars like homer, Herodotus, Plato, and Aristotle. (Coleman and write, 1971, davis, 1978)
Including the background information, a brief review of the coastal region of Bangladesh is made, highlighting the characteristics of the Bengal basin and the Bay of Bengal. Based on available information of the geomorphologic condition and hydrological feathers, the coast of Bangladesh covering the 710 km in length (Tunney, 1979).the coastal area of Bangladesh lies between 21o30′ and 23o15′ north longitude and 89″00′ and 90o00′ east latitudes and includes the world largest continuous mangrove forest, the estuarine marsh land and numerous river canals and tributaries (Viju”1985 and Giri & shrestha, 1996)
1.8 .1 Geomorphology and land formation
During the l5th or 16ff century the Bhagirathi- hogly system was reduce to the status of a right bank distribution. The Ganges continues to migrate eastward and by the mid- eighteenth century, it entered the sea close to its present delta. At the same time it had no confluence with either the Brahmaputra or Meghna river, both of which north-eastern part of the Bay of Bengal.
1.8.2 Coastal embankment
Coastal embankment system consisting of over a hundred polders has beneficially successful in limiting entry of saline water on to (Mahbublla, 1998)
1.8.3 Mater and soil salinity
Most of the land in the coastal area of Bangladesh is affected by salt. Three million acre or 1.2 million hectares of land in the coastal area. Have been inundated with saline water and can hardly sustaining crop during the rainy session from June to October (shah, 1gg2) Coastal and offshore land area of Bangladesh is dominated by medium high land (1.156 million hectares), following high land of 0.253 million hectares (karim and et.al.1990) Agriculture
About 0.833 million hectares of land of Bangladesh (that constitutes 52.8s/o of the net cultivable area of 13 coastal districts are affected by varying degrees of soil salinity (asrime et.al.1990).
1.8.4 Topological Change
Chouthury (1959 and 1974) made a detailed surveyor all the available maps of Bangladesh and gave a brief historical account of the development of the coastal area of Bangladesh since 300 B.C.
1.9 Background to the study area
Chittagong division with an area of 2491.86 sq km is bounded by Chittagong district on the north, BAY OF BENGAL on the south, bandarban district, Arakan (Myanmar) and the NAF River on the east, the Bay of Bengal on the west. Annual average temperature maximum 34’8″c and minimum 16.1ºc; annual rainfall 4285 mm. The district having been a coastal region often fall victim to sea storm, tidal bore, hurricane and cyclone. Main offshore islands: Maheshkhari, Kutubdia, Matarbari, sonadia, shah pari and St Martin’s or Jinjira. Main rivers are the Matamuhyri, BAKKHALI, Reju Khal, Naf, Maheshkhali channel and Kutubdia channel; Main forests areas are phulchhari Range,
Bhumaria-ghona Range, Meher-ghona Range, Bak Khali Range. Cox’s Bazar represents the longest sea beach of the world and charming forest belt.
Population 92.13yo, Hindu 5.6yo, Buddhist population per sq km is 570. 1957321; male 46.23yo, female 53.77%: Muslim 2.17%, Christian 0.06%, others 0.04%. Density of Population per sq km is 570.
District (Town) Cox’s Bazaar municipality was constituted in 1869 and was turned into a town committee in 1959′ the town committee was replaced by municipality in 1972 and it was elevated to B grade in 1989. The municipality covers an area of 6.85 sq km with27 mahallas and 9 wards; population 60234; male 57.0%, female 42.81%.The literacy rate among the town people is 52’2%’ Cox’s Bazaar having been a great tourist resort various establishments have developed in the town including 6 big hotels, 30 medium hotels, 50 semi-medium hotels, Jhinuk market for the tourists and the Burmese market dealing in luxury goods from Burma, Thailand and China.
