HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT OF BANKING INDUSTRIES OF BANGLADESH
1.1 Background of the Study
There is no doubt that the world of work is rapidly changing. As part of an organization then, HRM must be prepared to deal with the effects of the changing world of work. For them, this means understanding the implications of globalization, technology changes, workforce diversity, changing skill requirements, continuous improvement initiatives, contingent workforce, decentralized work sites and employee involvement. We should look how this change is affecting HRM goals and practices.
The current challenge of HRM is to integrate programs involving human resources with strategic organizational objectives. More and more, organizations are under tremendous competitive pressure worldwide. HR managers must find ways to develop effective programs to meet this challenge. Another important aspect of HRM is the need to ensure cost effectiveness of programs and policies through the optimal utilization of human resources.
Now-a- day’s Banking Industry is modernizing and expanding its hand in different financial events every day. At the same time he banking process is becoming faster, easier and is becoming eider. In order to survive in the competitive field of the Banking Industry all organizations are looking for better service opportunities to provide their fellow clients. So it has becoming essential for every person to have some idea on the bank and banking procedure. Moreover, this thesis report is looking for the reflection of all the theoretical knowledge a student gained from ASA University Bangladesh in the practical field. So I have selected Banking Industry.
With the increase in the size and complexity of business organization, man has become the most important factor in business. Business needs people as owners, employees, and consumers. Organizations need people to make them operated. An organization is nothing without human resource. Of all the resources, the most important one is human resource, because human beings play a dual role- as resource, as well as a motive force for all other resources by manipulating them, by the way of developing, utilizing, commanding and controlling. So human resource management (HRM) functions include recruitment, selection, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation and industrial relation in an organization. Our report is focused on the HR activities that
Banking Industry practices to develop its organization. After the survey and gathering all the information, it is found that Banking Industry practices all the basic functions of HRM and this bank also practices other HR strategies like Strategic testing, HPWS, HRIS etc. this report provides the details about the organizations’ :
· Planning and Recruitment
· Selection and testing
· Benefits and rewards
· Training and Development
Bangladesh is a potential industrial country. It has a huge human power. Unskilled labor is the main opportunity to develop an industry in this country. When this is skilled a huge profit an economic development can be achieved easily. HRM is the track by which the country’s organizational activities can be developed. The industry analysis says:
· 87.6 scored in world banking industry
· 42% growth in deposit and interest skimming
· Worth more $ 92.5 billion
· GDP growth rate is 6.56
· Remittance in FY2008 is US$ 7,940 million
· Industry growth rate 6.9% in FY2008
1.2 Scope of the Study
Banking Industry is now well growing in Dhaka, and outside of the country. The scope of the study will be limited to the organizational setup, function and operation of the Banking Industry s in the Bangladesh. This thesis report mainly encompasses the Human Resource activities of Banking Industry.
· This report is about the HR functions of Banking Industry. So it is a great opportunity to know about the Banking Industry in detail.
· By focusing on the HR activities, we understood the application of HR theories in practice aspects.
· Chance of knowing the reality of HR practices in Bangladesh.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The general objective of this study is to fulfill the requirement of thesis report.
· To know how to deliver Human Resource Management practices.
- To acquire knowledge about HRM practices in Banking Industry ’
- To analyze HRM practices in Banking Industry.
- To recommend for improvement of existing HR policy Banking Industry.
· To know about the Human Resource Departments activities.
1.4 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
This paper is based on both primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected through
a structured questionnaire which was administered personally to the bank employees. Convenient sample technique has been used to interview the employees. The target population of this study was employees in Dhaka city who are serving as a banker of different private banks. For conducting this research, 100 bank employees are selected from the chosen banks and out of this 88 employees responses properly, the response rate is 88 percent. The questionnaire consists of different questions on nine HRM dimensions such as recruitment and selection systems, compensation package, job security, career growth, training and development, management style, job design and responsibilities, reward and motivation and working environment. The questionnaire was developed by using a five point Likert scale, whereas 1 = dissatisfied, 2 = somehow satisfied, 3 = satisfied, 4 = moderately satisfied, 5 = highly satisfied. But some secondary data have been used in the study. The secondary data used in the study have been collected from related journals, books, newspapers and internet, etc. In this study, some statistical measures such as Z-test mean and proportion analysis is used to examine employee’s satisfaction.
1.4.1 HYPOTHESES DEVELOPMENT
On the basis of the various factors affecting on HRM practices, the following hypotheses are
Developed for the study:-
H1: Employees’ are satisfied on “Recruitment and selection systems”.
H2: Employees’ are satisfied on “Compensation package”.
H3: Employees’ are satisfied on “Job security”.
H4: Employees’ are satisfied on “Career growth”.
