1. Introduction

For over two decades, the use of personal computers has pervaded our society. Their value as a tool for information management, science, mathematics, graphics and business is now widely recognized. With this technology has come a new and different set of spatial and environmental constraints that must be recognized and incorporated into our buildings to allow the effective use of this equipment. Spaces that once were designed for pen and paper, chalkboard and lecture are not the same as those that are needed for microcomputers or integrated voice, data and video communications.

This publication should be used in conjunction with the STS-1000 Telecommunications Wiring Guidelines and the North Carolina School Technology Plan and other materials listed in “References for Further Reading” at the end of this publication. The emphasis of the STS-1000 is on network infrastructure and the emphasis of the North Carolina Instructional Technology Plan is upon the use of technology in schools and the specific equipment to support those uses. The material presented in this publication has a different emphasis — that of building needs to accommodate this technology equipment.

Many types of equipment, building systems and innovative ways of teaching or communicating can be included under the broad label of “technology.” Aspects of technology in schools include such items as classroom-to-administration intercom systems, master TV systems, telephone and voice mail, personal computers, integrated communication systems, energy control systems, fire alarms, security systems, etc.

Many choices are available to school systems for these types of technology; however, this publication deals primarily with the impact of personal computers and their interconnectivity. Future publications are planned that will examine other aspects of technology, as well as modifications resulting from future advances in technology.

1.1 Technology in 1970s

Science and technological innovations, have not only brought prosperity to our lives, but have also given us a new vision. The credit for today’s exponential growth in technology goes to the 1970s decade.

The foundation of technological advancements that we see today was laid long back in the 1970s. It was the beginning of a new era in computer development as well as space exploration. The car industry was learning from its mistakes, while the inventions like microwave ovens and cassette tapes reached the heights of unprecedented popularity.

A New Beginning

The 1950s and 1960s saw frequent face-offs, between those who supported technological development and those who were against it. But it was the ’70s decade that witnessed the convergence of technology and commerce. Computers, cars, space exploration are only a few of the numerous technologies that developed and improved tremendously in these 10 years. Some of the notable inventions of this decade are the Microprocessor chip, Personal computer, Cellular mobile phone and the E-mail.


With the development of Intel 4004, the world’s first microprocessor, progress in the field of computers gained speed. Personal computers were manufactured as a result of large scale integration in microprocessor chips. These were used in maintaining financial data, playing games, etc. Some of the important brands of personal computers released in this period were Apple II, Commodore PET, etc. in USA and the NEC PC-8001 in Japan. Personal computer was a totally new concept at that time. It led to the development of networking. Optical fiber – made of plastic or glass was another path-breaking technology, useful for sending data at high bandwidths. Moreover the signals carried by these fibers were capable of traveling long distances without much loss. Cray Research, Inc. proved to be a pioneer in the development of supercomputers as it released ‘Cray-1’ – world’s first supercomputer.


The 1970s saw the advent of small cars in the automobile sector. Japan scored in the area of developing small cars than any other country. The Japanese and German companies developed cars that were light in weight, fuel-efficient and also environment friendly. They also made their presence felt by bringing in the concept of Alternate Fuel Vehicles – which used fuels other than petroleum.

Space Exploration

The major step taken in this field was the setting up of space stations on 19th May 1971 and 14th May 1973 by Russia and USA respectively. The ‘Salyut’ was Russia’s space station while USA named its station as ‘Skylab’. The 1970s witnessed co-operation in space research between these super powers. These were possibly, the signs of the end of ‘Cold War’ between the two countries.

Microwave Oven

Microwave ovens became popular in this decade because their prices fell, as well as they became more compact. Though, the development of these ovens started long back in the 1940s, Percy Spencer an engineer first discovered, the use of microwaves for the purpose of cooking around 1947.

Cassette Tapes

These are magnetic tapes used for recording the sound. Cassette tapes gained popularity because of their capability to store songs. Originally developed for dictation purpose, improvement in the quality of sound recording, made it possible to record songs as well.