l. 9.2. Administrative:
Administration Cox’s Bazaar thana was established in lg54 and Cox’s Bazaar subdivision was formed comprising of Cox’s Bazaar sadar, chakoria, Maheskhali and Teknaf thanas. Afterwards three new thanas were constituted under this subdivision such as Ukhia, Kutubdia and Ramu. Under the decentralization scheme the thanas were transformed into upazilas and the Cox’s Bazaar subdivision was elevated to a district in 1984′ it consists of 7 upazilas, 3 municiparities, 27 wards, 58 mahallas, and 67
Union parish ads, 199 mousers and 975 villages. The upazilas are COX’S BAZAR ‘SADAR,
.HAK.RIA’ MAHESK.TALI, TEKNAF, RAMU, KUTUBDIA and RAMU. chakoria)’ satgumbad Masjid of Fazl Quke at Manikpur, Hasher dighi, Bir Kamla dighi, (in Teknaf) we, of Mathin, (in Kutubdia) Kalarma Masjid, Tomb of eutub Awliya, (in Ramu) Ramkot Hindu Mandir, Ramkot Buddhist Keyang, Lamarpara Buddhist Keyang, rin Ukhia) Patabari Buddhist Keyang, Kutupalang Buddhist Keyang, Kanabazar underground channel, (in Cox’s Bazaar) Agvamedha Buddhist Keyang, Buddhist pagotia, single domed mosque at Jhilanga.
1.9.3. Historical concept:
Historical events The Arab traders and preachers came to the ports of Chittagong and Akiab in the eighth century AD and consequently the Arab Muslims came in close contact with Cox’s Bazaar area situated between the two ports. The greater Chittagong including Cox’s Bazaar was under the rule of Harikela king Kantideva in the nineteenth century. The Arakan king Sulat Inga Chandra (930-975) captured Chittagong in 953 AD and since then Cox’s Bazaar. Had been a part of the kingdom of Arakan. Chittagong remained part of the kingdom of Arakan till its conquest by the Mughals in 1666 AD. The Mughal general Buzurg Umed Khan captured the Magh Fort on the southern bank of the Kamafuli and the Arakanise took shelter in the Ramu Fort, which was later surprised by the Mughats.
The company, with a view to establish settlement in Cox’s Bazaar area, took a liberal policy of distributing land to the cultivators and this encouraged people from different parts of Chittagong district and from Arakan to settle in Cox’s Bazaar area. The Burmese king Bodhapaya (1782-1819) captured Arakan in 1784 AD. About thirty thousand Arakanese escaped the atrocities of the Burmese king to Cox’s Bazaar area in l784 AD. The East India Company deputed one Captain Hiram Cox to arrange for the rehabilitation of the refugees (1799). Each refugee family was granted 2.4 acres of land and granted food support for six months. Hiram Cox died (1799) before the completion of rehabilitation work. To commemorate his role in rehabilitation work a market was established and was named after him as Cox’s Bazaar (market of Cox) which originates the name of the place. Marks of War of Liberation Shaheed memorial monument 3, Mass killing site 1.
1.9.4. Literacy Rate and Educational Institute
Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy zl.gyo, male28.2percentage, female l4.9percentage. Educational institutions: Government College 4, Non-government College 17, government high school 6, non-government high school 107, junior high school 8, Madrasa 150, government primary school 376, non-government primary school 235, NGO operated primary school 22, primary teacher’s training institute l, technical training institute l, kindergarten 9′ old institutions: Cox’s Bazaar Government High School (1874), Idgah Ideal High school (1928), Maizpara Government Primary School (1930), eutubdia High School (1938), Teknaf Government Primary school (1890), Manikpur Burmeese primary School (1828), Herbang Government Primary school (1884), pekua Government primary School (1918), chakoria Government High school (1919), Saharbil Anwarul alum Senior Madrasa (19l8), Maheskhali Government vernacular School r (1923).
I.9.5. other information
Newspapers and periodicals (Daily) saikat, Cox’s Bazar, Ajker Desh-bidesh, Dainandin, Mayer Desh, (weekly) swadesh Bani, Kutubdia, chakori, (fartnightly) Mehdi; extinct- Himchhari, Bak-khali, (weekly) cox’s Bazar, cox,s Bazar Barta, sagar Bani, Sagar Kantha, Naf kantha.