H5: Employees’ are satisfied on “Training and development”.
H6: Employees’ are satisfied on “Management style”.
H7: Employees’ are satisfied on “Job design and responsibilities”.
H8: Employees’ are satisfied on “Reward and motivation”.
H9: Employees’ are satisfied on “Working environment”.
H1: Employees’ are satisfied on “Recruitment and selection systems”:It is assumed from the hypothesis that employees are satisfied on the current recruitment and selectionsystems of their bank. The recruitment system is fair and appropriate for the appointment to the job.Table 1 shows that at 0.05 level of significance (two tailed test), table value (1.96) is greater than calculated value (Z = 0.55). So, the null hypothesis is accepted and hence, we conclude that employees are satisfied on recruitment and selection systems of their bank.
Table 1. Computation of Z value:
|Employees SatisfactionDimensions||N||Mean||StandardDeviation||StandardError||Z Value(Calculatedvalue)||MeanRank|
|Recruitment and SelectionSystems||88||3.06||0.99||0.11||0.55||01|
|Training and Development||88||2.30||1.03||0.11||6.36||06|
|Job Design andResponsibilities||88||2.54||1.00||0.11||4.18||04|
|Reward and Motivation||88||2.10||1.03||0.11||8.18||08|
H2: Employees’ are satisfied on “Compensation package”:
This hypothesis indicates that employees are satisfied with present salary, increment allocation method and other compensation packages. Table 1 shows that at 0.05 level of significance (two tailed test), table value (1.96) is less than calculated value (Z =8.82). So, the null hypothesis is rejected and hence, we conclude that employees are not satisfied on compensation package of their bank.
H3: Employees’ are satisfied on “Job security”.
It is assumed from this hypothesis that employees are satisfied with security to their job. Table 1shows that at 0.05 level of significance (two tailed test), table value (1.96) is greater than calculated value (Z =0.25). So, the null hypothesis is accepted and hence, we conclude that employees are satisfied on job security of their bank.
H4: Employees’ are satisfied on “Career growth”.
This hypothesis indicates that employees are enjoy enough space for his/her career growth.Table 1 shows that at 0.05 level of significance (two tailed test), table value (1.96) is less than calculated value (Z =8.7). So, the null hypothesis is rejected and hence, we conclude that employees are not satisfied on career growth of their bank.
H5: Employees’ are satisfied on “Training and development”.
This hypothesis indicates that training and development program are available in the bank and employees are satisfied on that program. Table 1 shows that at 0.05 level of significance (two tailed test), table value (1.96) is less than calculated value (Z =6.36). So, the null hypothesis is rejected and hence, we conclude that employees are not satisfied on training and development of their bank.
H6: Employees’ are satisfied on “Management style”.
This hypothesis indicates that management style is very flexible for employees and they involved with the managerial decision making. Table 1 shows that at 0.05 level of significance (two tailed test), table value (1.96) is less than calculated value (Z =4.64). So, the null hypothesis is rejected and hence, we conclude that employees are not satisfied on management style of their bank.
H7: Employees’ are satisfied on “Job design and responsibilities”.
The hypothesis indicates that job is properly designed and employees are easily performed their task. Employees receive fair treatment, recognition and overall quality supervision from boss. Table 1 shows that at 0.05 level of significance (two tailed test), table value (1.96) is less than calculated value (Z =4.18). So, the null hypothesis is rejected and hence, we conclude that employees are not satisfied on job design and responsibilities of their bank.
H8: Employees’ are satisfied on “Reward and motivation”.
The hypothesis indicates that various financial and non-financial reward and motivation system is present in their bank, employees are satisfied on that system. Table 1 shows that at 0.05 level of significance (two tailed test), table value (1.96) is less than calculated value (Z =8.18). So, the null hypothesis is rejected and hence, we conclude that employees are not satisfied on reward and motivation of their bank.
H9: Employees’ are satisfied on “Working environment”.
This hypothesis indicates that the physical working environment is very conducive for satisfaction at large. Table 1 shows that at 0.05 level of significance (two tailed test), table value (1.96) is greater than calculated value (Z =0.17). So, the null hypothesis is accepted and hence, we conclude that employees are satisfied on working environment of their bank.
From the above hypotheses testing it shows that employees are satisfied on some dimensions
of HRM practices such as recruitment and selection systems (mean rank-01), job security (mean rank-02) and working environment (mean rank-03).The hypotheses test also shows that employees are not satisfied on some dimensions such as job design and responsibilities (mean rank-04), management style (mean rank-05), training and development (mean rank-06), career growth (mean rank-07), reward and motivation (mean rank-08) and compensation package (mean rank-09).Therefore, it is clear that all dimensions are not equally satisfied to employees.