Some Major Technological Inventions

  • Dr. A. Jacques Beaulieu in 1970 invented a laser called ‘TEA Co2’ with the help of a research team from the defense forces. This laser, used in gas lasers, needed high power.
  • In 1973 the first Black Box playback – a mechanism to record flight information, started. This system was established at the Ottawa airport in Canada.
  • Canada developed the most effective satellite system of that time in 1976, known as Hermes.

Today’s advanced technologies, like the Internet, wouldn’t have reached this far, had it not been the invention of personal computers, networking, etc. Technology, thus, developed in the 1970s opened a whole new avenue for a new beginning in the field of computers, space technology, automobiles and a wide range of other fields.

1.2 The Social Impact of Technology

There is no doubt that technological change brings about social change. The Industrial revolution saw many people displaced from their land, to find work in crowded city factories. Serfdom was abolished and the population shifted from villages to the cities. Strong family ties, self sufficiency and the right to occupy land were replaced with uncertain tenancy of land, dependency on trade and a weakening of the family unit.

Economically, goods and money abounded, and trade flourished. The merchant class profited from the wealth that was generated on the backs of the displaced population of urban workers. Children were sent to work in factories, in order for families to make enough money to live. The peasant class worked long hard hours in poor conditions with no security. The Industrial revolution led to the alienation of the working class and although many union battles have since led to the adoption of better working conditions, the effects of the Industrial revolution remain. The family unit is even more vulnerable today with soaring divorce rates, high rates of teenage suicide, most of society are either heavily mortgaged to banks or paying high rents, and no one can be self-sufficient in a world governed by free wheeling free trade.

Advances in technology, is generally not equitably shared within society. People with money have more opportunity to acquire technology, which enables them to acquire even more wealth. It is also important to remember that war has been and will continue to be the driving force for technology and innovation. Power and wealth are intrinsically tied together.

Technology leads to greater social economic division. Laborers are viewed as commodities and expendable. Technology leads to alienation because it can create jobs that require no specialist knowledge.

To date, since the industrial revolution we have seen technology used to the detriment of society. The right to occupy land has become a privilege that must be worked for and earned and now the battle is on to control all the world’s food and textiles through genetically modified seeds and animals. The insidious part of GM is that there is no recall once it is released into the environment. Salmon that will grow ten times faster than normal salmon will destroy river systems, as their unfair genetically modified advantage will see all smaller life forms extinguished and genetically modified crops that are dependent on pesticides will contaminate organic, heritage seeds that have sustained people for thousands of years. Seeds will no longer be able to be harvested and replanted but the farmer will have to buy new seed every year from GM seed makers. This fight is more important that the fight over open source because it involves the right of people everywhere to have clean, safe food that has not been genetically altered. Essentially GM is a tax on everyone because a patent will be on every seed and seeds are made to be sterile the following year. This is something to become angry about. The greedy corporations and individuals that want control over our food, water and land, do not care about the irreversible damage to the environment. People and animals that they cause.

We have the right to eat tomatoes that are free of fish DNA, meat and milk that is free of human DNA, pigs that haven’t been grown to harvest anthrax antibodies. They will never be able to prove the safety of GM food and no long term studies have been done. Nor will GM solve the problem of soil erosion, and pollution of rivers from artificial fertilizers and pesticides. Only a return to responsible organic and biodynamic farming practices will solve these problems. The 50 harmful effects of GM food Courts are not keen to pursue pesticide makers for poisoning farmers, or GM seed makers for monopolizing the world’s seeds through patents, (through genetic engineering that not only renders the seed worthless for replanting the next year but also contaminates non-GM crops by cross pollination. Already the majority of the world’s seed stock is controlled by a handful of corporations – see and )

The internet in its current form was developed as a free exchange of information, unregulated by any one government or owned by any one person or company. In its raw form it was the playground of hackers and computer geeks, who challenged the status quo. It brings about a new era, the technological revolution. The free flow of information has brought about technological advances at an unprecedented rate and has made many rich and brought companies who failed to adapt to a standstill.

How will this technological revolution impact on our society? If the industrial revolution is any thing to go by, there will be winners and losers to technological revolution.