Cultural organizations club 161, society and organization 5, women’s organization 24, cooperative society 367, public library 5, theatre group 3, cinema hall 5.
Agriculture 25.64%, forestry l.84%, fishing 4.01%, agricultural laborer 2l.2%, wage laborer 7.64%, service 4.68%, transport l.86%, others 17.98%
Land use pattern
Land use cultivable land 79500 hectares, land for salt cultivation 13355 hectares, land for shrimp cultivation 24,114 hectares, forest area 91865 hectares, fallow land 8620 hectares; single crop 26.5% double crop 610%, triple crop 12.5%; cultivable land under irrigation 64%.
Land control among the peasants, landless 46.5%, small peasant 27.5%, intermediate 19%’ and 7% rich; cultivable land per head 0.06 hectare. Value of land the market value of the first grade arable land is Tk. 7000 pulse, onion, garlic, ginger, betel leaf, betel per 0.01 hectare. Main crops paddy, potato, nut, wheat, sugarcane, ground nut, tobacco, rubber, vegetables. Extinct and nearly extinct crops Sesame, linseed, mustard, cotton, jute, kaun, lentil, gram, arahar, and sweet potato.
Main Crops and Fruits
Main fruits Mango, jackfruit, pineapple, banana, papaya, coconut, plum, litchi, guava.
Dairies, fisheries and poultries Livestock 49, poultry 246, fishery r45g, shrimp 759, hatchery 47, dry fish processing 6.Communication facilities Roads: pucca 462 km, semi pucca 340 km and mud road 176 km; airport l. Traditional transport Boat, sampan and palanquin (nearly extinct), bullock cart and couch (extinct).
Manufactories Rice mill473, salt mill 38, ice factory 64, flow mill 145, fish processing industry 31, fish feed mill 1, saw mill74.cottage industries weaving 851, brass work 33, garments industry 200, conch industry 50, welding r72, fish preservation centre 85, bamboo and cane work 9991, goldsmith 290, blacksmith 232, potteries 405, wood work 1141, tailoring 1766.Mineral resources natural gas, zircon, limonite, retile, magnetite, monazite, coralline limestone. Hats, bazars and fairs Hats and
bazars are 120; fair 8.
Main exports Betel leaf, betel nut, jackfruit, banana, papaya, pineapple, timber, shrimp, dry fish, salt, tobacco, ground nut, fish, coconut, shrimp fish , rubber. NGO activities operationally important NGO are CARITAS, Christian Commission for Development in Bangladesh, Prism Bangladesh, Gana-svasthya Kendra, BRAC, ASA, Ananda, PROSHIKA, Bangla-German sampriti, world vision, concern, Islamic Relief organization, Muslim Aid, Al-Furkan welfare Association, MSF $Iolland), Red crescent Society, SARE.
1, 9.6 Location of the Study Area
Cox’s Bazar district is in Chittagong division with an area of 2491g6 sq. km. is bounded
By Chittagong district on the north, bay of bangle is on the south, Bandarban district,
Myanmar and the Naf River on the east and the bay of bangle on the west.
220.127.116.11 Cox’s Bazar Sea Beach
Cor’s Bazar is the longest sea beach in the world. Cox’s Bazar is about 155 km from CHITTAG0NG and is connected to the port city by bus, air and steamer services. It is a district town and is also the headquarters of the Cox’s Bazar forest division. The town and surrounding places have many colorful pagodas and Buddhist temples and are inhabited by, among others, many tribal people who have their own distinct CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS
Cox’s Bazar sea beach is the world’s largest sea beach. Its length is 155 sq. km. It is continuously 120 km. wide from Cox’s Bazar to Teknaf. The beach ridge is not steep so force of web is much more than tide.
The beach area is very wide and plain. Sand, coral, fauna, pebbles and surrounding hills are the special attraction of the sea beach. Every year thousands of visitors come in this country to visit this nice creature. It is a great source of foreign money. Cox’s bazar is the World’s longest unbroken sea beach. Its length is 155 km. It is the most attractive sea beach for the tourist.