It is also very clear from the Table 2 which dimensions highly satisfied or dissatisfied to employees.
|1 = Dissatisfied||7.95||32.95||9.09||30.68||22.73||13.64||11.36||31.82||9.09|
|2 = Some howSatisfied||17.05||40.91||19.32||37.5||42.05||45.45||43.45||38.64||22.73|
|3 = Satisfied||43.18||19.32||39.77||22.73||25||25||29.55||20.45||36.36|
|4 = ModeratelySatisfied||25||3.41||22.73||6.82||10.23||10.23||11.36||5.68||20.45|
|5 = HighlySatisfied||6.82||3.41||9.09||2.27||5.68||5.68||4.55||3.41||11.36|
Table 2. Percentage of employees on different levels of Satisfaction of HRM dimensions
RSS1 = Recruitment and Selection Systems
CP2 = Compensation Package
JS3= Job Security
CG4= Career Growth
TD5= Training and Development
MS6= Management Style
JDR7= Job Design and Responsibilities
RM8= Reward and Motivation
WE9= Working Environment
Table 2 shows percentage of employees on different levels of Satisfaction of HRM dimensions. The table indicates that the highest 43.18 per cent employees are satisfied on recruitment and selection systems followed by 39.77 per cent on job security, 36.36 per cent on working environment, 29.55 per cent on job design and responsibilities, 25 per cent on management style, 22.73 per cent on career growth as well as training and development, 20.45 per cent on reward and motivation and the lowest 19.32 per cent on compensation package. Table 2 also shows that the highest 11.36 per cent employees are highly satisfied on working environment and the lowest 2.27 percent on career growth. The study also indicates that the highest 32.95 per cent of employees are dissatisfied on compensation package followed by 31.82 percent on reward and motivation, 30.68 percent on career growth, 22.73 per cent on training and development, 13.64 per cent on management style, 11.36 percent on job design and responsibilities, 9.09 per cent on job security as well as working environment and the lowest 7.95 per cent on recruitment and selection systems. Therefore, the analysis shows that employees are not fully satisfied on any HRM dimensions of their bank. So, the HRM dimensions quality should be improved for the betterment of the bank’s success.
1.5 Limitation of the study:
There is certain boundary to cover this study. To achieve the objective of the study through knowledge about the organizational function especially Human Resource Management practices of Banking Industry.
Like any other articles and other theories, this study is not free from limitation. I have tried my best level to overcome these limitations through extensive study, hard and sincere devotion to the assigned duty. The major limitations are given below:
· Time constraint was a major drawback in the study.
· Another limitation of this report is the banking policy is not disclosing any information earlier, which will publish in future.
· Large-scale research was not possible due to access constraints.
· No availability of data in a systematic way.
· Confidentiality the Bank’s policy restricts disclosing some data
· No remuneration provided
· Data insufficiency
· As some assumptions were made with the help of limited information, there may be some personal mistake in the report
· It was difficult to know whether willing respondents are truly representative.
2.1 Banking Industry in Bangladesh
Bangladesh economy has been experiencing a rapid growth since the ’90s. Industrial and agricultural development, international trade, inflow of expatriate Bangladeshi workers’ processing and service enterprises ushered in a remittance, local and foreign investments in construction, communication, power, food era of economic activities. Urbanization and lifestyle changes concurrent with the economic development created a demand for banking products and services to support the new initiatives as well as to channelize consumer investments in a profitable manner
The Jews in Jerusalem introduced a kind of banking in the form of money lending before the birth of Christ. The word ‘bank’ was probably derived from the word ‘bench’ as during ancient time Jews used to do money -lending business sitting on long benches.
First modern banking was introduced in 1668 in Stockholm as ‘Svingss Pis Bank’ which opened up a new era of banking activities throughout the European Mainland.
In the South Asian region, early banking system was introduced by the Afghan traders popularly known as Kabuliwallas. Muslim businessmen from Kabul, Afghanistan came to India and started money lending business in exchange of interest sometime in 1312 A.D. They were known as ‘Kabuliwallas.
When Bangladesh came into existence on the 16th December, 1971, the Banking Industry of Bangladesh was in total disarray. With the exception of two local banks incorporated in the East Pakistan, all the bigger local banks became in operational.. Starting with such a humble condition, the Banking Industry of Bangladesh has grown to a great extent.