E-commerce will affect the middle man and allow direct trade with consumers. Efficiency brings about lower prices for the consumer, but it is more accurate to argue that efficiency brings about greater wealth for shareholders, directors and owners. The intrinsic weave of social interactions of trade, can be disentangled and made into a horizontal supply chain. E-commerce will create efficiencies that effectively remove the need for a long supply chain but at the expense of social relationships.

The effect of e-commerce and the internet will impact on every society on the earth. Already, the barriers of trade between individuals in different countries are non-existent. Company contact details are searchable through powerful search engines, and trade can commerce between two individuals who would otherwise never have met. The internet dissolves national boundaries, and the consequences for cities that have developed as centers of administration and trade will be disastrous, if they do not embrace the technological advances in communication and trade that the internet brings. While at the same time, free trade means fierce competition without the protection of award wages. People are reduced to consumers and suppliers.

Resisting the tide of technological change is impossible. Of course it is possible to do business without a website or email or mobile phone or a fax machine. People have been doing business well before any of these gadgets were invented. But business today is about competition, and technology is about leverage. Technology can lead to alienation if it is not widely dispersed in society. The Industrial age saw the concentration of technology in the hands of the rich and powerful, allowing them to dominate and subdue the population into harsh working conditions and the social impact of the internet and computers is only just beginning, will it challenge the status quo or will it lead to greater population control?

The latter is probably more likely, and many will look on this time as the golden age of the internet. Already technology like digital TV is being pushed in the guise of better quality but the benefits to those who own the systems is that they will be able to track what you watch, when you watch it, whether or not you switch off an ad, and perhaps even whether that pizza ad makes you pick up the phone and call for a pizza. Knowledge is power, and with access to tapping phone lines, reading emails, reading your credit card statements, knowing by GPS where you are by tracking your mobile phone, it can be a scary world, if all that knowledge and power were to be used to oppress and control.

On the upside, technology has made the developed world a richer place to the detriment of the environment. Machines have allowed people to move away from physical work, so that now in Australia there is 100,000 accountants and 85,000 farmers. Perhaps, technology has gone too far, and there are more people counting beans than growing them!

1.3 Impact of technology on government

The legal system is dependent on local jurisdictions under common law. Historically, one has to remember that before the age of the internet, airplanes and telephones, the vast majority of business was done locally. Technology has rapidly changed the way people do business but there has not adapted to the changes. There is no one body that governs international trade.

If you buy a product from a local supplier in your State, and it turns out that the item is faulty, you can go back to your supplier to work out repair or replacement and if they don’t help you, you can take the matter to local Trades office or file legal action in your state. If however, you buy a product outside your jurisdiction, you must file a claim in the State, where the supplier is located. You can only use a lawyer in the State where you file your action; your local lawyer can only act as a consultant and has no authority to represent you in court or to serve papers.

Therefore, we have a world which is governed by local laws and yet the businesses and individuals are now actively trading outside of their local area.

Governments are trying to make laws about content on the internet but have no jurisdiction to enforce those laws. This has created havens in small developing countries, that are happy to accept companies that want to run online gambling websites that may be outlawed in their jurisdiction or companies that wish to reduce their tax liabilities by opening up bank accounts in developing countries.

We see arising now a homogenizing of local laws on issues like SPAM, and even sending a international letter from anywhere in the world involves the completion of almost identical forms, Governments are making agreements, in an attempt to be relevant in a world where people are able to trade more freely and where digital communication has enabled businesses to work, almost without physical boundaries.

Business names and the Internet

In the beginning, it was easy to start a new business. You would go to your local business registration office in your State and apply for a business name. If it was taken, you would choose another name. Most people do not realize that a business name is only valid for the State that it is registered in and the only way to protect your business name is to incorporate a company. In Australia, you would lodge forms with ASIC to incorporate a company and you then have rights to use your business name exclusively in Australia and its territories.

However, with the birth of the internet, your Australian company name may be the same as the name of a company overseas.