The naturally made dunes of thus beach are destroyed by human influence. Coastal landform is changed by the erosion & deposional action of the Bay water. Human also change it for various purposes. Every day the tourists fall their waste into the beach and it become gradually polluted.
The general conditions of Cox’s bazar are developing according the presence of tourists. Different economic activities (basically tourism based) are increasing besides the area of sea beach.
18.104.22.168 Geographical Location
The area at it is 2491-86 sq. km. is bounded by Chittagong district on the north, Bay of
Bengal on the south, Bandarban district, Myanmar and the Naf River on the east. Bay of
Bengal on the west. The latitude of cox’s bazaris 20″45’N to 2lo 55, N and t], e longitude
Is 91″ 45’E to g2o25′ E. The town was named after Lieutenant cox, who had rehabilitated
Here a group of MAGHS seeking shelter in British territory after the conquest of Arakan
Physiography of Sea Beach
cox’s bazat mostly consists of hilly & forest region with coast. This area often victim to sea storm tidal bore, hurricane, cyclone. Main offshore islands: Maheskhali, Kutubdia, Matarbari, sonadia, st.Martins. cox,s bazar consist the largest sea beach of the world and charming forest belt.
22.214.171.124 Climate of Sea Beach
The climate of beach area is moist. The main cause of moist weather is a lot of evaporation occurs on the sea. Annual average temperature maximum 32.5’C and minimum 14.8’C. Annual rainfall is 3378 mm.
2.0 Data and Methodology of the Study
This chapter gives an outline of the design of current research and describes the adopted methodology. the methodology has been considered in relation to the objectives of the research’ relevant theories, and development policies .the study seeks to analyze the impact on selected area ‘the methodology demanded a field survey for investigation s including questionnaire survey s in the study area.
2.1 Development of the Study
During the recent past the government has been implementing a national –wide decentralization of administrative program with an aim to promote coastal development. Under the existing socio-economic and political situation of the country and apart from others, considering various considering especially man impact by coastal environment. It is important to know when people are affected I, e, how man is adapted by coastal environment. It is also important to find out the impact made by on social economic, political and demographic condition s of the coastal area. The whole theme has been conceived here considering human impact on coastal environment.
2.2 Study Design
To meet the objectives of the research, It was necessary to collect data on a wide range of issue ‘such as socio-economic condition at household level, mobility of people in physical an economical sense, access to services and facilities and various other related issue. It was necessary to investigate the attitude of the cross section of regarding what they thought of and what should be done about
Of operation in a hazard situation be coastal I environment. From the official census reports and statistical yearbooks only aggregate data are available in term of administrative boundaries.
Available data on related aspects from secondary sources were inadequate for the present research. It was, therefore, decided to conduct a filed survey to collect primary data in a manner, which could be use for both quantitative analyses. It was also felt necessary to have e a good understanding of the survey areas and the people before start6ing the socio- economic investigation.
Maps were collected municipal offices, checked, and verified, and then a generalized land use survey was conducted. Contact was made with headmen and residents of the selected locations, local administrator to brief them about the forthcoming survey in the areas.
Finally in the light of national context, the finding of the filed survey are evaluated to draw inferences and to formulate the policy guidelines.
2.3 The Sample Frame
Sampling theory concern the development of ways in which partial information may be acquired efficiently and wit validity .it is worth to note that random sampling and probability sampling is almost synonymous terms .They share the same basic principal.
2.4 Sample Size and Survey Instrument
In view of the need for micro-level synchronic or cross-sectional data to meet the objectives of the study ,a direct questionnaire survey was thought to be collected can be promptly processed .obviously the questions were related to household economy ,demography hazard perception and adjustment ,displacement processes and related issues.
1.5 Sources of Data and Methodology
As indicated earlier, data regarding bank erosion and population displacement is Particularly non- existence .almost no institute in this country seems to be responsible for maintaining data on this issue, on the other hand, practically data on population displacement due to coastal environment could be obtained from the district, Upazilla thana or union level sources which entirely precluded the possibility of using secondary data sources.