Number and Types of Banks
The number of banks in all now stands at 49 in Bangladesh. Out of the 49 banks, four are Nationalized Commercial Banks (NCBs), 28 local private commercial banks, 12 foreign banks and the rest five are Development Financial Institutions (DFIs). Sonali Bank is the largest among the NCBs while Pubali is leading in the private ones. Among the 12 foreign banks, Standard Chartered has become the largest in the country. Besides the scheduled banks, Samabai (Cooperative) Bank, Ansar-VDP Bank, Karmasansthan (Employment) Bank and Grameen bank are functioning in the financial sector. The number of total branches of all scheduled banks is 6,038 as of June 2000. Of the branches, 39.95 per cent (2,412) are located in the urban areas and 60.05 per cent (3,626) in the rural areas. Of the branches NCBs hold 3,616, private commercial banks 1,214, foreign banks 31 and specialized banks 1,177. Bangladesh Bank (BB) regulates and supervises the activities of all banks. The BB is now carrying out a reform program to ensure quality services by the banks.
Banking Scenario in Bangladesh
at present there are 49 Banks in Bangladesh. The structure of Banking in Bangladesh is as under:
1. Nationalized Commercial Banks — 4
2. Specialized Banks — 5
3. Private Sector Commercial Banks:
a) Conventional Banks — 25
b) Islamic Banks — 5
4. Foreign Commercial Banks
a) Conventional Banks — 9
b) Islamic Banks — 1
The Bangladesh Banking Industry relative to the size of its economy is comparatively larger than many economies of similar level of development and per capita income. The total size of the sector at 26.54% of GDP dominates the financial system, which is proportionately large for a country with a per capita income of only about US$370. The non-bank financial sector, including capital market institutions is only 3.22% of GDP, which is much smaller than the Banking Industry. The market capitalization of the Dhaka Stock Exchange was US$1,025 million or 2.19% of GDP as at mid-June 2002. In contrast, the size of the total financial sector in India, including banks and non-banks as well as the capital market is 150% (March 2002) of its GDP, with commercial banks accounting for 58.3% of GDP.i Access to banking services for the population has improved during the last three decades. While population per branch was 57,700 in 1972, it was 19,800 in 1991. In 2001 it again rose to 21,300, due to winding up of a number of branches and growth in population. Compared to India’s 15,000 persons per branch in 2000, Bangladesh is not far behind in this regard. This indicates that access to the banking system in the country is not a significant problem. However the story tells a different tale the finance sector remains predominantly bank-based, accounting for 96% of the sector’s resources. While there are sound banks, based on IAS, the banking sub-sector as a whole is technically insolvent. Consolidated data reported tend to have significantly understated provisions. Adjusting partly for the understatements, the financials of the banking sub-sector are characterized by about 32% NPL ratio, US$720 million shortfall in provisions, US$1,106 million shortfall in provisions and capital combined, and losses of US$685 million.
2.2 Functions of the Banking Industry
Bank performs all the functions that a central bank of any country is expected to perform, and such functions include maintaining the price stability through economic and monetary policy measures, managing the country’s foreign exchange and the gold reserve and regulating the Banking Industry of the country. Like all other central banks across the globe, Bangladesh Bank is both the Government’s banker and the banker’s bank, a “Lender of the Last Resort”. Bangladesh Bank, like most of the central banks of different countries, exercises monopoly over the issue of currency and the banknotes. Except for the 1 and 2 taka notes, it issues all other denominations of Bangladeshi Taka. Credit control, Clearing House, Control Money Market, Job creation, Agricultural development, Industrial development, and Natural resources development are also the functions of Bangladesh Bank.
· Trade Finance: Banking Industry provides comprehensive banking services to all types of commercial concerns such as in the industrial sector for export-import purpose as working capital, packing credit, trade finance, Issuance of Import L/Cs, Advising and confirming Export L/Cs. – Bonds and Guarantees.
· Low interest rate 13%
· Minimum processing time.
· Low service charges.
· Overdraft: Bank offers overdraft facility for corporate customers for day-today business operations.
· Low charges in overdraft account maintenance.
· Facility is available against deposit receipt or mortgage property.
· Low interest rate 13-16%.
· Introductory current account.
· Others necessary documents as per loan requirement.
· Lease Finance: Bank offers leasing facility for clients with easy installment facility. As a part of its strategy to ensure steady growth and add value to shareholders, the company diversified its business into Lease Finance for acquisition of all types of Industries.
· Capital machinery.
· Different equipments.
· Gas, Diesel generator and Power plant.
· Medical equipments.
· Lift or elevator.
· Information Technology equipments.
· Construction equipments.
· Consumer durables.
· Home Lone: Bank offers home loan facility for purchasing flats or construction of house
· Financing amount extends up to 70% or Tk. 75, 00,000 which is highest of total construction cost.
· Grace period available up to 9 months in flat purchase or 12 months in construction.
· Competitive interest rate.
· No application or processing fee.
· Savings Deposit: Bank offers customers a hassle free and low charges savings account through the all over Bangladesh.
· Interest rate of 6.00% on average monthly balance.
· Minimum balance Tk.1000.