This has resulted in legal action being taken, as companies tussle of business names and the rights to use those names and a court system that is unable to deal effectively with international disputes over business names and has resulted in greater costs to people who want to start a business as they must register multiple domain names, take about international trademarks and find a name that has not already been taken. Even if they contact lawyers to register all the domain names and trademarks to avoid disputes (both local and international), legal action can still be taken against them. And when it comes to justice, money wins almost every time, unless companies want to relocate to safe havens in developing countries where they cannot be pursued in court.

1.4 Impact of Technology on Our Society

Think of the days when there were no computers and no modern means of transport. Human life was highly restricted due to the unavailability of technological applications. Daily life involved a lot of physical activity. The life of the common man of those times was not as luxurious as that of the modern times, but he was more active. Daily exercise was integrated in the routine physical activities. It was contrary to the lifestyle of today, which carries no time slot for rigorous exercise and carries laze and inactivity.

We think of technology as a boon to society. I am afraid; this is not completely true. The Internet has bred many unethical practices like hacking, spamming and phasing. Internet crime is on the rise. The Internet, being an open platform for expression, lacks regulation. There is no regulation on the content displayed over websites. Internet gambling facilities have brought casinos, a click away. Exposure to the Internet technology from an early age has resulted in children and youngsters addicted to it.

Think of the days when there were no online messengers, no emails and no cell phones. Indeed the cellular technology created the miracle of enabling communication over the wireless media. The communication facilities provided by the Internet worked wonders in speeding long-distance communication but also deprived mankind of the warmth of personal contact. Emails replaced handwritten letters and communication lost its personal touch. With the means of communication available a few clicks away, the tendency of taking pains to reach the loved ones has vanished.

Moreover, we have become excessively dependent on technology. Is so much of a dependency desirable? Is it right to rely on machines? Is it right to depend on computers rather than relying on human intellect? Computer technology and robotics have almost replaced human brains. With the developing technology, we have started harnessing artificial intelligence in many fields. Where is this digital divide going to take us? How will our ‘tomorrow’ be? ‘Machines replacing human beings’ does not portray a rosy picture. It can lead to severe issues like unemployment and crime. An excessive use of machines in every field can result in an under utilization of human brain. Due to under utilization of intelligence for a prolonged period of time, man may lose his intellectual abilities and may not even be able to think. Think…

One can cherish an accomplishment only if it is a result of pain and effort. But everything has become so easily available due the advancing technology that it has lost its value. There is a certain kind of enjoyment in achieving things after striving for them. With the developments in technology, we may be able to enjoy all the pricey luxuries but miss out on the little priceless joys of life.

1.5 Importance of Technology

Understanding the importance of technology is a must for young as well as senior citizens. This article has information on importance of technology in education and business. Read on to know more…

Man has worked hard to improve technology consistently to do various tasks fast and effectively. Many nations have succeeded in building great infrastructure and achieve stupendous progress due to developing of advanced technology before the other nations. Today, every nation strives to get the latest technology for the benefit of its citizens. Technological progress is vital in the fields of business, education as well as health care. Let us discuss the importance of science and technology in the classroom in the next paragraph.

Importance of Technology in Education

Technological advancement has helped to introduce many positive changes in the educational sector. New methods of learning and teaching have made the process simple and more interesting. Computer technology in schools and colleges has helped explain subjects properly and in detail and this has reflected in the overall performance of the students. The Internet technology has been a revolution for the educational sector as it is an ocean of information. Students can search for the concepts which they learn in the books on the Internet and find out more information on the same. This will increase the depth of their knowledge. Distance learning programs have become possible only because of the Internet. Students who cannot attend colleges due to financial reasons or sue to traveling problems can sit at home and study using the online learning methods. Many examinations these days are conducted online which has helped bring in more transparency in the scoring system and complete the tests quickly. The slide shows meant especially for students, are a great way of learning things. Importance of technology in physical education cannot be sidelined. Now, having understood the importance of technology in schools, let us know more about the importance of technology in business in the next section.