2.6 Primary Data Sources
In order to arrive at the desires objects, field level data from beach affected people were collected through intensive survey the report were administered of the field survey provided an insight into the dimension of the problem an perception about rainy season .in collecting field level data ,four group respondents were selected
The general affected population residing along the studying coastal area. the chiefs of the affected community (i.e. the above group) Administrators and planners who are associated with decision processes of the government at the local national levels.
2.7 F’ield Survey
Cox’s bazar has collected primary data through field survey. The economical activities, physical and human threats, measurements of dunes of Cox’s bazar and economical activities, vegetation list,
Some written documents are used to produce this report. This are:
· Bangla pedia
· Books related to the study area.
· Bhugol Patrika etc.
Besides this various organizations have helped with their information.
2.8. I Data & informatlon management
The following methods have followed to make the report.
2.8.2 Observation method:
Most of the data collected by observation method, Such as observation of river, hill coastal land form, Island etc.
2.8.3 Interviewing survey:
Various data is collected by interviewing method, Such as information of the source of drinking water, total population, and income source of tribe. Again some data also collected about’ Jadikiang Temple’ by interviewing method.
Some photographs have taken for each object properly. Photograph helps to indicate the right environment of the objects.
2.8.5 Published and Unpublished Document
Various published documents are used .Such as “Bhugol patrika,, Again some Unpublished document also used such as which is collected from the field (source of tribal drinking water).
At the initial stage the report work was planned to carry out mainly on the basis of the techniques of questionnaire, remote sensing and GIS .for the empirical analysis of coastal area and human copping renounces questionnaire survey was conducted. It were obtain from secondary sources including government publications, agricultural census an statistical r4eport of the Bangladesh bureau of statistics am other published research materials .consequently for the fruitful completion research work .finally data were analyzed in GIS to visualize impact of coastal .The chapter describes the methodology of the study which explains the selection of the sample for analysis, the data frame to be use, sources of data and nature analysis.
2.10 Environment Aspects of Cox’s Bazar
The zone of unconsolidated material that extends land-word from the low water line to the place where there is marked change in material or physiographic from or to the line of permanent vegetation a beach includes foreshore and backshore. The zone of unconsolidated material that is moved by waves, winds and tidal currents extend landward to coastline. Swash line is the upper limit of active beach reached sea level significance. Some heavy minerals contain valuable metals such as Titanium, Zirconium, Germanium, Tin, Uranium and Gold.
Human Impact on Cox’s Bazar Sea Beach
Physical, environmental and socio-economic uncertainties steadily increase with the impact of cyclonic storms through the last century, as coastal populations have increased at unprecedented rate.
3.1 Physical changes of Cox’s Bazar Sea Beach
3.2 Environmental changes of Cox’s bazar Sea Beach
3.3 Socio-economic changes of cox’s bazaar sea beach.
3.1 Physical change
Physiographic region is characterized by several morphogenetic feature enveloped under the impact of coastal hydrodynamics, available sediment supply and transportation paths, low lying deltaic, phytogeomorphological and zoo-geomorphological factors, and finally the human control factors in the delta catchments areas in the coastal sea beach zones.
Along with the change the resent rising sea level will place unprecedented streets in the coastal zone of Cox’s Bazar sea beach in the coming century.
Physical Threats of Coastal Environment (cox’s bazar sea beach)
· Crab hole
· Thunder storm
· Land slide
· Hill cutting
· Wind action
Agents of Modification of Coastal Land Forms
· Waves, current and tides
· Nature of rock of the coast (Hard & soft)
· Nature of coast.
· Human inference or anthropological factor
· Composition of coastal rock
· Stability of rock
· Openers of the coast
· Depth of shore water
· Size and abundance of the eroding tools
Erosional features of costal landform (Cox’s Bazar)
· Marine cave
· Marine bridge
· Coastal beach
Depositional features (Cox’s Bazar)
§ Bar and spit.
§ Coastal or slot marshes.