· Maintenance charge yearly Tk. 400.
· No hidden costs.
· Standing Instruction Arrangement are available for operating account.
· Deposit Scheme: As approved by Bangladesh Bank we accept fixed deposit for 1-year term from individual customers and 6 months from corporate customers. We offer attractive rate of interest for such Term Deposit
· Foreign Exchange Business: As usual foreign exchange business contributed largely to its profitability. The Management of the bank careful in creating to the banking needs of the exports and such as always tries to depute component officers having required expertise in the field. As a result bank foreign trade witnessed impressive development during last few years. During 2008, The Bank handled export & import business for Tk.12, 522.04 million & Th.38, 796.88 million respectively. Number of Bank’s AD was 20 in 2010, which is expected to increase in 2011.
· Remittance Business: For last few years, in order to inspire the Non-Resident Bangladeshis (NRS) residing abroad to remit their hard earned foreign currency through legal Banking channel, Bank has taken a number of steps. As part of this, agreement with various exchange companies to cover the globe has been made, which brought result beyond expectation. Last year, the Bank entered into a joint venture with TMSS-an NGO working for empowerment of womenfolk’s of the county under DFID funded project called RPCF and could outlets, this is a unique idea of extending maximum service at minimum cost to the beneficiaries. Apart from this bank is regularly participation in various potential remittance senders. In 2008 the Bank received more than BDT 12,098.18 million recording 62.53% increase over last year’s figure of BDT 7,443.50 million
- Cash Credit: A cash credit is an arrangement where the customer is allowed to withdraw money up to the sanctioned limit. Unlike overdraft this is a permanent arrangement and usually used to meet the working capital needs of business house, industries etc. In cash credit account withdrawals and deposits may be affected frequently. Interest is charged on daily balanced and thus the borrower can save interest by reducing the debit balance with his surplus amount. Cash credit arrangement is usually made against pledged or hypothecation of goods but this could also be extended against personal security.
- Bill Discounted and Purchased: Another mode of advancing money is discounting of the issuance bill of exchange. The banks buy the bill before its maturity at a price less than the face value. The amount, which the bank deducts from the face value of instrument, is actually the interest calculated up to the date of maturity of the bill. On maturity the bank realizes the amount from the drawer of the bill. Banks sometimes purchase the bills instead of discounting them. This Bills must be is accompanied by documents of title of goods is purchased by the bank. In such cases the bank extends credit in the form of overdraft or cash credit against the security of the bill purchase.
- Others Function:
· Current Deposit
· Term Deposit
· Short Term Deposit
· Fixed Deposit
· Foreign Currency Deposit
· Monthly Saving Scheme
· Small Medium Enterprise
· Consumer Credit Scheme
The highest official in the bank is the Governor. The Governor chairs the Board of Director. The Executive Staff, also headed by the Governor, are responsible for the day to day affairs.
The Bank also has a number of departments under it, namely Debt Management Dept, Law Dept, and so on, each headed by one or more General Managers. The Banking Industry s have physical branches in Bangladesh, in each headed by a General Manager, have two GMs.
The executive staffs are responsible for daily affairs, and involves the governor. Under the governors, there are the executive directors and the economic analyst.
The general managers of the departments come under the directors, and are not part of the executive staff. The four deputy governors
2.5 Board of Directors
The board of directors consists of the governor of the bank and eight other members. They are responsible for the policies undertaken by the Bank
2.6 Various Committees
2.6.1 Board of Audit Committee
The board of directors also decided the composition of each committee and determines the responsibilities of the committee.
2.5.2 Policy Committee
Al matters relating to the principles, rules and regulation, ethics etc. for operation and management of the bank are recommended by the committee to the board of directors.
2.5.3 Executive Committee
All routine matters beyond delegated powers of management are decided upon by or routed through Executive Committee, subject to ratification by the board of directors.
3.1 HR ACTIVITIES
Banking Industry has a strong HR culture in the organization, and it is maintained very tactically. As it is said that Banking Industry practices all the HR basic activities, bank also offers strategic training sessions for its employees for the growth career. Let’s have a glance of the functions that Banking Industry applies:
· International market competitive compensations
· Personal and organizational benefits and rewards
· Standard training sessions
Banking Industry is the many banks where all the employees are monitored under an effective HR department. This department of the organization playing the role of implied authority of Banking Industry. Internal and external all the situations and considerations related to human is monitored and operated by the HR department. Eventually this bank uses all the basic functions of HR to run the organizations. Among those specifically:
· Training and development
· Compensation management
· HPWS is practiced
Banking Industry also applies some strategic HR methods for selecting the most logical and efficient candidates.