Importance of Technology in Business

Advanced technology developed by some of the best scientists and researchers in the world have totally changed the way businesses function. Machines have helped product manufacturing companies to produce quality products at low cost and in huge quantities. This has increased their total turnover and also the profit margins. Due to the growing demand, these companies are hiring employees on a large scale thus reducing the number of unemployed people substantially. The various software packages available and developed by software giants have made day to day working of firms belonging to all sectors very easy and highly professional. Technology has also helped reduce losses and meet the security demands of business houses. Development in the communication and telecoms sector has helped business houses stay connected at any given time, thus increasing their efficiency to a great extent. Maintaining the important records of things related to the business has become easy due to the accounting software available in the market. Why technology is so important today will give you relevant information.

Importance of Technology in Health Care

Importance of technology in health care sector has helped us develop many ways of diagnosing dangerous diseases. The vaccinations, drugs and medicines developed with great amount of research have helped to save the life of millions of people across the globe. This has increased the survival rate in all parts of the world. The building of hi-tech hospitals, clinics and health care centers equipped with all modern amenities has also improved the business scope of companies operating in the health care field. The invention of devices and technologies for the diagnosis of various diseases and disorders has helped many patients to get the best possible treatment at the right time, thus saving many lives. Technological advancement in field of medicine has helped patients from backward nations get good health care facilities. Positive effects of technology on society are evident from the progress made in the last few decades.

Importance of Technology in Defense

Peace and stability are essential for the progress of any nation. To maintain this peace, a nation should be very powerful on the defense front. It should have the ability to protect its land from foreign invasions. This is possible only due to improvement in technology of army weapons, missiles, fighter planes, choppers and nuclear power. Making the defense system hi-tech is possible only by replacing the weapons working on old technology with the new ones. History suggests that nations having advanced defense equipment only emerge victorious in wars and hence it has become imperative for all countries to increase their naval, military and air force strength. However, the use of this technology should be done for self defense purpose and not for destruction of life.

Being aware of the importance of technology is imperative because technology helps us in all walks of life. We cannot imagine our life without technologically advanced thing such as phones, computers, cars, machines, etc. So, we conclude that it is our responsibility to continue the development in technology for the benefit of the entire society.

1.6 Impact of Technology on Education

Technology has certainly changed the way we live. It has impacted the different facets of life and redefined living. Undoubtedly, technology plays an important role in every sphere of life. Several mundane manual tasks can be automated, thanks to technology. Also, many of the complex and critical processes can be carried out with ease and efficiency with the help of modern technology. Thanks to the manifold positive effects of technology, the fields of education and industry have undergone a major change and sure, they have changed for the better

Computers and the Internet technology have revolutionized the field of education. The importance of technology in schools cannot be ignored. In fact, with the onset of computers in education, it has become easier for the teachers to render knowledge and for the students to grasp it. The computer technology is used to add a fun-element to education. And it goes without saying that the Internet has endowed education with interactivity.

The computers offer an interactive audio-visual media. PowerPoint presentations and animation software can be used to render information to the students in an interactive manner. The visual effects provided by the animation and presentation software result in inviting greater interest from the students. Moreover, these softwares serve as visual aids to the teachers. Overhead projectors and screens facilitate a simultaneous viewing of information by a large number of students. These audio-visual teaching aids have brought about marked improvements in student attendance and attentiveness. Interactive media have proven to be useful in enhancing the concentration levels of students. This underlines the importance of computer teaching against textbooks.

The web is a huge information base. The Internet can be used an effective tool for acquiring knowledge. All a web user needs to do is to key in search queries to search engines, which are prompt to present him/her with millions of search results. There are several informative websites and web directories that offer information on a wide variety of subjects. Students can use the Internet to gain all additional information they need to enhance their knowledge base.

Today, computer education is a part of school and college curricula. Considering the wide range of applications of the computer technology, it is necessary for each one of us to befriend computers. Considering the advantages of the Internet technology, it is important for each of us to gain a basic knowledge of Internet access and connectivity. We live in a technology-age and hence, it is extremely important for us to introduce ourselves to the new inventions and discoveries that have made a difference to our daily life.