§ Bay head bar
§ Mid bay bar
§ Bay mouth bar
§ Marine dune
Agents of Coastal Area (Cox’s Bazar)
· sea wave
· wave length
· wave velocity
· wave period
· wave height
Landform of Coastal Area (Coxrs Bazar)
· Fore shore
Some coastal Landforms name and description are given below_
3.1.I Coast of Coxrs Bazar
The wide bank of an ocean is called coast. It is spread 200 km. towards ocean from land.
Land and shallow ocean area is called coastal, where situated 70% ocean area and 30% land area’ Perhaps the coastal area is populated because of mild climatic condition, health resort and economic activities are well. The coast represents the land zone immediately behind cliffs. Other way, the association of sea and landforms is called the sea coast. And the coast lime represents the cliff line or the margin of the land rising above the sea water.
Sea Shore represents the zone of rand between high tide water and low tide word, in front of coast is called sea shore. Sea shores are three types that are Cox’s Bazar
§ Back shore
§ Fore shore
§ Off shore
Back shore: Back shore represents the beach starting from the limit of frequent storm Waves to the cliff base
Fore shore: The area of extends from low tide water to high tide water is called Fore shore
Off shore: Offshore represent the zone of shallow bottom of the continental slope.
shore line:Where sea water and land conjured together that’s called Shore line.
Cliffs: Steep rocky coast rising almost vertically above sea water is called sea cliff. It is very precipitous with overhanging crest.
3.1.2 Waves conditions of Cox’s Bazar Sea Beach
The sea waves are most powerful and effective erosive agent of coastal areas by the work of wind the waves are created. Sea waves are defined an undulations of sea water Characterize by well developed crests and troughs.
Crest: Wave’s top part is called crest.
Though: The lower part of wave is called trough.
Wave length: wave length is the distance between the adjacent crest and troughs.
Wave period: wave period is the time taken by two consecutive crest or trough to pass any reference point.
Wave height: The vertical distance between a trough and a crest is known the wave height.
Current: The general movement of mass of surface water is a fairly defined direction is known as ocean current.
5 dunes are measured and most of the dunes are lengthy. The gradient of dunes no. 2 is high and no 3. is high in percentage. And various type of vegetation is covered.
3. l.4 The characteristics of coastal area of Cox’s Bazar
Length of Cox’s Bazar sea beach is 200 km. The climate of beach area is Mist. Sea beach climate are very comfortable. The sediment of the beach is mostly sand.
Physical threat of Cox’s Bazar Sea Beach
· Wind action
· Crab hole
· Land slide
· Soil erosion
· Global worming
· Commercial user of beach area
· Polluting the beach
· Covering the beach area
· Horse riding-Eroding the beach
· Speed boat-Mixing oil with sea water
· Wastage: Hawkers, Visitors etc polluting the beach
· Water bottle, paper, coconut, banana etc are the wastage
· Small carriers making erosion
· Police station, electric poles, settlement
Sheds Using for Recreation
· Erosion the beach
· Unstable the beach environment
· Lack of taking care of coastal trees
· Project the beach trees are not being planted. For this beach is eroded.
Human threats are hurtful for beach environment. Sometime physical threat is also destroyed the beach environment. So we should take proper steps to project the beach environment.
3.1.5 Coastat Sediments of Cox’s Bazar
Both cohesion less and cohesive sediment are distributed in the coastal of Cox’s Bazar. Cohesion sediments are made up of solid grains usually bigger than 0.06 mm in diameter. Cohesive sediments are mainly composed of secondary clay minerals which are held together by electrolytic force (Pethich 1984). Over 90 percent of the coastal sediments of Cox’s Bazar are the product of rivers.
3.1.6 Sand dunes of Cox’s Bazar Sea Beach
Sand dunes are developed along the coastal belt with three basic process. Supply of sand to the beach plain. Aeolian sand transport from the beach to the backshore region and interaction to sand transport by the wind and vegetative growth or distribution.
3.1.7 Present day dunes formation of cox’s B,azar sea beach
Most of the shore-fringed sand dunes are erosive in nature at present in the coast all the three island experience dominant onshore winds due to the presence of south facing open sea Bay of Bengal.