Services companies: In the ever changing financial services industry, all of us must continuously upgrade our skills and knowledge in order to maintain this competitive advantage and to do that it supports training, development, and business education through the following:
Internal Training Program
Seminars, workshops and locally tailor made training on a variety of topics are offered directly by Banking Industry Training and Development Department at our training centre located at all Mani Branch or Outside in Dhaka.
Quite a good number of professional researches have been carried out related to the future of Human Resources Management across the globe. Few of the researches are discussed below:
· The Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) is the world’s largest association devoted to human resource management. Representing more than 165,000 individual members, the Society serves the needs of HRM by providing the most essential and comprehensive set of resources available. SHRM conducted The Future of the HRM study to document perspectives on the changing nature of the human resource profession. This report represents perspectives from management consultants that work with HRM in multiple industries, both US based and international.
· Research conducted on Strategic Human Resource Management by Matthew J. Monnot , Stephen M. Colarelli of Michigan University and Monica Hemingway Department of Personnel Research Associates, Inc. To appear in: Greenhaus, J. H. & Callanan, G. (Eds.) The Encyclopedia of Career Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
· The research titled State Capacity in Promoting Trade and Investment: The Case of Bangladesh Prepared by: Abul Barkat, Ph.D. Mozammel Hoque, MBA, Zahid Hassan Chowdhury, MA, MPA of Human Development Research Centre (HDRC) Prepared for: Socio-Economic Policy & Development Management Branch, Department of Economics and Social Affairs, UNDESA also discusses important Human Resource issues related to Bangladesh.
· Research paper titled Combating Contemporary Management Challenges: The Human Resource Perspective by Dr. Md. Fashiul Alam professor of the Department of Management, University of Chittagong
· Problems faced in HRM in Bangladesh, an article by Hussain Amir Ali published in new age web addition of May 2005. This paper is an extract of his presentation in the seminar on Career Path and Emerging Trend of HRM organized by Bangladesh Society for Human Resource Management (BSHRM) on 1st May 2005 at IBD auditorium.
3.2 Standard Organ gram of HR Department in a large Banks
In Banks large enough to have a HR or personnel department, the personal director and his or her staff will play a key role in the designing and monitoring of human resources system. Banks sing sectors are more likely to help design and implement HR system. A full-time specialist tends to emerge when a Banks have about one hundred employees. A standard structure of HR department in a large Banks of several thousand employees is shown below:
3.3 Responsibilities of HR Department in a large Banks
|VP , HR||Executive committee, Banks’ planning, HR planning, Policy, Banks development|
|AVP, Recruitment & Employment||Recruiting, Interviewing, Testing, Placement & Termination|
|AVP, Compensation & Benefits||Job analysis and evaluation, Surveys, Performance appraisal, Compensation administration, Bonus, Profit sharing plans, Employee benefits.|
|AVP, Training & Development||Orientation, Training, Management development, Career planning & Development.|
|AVP, Employee Relation||EEO relations, Contract compliance, Staff assistance programs, Employee counseling.|
3.4 Functional Areas of HRM
Human Resource Management functions may be briefly described as:
1. Manpower Planning: The HR considers the actual requirement of the staff for the organization. Because the overstaffing is wasteful and expensive, and understaffing leads to loses of the organization economics and profits.
2. Employee selection: Selection of employees for the suitable job.
3. Employees motivating: Motivating employees and encourage them to give their best in work productivity.
4. Employees relation: Keeping a healthy relationship with the employees and their problems are redressed.
5. Payroll module: Payment of salaries and wages to the workers at the proper time.
3.5 Employee Motivation:
To retain good staff and to encourage them to give of their best while at work requires attention to the financial and psychological and even physiological rewards offered by the organization as a continuous exercise. Basic financial rewards and conditions of service (e.g. working hours per week) are determined externally (by national bargaining or government minimum wage legislation) in many occupations but as much as 50 per cent of the gross pay of manual workers is often the result of local negotiations and details (e.g. which particular hours shall be worked) of conditions of service are often more important than the basics. Hence there is scope for financial and other motivations to be used at local levels. As staffing needs will vary with the productivity of the workforce (and the industrial peace achieved) so good personnel policies are desirable. The latter can depend upon other factors (like environment, welfare, employee benefits, etc.) but unless the wage packet is accepted as ‘fair and just’ there will be no motivation.
3.6 Employee evaluation:
An organization needs constantly to take stock of its workforce and to assess its performance in existing jobs for three reasons:
· To improve organizational performance via improving the performance of individual contributors (should be an automatic process in the case of good managers, but (about annually) two key questions should be posed.
· What has been done to improve the performance of a person last year? And what can be done to improve his or her performance in the year to come?).
· To identify potential, i.e. to recognize existing talent and to use that to fill vacancies higher in the organization or to transfer individuals into jobs where better use can be made of their abilities or developing skills.