Online education and distance learning have given a new dimension to the field of education and higher learning. Today, students do not necessarily need to be physically present in classrooms. Many educational institutes offer online courses to their students. Most of the schools and colleges offer online assignment submission facilities. Students can submit their homework and test assignments through the Internet. Many universities offer online education programs wherein the students can interact with their teachers over the web, access reference material from the University website and earn degrees online!

The importance of science and technology in education cannot be stressed enough. The introduction of technology in the educational field has made the process of learning and knowledge sharing, an interactive and fun-filled activity. Technology is indeed one of God’s greatest gifts to mankind.

1.7 ISO OSI Model

International Standards Organization (ISO) developed a proposal for OSI model as a first step towards international standardization of the protocols used in the various layers. The model is known as the ISO OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Reference Model because it is related with connecting open systems i.e. systems that are open for communication with other systems.

The OSI model includes seven layers. The basic principles that were applied to arrive at the seven layers are as follows:

1) When different level of abstraction is needed a layer should be created.

2) Each layer must follow a well defined function.

3) The role of each layer should be preferred with an eye towards defining internationally standardized protocols.

4) The layer interfaces should be selected to reduce the information flow across the interfaces.

The OSI model itself is not network architecture because in each layer it does not define the exact services and protocols to be used. It just tells function of each layer. However, ISO has also created standard for all the layers, although these are not part of the reference model itself. Each one has been defined as separate International standards.

Different layers of ISO OSI model are as follows

1) Physical Layer

The physical layer is related with delivering raw bits over a communication channel. The design issues have to do with making sure that when one side sends a 1 bit, it is received as a 1 bit by the other side but not as a 0 bit. The design issues here largely related with mechanical, electrical and procedural interfaces and the physical communication channel which lies below the physical layer.

2) Data Link layer

The important function of the data link layer is to take raw transmission facility and deliver it into a line that appears free of undetected transmission error to the network layer. It achieves this task by having the sender break the input data up into data frames then transmit the frames sequentially and process the acknowledgement frames sent back by the receiver. Since the physical layer takes and delivers a stream of bits without any concern to meaning or structure it is data link layer’s function to create and determine frame boundaries. This can be achieved by attaching special bit patterns to the start and end of the frame. If in the data these bits appear accidentally, special care must be taken to ensure these patterns are not incorrectly interpreted as frame delimiters.

On the line a noise burst can destroy a frame completely. If frame is destroyed the data link layer software on the source machine can retransmit the frame. However, multiple transmissions of the same frame cause the possibility of duplicate frames. If the acknowledgement frame from the receiver to sender were lost then duplicate frame could be sent. It is function of this layer to solve the problems caused by damaged, lost and duplicate frames. The data link layer provides number of different service classes to the network layer, each of a different quality and with a different price.

Another design issue that takes place within data link layer is how to keep a fast transmitter from drowning a slow receiver in data. Some traffic control mechanism must be applied to let the transmitter know how much buffer space the receiver has at the moment. Frequently, this flow control and the error handling are incorporated.

Broadcast networks possess some additional issue in the data link layer: how to control access to the shared channel. The medium access sub layer, a special sub layer of the data link layer related with this problem.

3) Network Layer

The Network layer is designed for controlling the operation of the subnet. An important design issue of network layer is determining how packets are routed from one route to another route. Routes are dependent upon static tables that are “wired into” the network and rarely changed. At the start of each conversation routes are determined. They can be highly dynamic, being determined additionally to reflect the current network load for each packet.

If in the subnet too many packets are present at the same time, they will get in each other’s way, forming bottleneck. The control of such congestion of packets is done by the network layer.

When a packet travel from one source to another destination many problems may arise. The addressing used by the first network may be different from the destination. The destination may not accept the packet at all because it is too large. The protocol used may differ and so on. It is function of network layer to overcome all these problems to permit heterogeneous networks to be interconnected. In Broadcast network, the routing provided is simple, so the network layer is often thin or even nonexistent.

4) Transport Layer

Its main function is to take data from the session layer and divide the data into smaller units and pass these to the network layer and check that the pieces all arrive correctly at the other end. Transport layer perform all this function efficiently and in such way that separates the upper layers from the inevitable changes in the hardware technology.