3.1.8 Coastal wetland Cox’s Bazar
Coastal wetlands are unified as a system by low gradient, low wave energy, fine grained sediments and pervasive saltwater influence (orme, 1990)
3.1.9 Coastal Lowlands
The low lying coastal lands of Cox’s Bazar extend into inland portion of estuarine floodplain and tidal floodplain behind the shoreline.
3.1.10 Coastal Plain Estuarine, Tidal Inlets and Lagoons
River mouths are significant sediments input areas of the coastal zone of Cox’s Bazar. They are the supply paths of freshwater and sediments across the coastal plains. Tidal inlets also act as connecting links befiveen open seawater and semi enclosed baolsraters or tidal lagoons round the coastal zone of Cox’s Bazar.
3.1.11 Coastal Erosion
In 1995, coastal floods which were cause by the combination of the surge tide (over 6m in amplitude) and gale force (120m/r), waves smashed sea dykes, guard walls and rivers over- toped their banks. Other notorious cyclones of the last century (1942, 1970, 1989 etc) Associated with surging tides, waves, and strong wind forces devastated the coastal zone of Cox’s Bazar.
According to questionnaire survey, coastal erosion of kolatoly (Cox’s bazaar sea beach)
v Breaking for 5 year$
v Increase the breaking in summer
v The breaking along 1 km
v The beach of kolatoly breaks 5/10 ft per year
v About 100 houses have already destroyed
Main causes for erosion of Cox’s Bazar sea beach (According to respondents)
Location of sea
v Sea wave
v Type of sediment
v Location of land body
v Careless of government
3.1.11 Change in Beach profile of cox’s Bazar sea Beach
Series of beach profiles measured in the stormy session indicated the flatness of beach from. The higher the wave energy reach the coast in the session, such wider profile of the stormy season are always increasing the shoreline recession with the sea level rise.
Table 4: Beach profile Forms of the Coast (Cox,s Bazar)
|Beach form type||Characteristics||Name of place|
|Ultra dissipation||Flat and feature less|
|Barred dissipation||Subdue multiple bar trough morphology||Along Cox’s Bazar sea beach|
|Low tide terrace||Indicative low tieter reflection|
Shoreline vegetation Damages: Storm damages to vegetation create sever emotional problem of the coast.
3.2 Environmental change of Coxrs Bazar Sea Beach
Cyclones storms are particularly numerous and dangerous to the mangroves and people around the Bay of Bengal mainly in Bangladesh (Blasco, 1975). The cyclones can cause partial destruction of mangrove ecosystem. Storms affected to the beach ridge, dunes and marshes behind the over wash barrier. This affected the succession in the plant communities behind and the salinity of cox’s Bazar increases upstream. There are, however, many positives roles the cyclones play on the biology and ecosystem of the coast, such as, supply of nutrients for the aquatic animal.
3.2.1 Physical Environmental Setting of Cox’s Bazar Sea Beach
The three essential components of an environmental setting are defined of background geographic, geomorphic, and biographic (Thomus, 1982).on the basis of background geographical and geomorphic components, the resent coastal can be defined into some physical setting.
3, 2.2 Climatic characters of Cox’s Bazar Sea Beach
The tropical dry and wet climate of the region is influenced by seasonal monsoon winds and maritime action of the Bay of Bengal .the Cox’s Bazar coastal region experiences heavy rainfall and humid climate due to its proximity to the sea. Marine agencies of Cox’s Bazar sea beach
Marine agencies shaping the coast include wave, current, tide, term change of sea level, wind and sediment loads and fresh water discharged by river.
3.2.3 Timescale and Human impacts
Timescale and human impacts of the storms over timescales of decades a century, there will be a direct impact of storms on many people and indirect Impact of storms on hundreds of millions of people living in the coastal zone of Cox,s Bazar.
3.2,4 Physical change of Coxrs Bazar coast
Major physiographic changes which took lace in the coastal region of Cox,s Bazar were included by the impact of few cyclones of 1942-43,1970, 1978, 1988-89, 1990 and 1995.