· To provide an equitable method of linking payment to performance where there are no numerical criteria (often this salary performance review takes place about three months later and is kept quite separate from 1. and 2. but is based on the same assessment).
3.7 Training and Development:
In general, education is ‘mind preparation’ and is carried out remote from the actual work area, training is the systematic development of the attitude, knowledge, skill pattern required by a person to perform a given task or job adequately and development is ‘the growth of the individual in terms of ability, understanding and awareness’.
Within an organization all three are necessary in order to:
· Develop workers to undertake higher-grade tasks;
· Provide the conventional training of new and young workers
· Raise efficiency and standards of performance;
· Meet legislative requirements
· Inform people (induction training, pre-retirement courses, etc.);
From time to time meet special needs arising from technical, legislative, and knowledge need changes. Meeting these needs is achieved via the ‘training loop’.
3.8 Recruitment and Selection of Employees:
Recruitment of staff should be preceded by:
An analysis of the job to be done (i.e. an analytical study of the tasks to be performed to determine their essential factors) written into a job description so that the selectors know what physical and mental characteristics applicants must possess, what qualities and attitudes are desirable and what characteristics are a decided disadvantage;
· In the case of replacement staff a critical questioning of the need to recruit at all (replacement should rarely be an automatic process).
· Effectively, selection is ‘buying’ an employee (the price being the wage or salary multiplied by probable years of service) hence bad buys can be very expensive. For that reason some firms (and some firms for particular jobs) use external expert consultants for recruitment and selection.
· Equally some small organizations exist to ‘head hunt’, i.e. to attract staff with high reputations from existing employers to the recruiting employer. However, the ‘cost’ of poor selection is such that, even for the mundane day-to-day jobs, those who recruit and select should be well trained to judge the suitability of applicants.
3.9 Compensation and Benefit:
Compensation (payment in the form of hourly wages or annual salaries) and benefits (insurance, pensions, vacation, modified sick days, stock options, etc.) can be a catch-22 because an employee’s performance can be influenced by compensation and benefits, and vice versa. In the ideal situation, employees feel they are paid what they are worth, are rewarded with sufficient benefits, and receive some satisfaction (good work environment, interesting work, etc.). Compensation should be legal and ethical, adequate, motivating, fair and cost-effective, and able to provide employment security.
3.10 Performance appraisal:
One way to assess performance is through a formal review on a periodic basis, generally annually, known as a performance appraisal or performance evaluation. Because line managers are in daily contact with the employees and can best measure performance, they are usually the ones who conduct the appraisals. Other evaluators of the employee’s performance can include subordinates, peers, group, and self, or a combination of one or more. Just as there can be different performance evaluators, depending on the job, several appraisal systems can be used. Some of the popular appraisal methods include
(1) Ranking of all employees in a group;
(2) Using rating scales to define above-average, average, and below-average performance;
(3) Recording favorable and performance, known as critical incidents; and
(4) Managing by objectives
HR PRACTICES ANALYSIS IN BANGLADESH
4.1 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Banking Industry believes our primary competitive advantage comes from our employees. It is their ability to provide a superior customer experience to its customers that sets it apart from other financial
4.1.1 Program Overview
Providing a comprehensive insight into our retail and commercial banking businesses, it is designed to help employees develop the skills and experience you need to embark on a management career with Banking Industry in your home country through different placements overseas. This training is a part of Banking Industry’s performance management appraising process.
4.1.2 Program Structure
In total, the program lasts approximately 20 months, commencing at the beginning of September 2009, with a two-week local induction course followed by a two-week on14th of September 2009.Following the induction, you will undertake three four-month placements overseas and the last placement is for a some -month period in the local home.
•4 months – 1st overseas placement
•4 months – 2nd overseas placement
•1 week –
•4 months – 3rd overseas placement
•6 months –
4.1.3 Classroom training
Classroom training is conducted off the job and probably the most familiar training method .It is an effective means of imparting information quickly to large groups with limited or no knowledge of subject being presented. It is useful for teaching factual material, concepts principle other theories .portion of orientation programs, some expects of apprenticeship training and safety programs are usually presented utilizing some form of classroom instruction. More frequently however, classroom instruction is used for technical, professional and managerial employee
4.1.4 On the job training
On the job training is a training that shows the employee how to perform the job and allows him or her to do it under the trainer’s supervision
On the job training is normally given by a senior employee or a manager like senior merchandiser or a manager. The employee is shown how to perform the job and allowed to do it under the trainer’s supervision.