The transport layer creates a distinct network connection under normal condition for each transport connection required by the session layer. If the transport connection needs a high throughput then the transport layer might create multiple network connection, dividing the data among the network connection to improve throughput. On the other hand if creating or maintaining a network connection is expensive then in order to reduce the cost the transport layer might multiplex several transport connections onto the same network connection. It makes the multiplexing transparent to the session layer.

It also determines what type of services to provide to upper session layer and indirectly to users of the network. The transport connection must be an error free point to point channel that transports message or bytes the order in which they sent. Other transport services are delivery of isolated messages with no guarantee about the order of delivery and broadcasting of message to multiple destinations.

It is a true end to end layer from source to destination.

5) Session layer

The session layer permits users to establish session on different machines. A session permits ordinary data transfer as does the transport layer but it also offers enhanced services useful in some applications. A session is used to permit user to log into a remote timesharing system or to transfer a file between two machines.

Session layer also provide a service to manage dialogue control. Sessions permit traffic to go in dual directions at the same time or in only one direction at a time, the session layer also keeps track of whose turn it is.

Token management is another session service. It is vital that both sides do not attempt the same operation for some protocol at the same time. The session layer provides tokens to manage these activities that can be exchanged. Only the station having token may perform the critical operation.

Synchronization is important session service. The session layer offers a way to insert checkpoints into the data stream so that after a crash only the data transferred after the last checkpoint have to be repeated.

6) Presentation Layer

The presentation layer carry out certain functions that are requested sufficiently often to warrant finding a general solution to them, rater than letting each user solve the problems. It deals with syntax and semantics of the information transmitted.

It manages abstract structure and converts from the representation used inside the computer to the network standard representation and back.

7) Application Layer

The application layer consists of number of protocols that are commonly required.

It performs the function of file transfer. Different file systems represent different file naming conventions and different way of representing text lines. Application layer transfer a file between two different systems which requires handling incompatibilities.

It also provides electronic mail, job entry, directory lookup and various other general purpose facilities.

2.1 Positive Effects of Technology on Society

Technology runs in the veins of society. It is the fuel that drives our lives. It is an integral part of daily life. It has definitely benefited society. It has brought luxury in the life of the common man. The automation brought about by technology has saved human effort and time to a large extent. It has brought distant places closer and simplified information access. Let us look at some of the important areas, where technology has brought about a positive change.

Positive Effects of Technology on Society

Technology has automated many of the critical processes in the industry as well the household. The electronic gadgets that have entered the homes of the common man have saved him from the daily household work.

The automobile industry and technology are almost interwoven. Times have witnessed this industry evolve from mechanical scooters to automated aircrafts. Animals were the only modes of transport in the olden days. Technology was the driving force behind the creation and design of the modern-day automobiles. Bicycles evolved into scooters and sports bikes. The idea of having four-wheeled modes of transport gave rise to the creation of cars. Modes of air and water transport came up, thanks to technology.

Machines have automated many of the crucial industrial processes. Machines are now taking up many of the mundane jobs that were once executed by human workers. Technology has evolved to an extent where machines can perform tasks that are physically inaccessible to man. The use of advanced technologies like robotics and artificial intelligence has proved helpful in life-risking tasks like mining and space exploration.

The computer technology, needless to say, has changed the face of the world. Computers can store, organize and manage huge amounts of data. They can process large amounts of information. Computers have given rise to the software industry, one of the most progressive industries of the world. The Internet that seeded from the computer networking concepts is the most effective communication platform and the largest information base existing today.

The Internet has brought an important positive change to the entertainment and advertising industry. Advertisements can reach the masses within seconds over the Internet. The entertainment media has progressed only because of the advancements in technology.

The digitization of information has made it possible for us to store it in a compact form. Digitization enriches the quality of information storage. Digital voice and digital images are of a higher quality. Digital cameras and digital television provide their users with an enriched picture quality, thus bettering their experience with technology.

Cellular communication has revolutionized the communication industry. The conventional telephone, also a piece of technology, was one of the earliest technological developments in communication. Mobile phones have broadened the horizons of communication by enabling convenient long-distance calling.