3.2.5 Human influence in The Ecosystem component of The Dunes
Both the coastal and inland dunes are used by man for any purpose in the coast. Ecosystem components of the sand dunes are affecting by the intensive use of dunes in the coast. Soil structure is affected by plugging u the dune soil of Cox’s Bazar. The urban wastes may help to compact the soil structure in the dunes.
Table 5: Human Influences present in the Ecosystem Component of the Dunes (Cox,s
Ecosystem Human influence Land use type
Substrate Removal of sand, mobilization of land urban forestry housing
Soil structure Plugging up, compaction Agriculture, recreation
Soil water lowering prelatic water table inundation Water catchments infiltration
Plant Removal introduction Recreation
Animals Removal introduction disturbance Recreation landscape,coastal
3.2.6 Problem of Environment of Coxts Bazar Sea Besch
The coastal region of Bangladesh is exposed to a number of adverse of natural phenomena like cyclone, coastal erosion, salinity and possible threat from sea level rise. The causes of such ravages are both natural and manmade.
Comparatively a more destructive and a less predictable natural disaster that hits the coastal region is tropical cyclone. It caused an enormous damage of life in the coastal region every year. The most devastating in living in memory that shelved that the estuarine coastal areas of Bangladesh was cured on 12 November 1970 and caused death of about 5 million people.
Tropical cyclone s hit the coastal region of Bangladesh for about 59 times. A fifty year interval frequency of cyclone occurrence shows that the numbers of cyclones are rapidly increasing over time.
A more detailed statistics on tropical cyclones in Bangladesh shows that from 1960-1986 more than half a million lives were lost by such 33 cyclones in the cyclones in the coastal area.
3.2.7 Coastal Erosion
Day by day spatially line summer session the sea beach of Cox’s baz.ar erosion increasing .but no one take care of it.
The salinity of coastal region of Cox’s Bazar and its further intrusion forwards inland adversely affected agricultural production, domestic and industrial uses of water and threatens ecological balance in the coastal region,
3.2.9 Pollution of Sea Beach
Water quality of the sea beach is also affected by the discharge of untreated raw sewage of Cox’s Bazar sea beach, some specific indusial discharges and oil leakages from the ships and other vessels. According to field survey, 2aa7 on Cox’s bazaar sea beach is known about the sea beach population.
Other hands most of the No respondents say that the tidal water clean the waste of beach.
Therefore, this is not pollution according to these respondents.
3.2.10 Land use change in the coastal zone
Many urban and industrial areas of the coastal belt are situate along the bank of estuaries and tidally influence channels .agricultural land is decreasing due to increased high salinity .
3.2.11 Coastal disaster management
Disaster that causes great harm or damage to the mankind. They are both nature and man made, The major disasters include cyclones, floods and erosion. Disaster affected the poor people’ Natural and man-made disasters are interacting in the coast. Today poor people of coast involve in the shrimp farming around the natural wetland.
3. 3 Socio-economic change
It is the longest and unbroken sea beach of the world. Everyday a lot of tourists of home and abroad visit this beach. Economic Activities of Cox’s Bazaar
· primary Economic Activities
· secondary economic activities
· Tertiary Economic Activities
Primary economic activities of sea beach
Secondary economic activities sea beach (transportation)
Tertiary economic activities of sea beach
· Hotel & Restaurant
· Rent of beach umbrella & chair
· Horse riding
· Retail selling
· Ground nut
· Mobile call centre
· Weight measurement
· Exhibition of sea beach
List of human induce threats in sea beach
§ Commercial uses of beach area
§ Polluting the beach
§ Acquiring land
§ Horse riding
§ Eroding the beach
§ Speed Boat-Mixing oil with sea water
§ Hookers, tourists etc, pollutes the beach
§ Water bottle, paper, etc wastage.
Carriers- Small carriers erode beach
Ø Police station, electric pole, different rest house, shops
3.3.1 Recreation activities are increasing in Coxts Btzarsea beach
Fishing in the coastal zones support a large section of poor people in the coastal present Some problems like bank erosion, salt water breaches into embankment saline water incursion in the ground water and pollution to inadequate coastal management