4.1.5 Job rotation
Job rotation is a training that requires an individual to learn several different some in a work unit or department and performer each job for a specified time period. In job rotation, individuals learn several different job within a work unit or department. One main advantages of job rotation is that it makes flexibilities possible in the department. When one employee like junior merchandiser absence another merchandiser can easily perform the job. each position for which the candidate is interviewed for. A capability or competency is an ability described in terms of skills & behaviors that are essential to effectively perform within a job.
4.2 SELECTION AND RECRUITMENTS
Banking Industry runs Selection Centers in a number of key locations HR Manager, GM, others. If a candidate completes the interview successfully, they will invite to the location most appropriate to them. In Bangladesh face-to-face selection is done in the head HR departments’ office where the job is described eventually.
4.2.1 The final step to success:
The FSC is a two way process. It is a candidate’s opportunity to meet a number of current IMs and find out as much as possible about their experiences. Banking Industry wants candidates to be able to make an informed decision a candidate should receive an IM offer. The FSC consists of a number of capability based exercises, including:
· Face-to-face interview
· Group exercise
· Written case study
· Role play
There is nothing candidates can do to prepare in advance for the FSC, other than to relax and be you. This is our opportunity to see how candidates perform in a number of different situations, against clearly defined criteria. Banking Industry also wants to get to know candidates better and understand what drives you towards the IM program.“Head Hunting” process is very effective for Banking Industry. Through this they can easily recruit and select top level managers, though they are offering a very attractive compensation.
Recruiting is very high in Banking Industry. Banking Industry’s training and development activities are very high in quality so the recruiters emphasize to recruit internal capable candidates for the respective post. It also a method of the internal recruitment of Banking Industry
· Performance metrics
· Organizational charts
· Diverse recruitment process
· Proficiency development program (PDP)
· Advanced HRIS (Human Resource Information System)
· Four Step selection process
4.2.2 SELECTION PROCESS
The selection of external recruits consists of the following steps:
1. CV Submission
Potential candidates interested in joining the bank are required to send their complete curriculum vitae. An acknowledgement of receipts sent for all submitted applications to the candidate’s email.
2. Application Evaluation
The Human Resources department evaluates all incoming applications, against prerequisite abilities and skills set for all current openings. All applications are kept based on strengths and specialization, for future reference.
3. Ability Tests
Potential candidates will be invited to participate in aptitude tests i.e. numerical, verbal, English and psychometric, when deemed necessary.
4. Capability Based Interviews
To ensure that our recruitment process is fair and consistent, all candidates who are successful at the exams are invited for a capability based interview. Interviews are based against capabilities, required for
4.2.3 Source of recruitment
There are two kinds of source Banking Industry uses for recruitment .They are
1. External source
2. Internal source.
We try to discuss all relative sources which are used for recruitment in Banking Industry.
1. Internal source
Banking Industry thinks that current employees are a major source of recruits for all but entry-level positions. Whether for promotions or for ‘Lateral’ job transfers, internal candidates already know the informal organization and have detailed information about its formal policies and procedures. Promotions and transfer are typically decided by operating managers with little involvement by HR department.
HR departments become involved when internal job openings are publicized to employees through job positioning programs, which informs employees about opening and required qualifications and invite qualify employees to apply. The notices usually are posted on company bulletin boards or are placed in the company newspaper. Qualification and other facts typically are drawn from the job analysis information.
The purpose of job posting is to encourage employees to seek promotion and transfers the help the HR department fill internal opening and meet employee’s personal objectives. Not all jobs openings are posted .Besides entry level positions, senior management and top stuff positions may be filled by merit or with external recruiting. Job posting is most common for lower level clerical, technical and supervisory positions.
1.2 Departing Employees
An often overlooked source of recruiters consists of departing employees. Many employees leave because they can no longer work the traditional 40 hours work week .School, child care needs and other commitments are the common reason. Some might gladly stay if they could rearrange their hours of work or their responsibilities .Instead, they quit when a transfer to a part-time job may retain their valuable skill and training. Even if part-time work is not a solution, a temporary leave of absence may satisfy the employee and some future recruiting need of the employer.
2. External source
When job opening cannot be filled internally, the HR department of Banking Industry must look outside the organization for applicants. We discuss all the external source of recruitment at bellow:
2.1 Walk-ins and Write-ins:
Walk-ins are some seekers who arrived at the HR department of Banking Industry in search of a job; Write-ins are those who send a written enquire .both groups normally are ask to complete and application blank to determine their interest and abilities. Usable application is kept in an active file until a suitable opening occurs or until an application is too old to be considered valid, usually six months.
2.2 Employee referrals:
Employees may refer job seekers to the HR department .Employee referrals have several advantages .Employees with hard –to –find job skill may no others who do the same work.
Employees referrals are excellent and legal recruitment technique, but they tend to maintain the status quo of the work force in term of raise , religions , sex and other characteristics , possibly leading to charges of discrimination.