Satellite communication is another important dimension of technology. Satellite TVs and satellite radios have eased the broadcasting of events across the globe.

These were only a few of the fields influenced by technology. It is almost impossible to enlist all the positive effects of technology on society. This was just a glimpse of the real big picture.

2.2 Technology So Important Today

Considering the pace at which technology is advancing, it has become necessary to understand the importance of technology so that we can keep up with the racing time. Technology has become important in the fast life of today. It is technology, which has sped up our lives; it is technology, which has brought distant locations closer and made the world a smaller place to live.

After the discovery of electricity, technology was employed to bring electricity to households in every corner of the world. The world could light up in the dark, thanks to the effective generation and distribution of electricity. The application of technology led to the use of renewable energy resources for the production of electricity. Hydropower, solar energy, wind energy and other natural sources of energy started being used.

It was due to the advancements in technology that water from natural water resources could reach homes through robust water storage and transmission systems. It was due to technology that food could be processed and preserved. It became easy for us to satisfy our basic needs because of technology. We can lead a luxurious life, thanks to technology.

Technology brought a huge change to civil engineering and architecture. Underwater civil structures and tall buildings scraping the sky could be built, thanks to technology. The different types of constructions like mobile homes, earthquake-resistant buildings and modular homes could be created due to advancing technology.

Businesses, small and big, need technology to be part of their infrastructure. Expansion by companies takes place by means of technology. Technological development gives organizations the strength to spread their wings far and wide. Technology coupled with human intellect gives businesses the strength to leap ahead of time.

Technology has revolutionized communication. Communication systems have evolved from pigeons carrying messages across countries, right up to emails and instant messages that travel long distances in seconds. Cellular technology and satellite communication has taken the place of the conventional landline connections. Computer networking has facilitated an easy exchange of information across the globe. The Internet has turned out being an excellent communication platform. You may like to read about the history of communication.

Satellite communication has brought about a positive change to the entertainment industry. Channels from all over the world are now available on television sets in the nooks and corners of the world. Television shows and films in different parts of the world can reach the masses within minutes after their release. Radio communication has made it possible to broadcast programs that can reach to radios in the remotest households.

The Internet hosts an enormous information base. Technology has made it possible for this information to reach far and wide. Online education has set in, making it possible to render knowledge to students inhabiting remote locations on Earth. It is due to the World Wide Web that the information could reach one and all over the computer networks.

Technology has brought in automation. Thanks to technology, many of the critical and time-consuming processes have been automated. Machines have begun executing laborious, repetitive tasks. People do not have to slog to the extent they did before the advent of technology. Automation of processes has brought about efficiency and speed. Speedy performance of tasks has saved human effort and time. Robotics, nanotechnology and artificial intelligence are the relatively recent additions to the field of technology. They are expected to bring a bright future for technology. Technology has the potential of changing the face of the world.

2.3 MIS – Technology

Mis – tech – nology means Mistaken or Misused Technology. The article tries to bring readers attention towards crime involving today’s latest technology.

By profession, I’m a designer, working for hours on my computer and communicating mostly through the Internet and mobile phone. I have always kept writing the positives of technology and how it helps our society in various ways. But that is about to change because more and more cyber crimes and frauds are appearing out in the news, which shows us the dark side of how technology can be used… or misused.

Mobile phones are already causing disorders in children and newborn babies. The waves emitting from mobile phones and their receptors can cause harm to your heart, brain and reproduction system in turn bringing to life children with disorders. Mobile virus has already occupied its share of newspaper space. Now there are even software’s available, which load on your mobile, you make a call and someone else pays your bill. Seems interesting? Then why not circulate porn MMS within your circle of friends. As per the rumors, it takes just $5 for anyone to download such a movie on your handset. Why not use different mobile phones for single mobile card making it unable for you to be tracked down for bills? Do you feel already out of place? Wait, there’s more…

In a recent case in India, a 32 year old man, living in a posh suburban area in Delhi, was arrested for conspiring a neatly orchestrated plan, whereby he demanded $2 million from 3 parties and communicated everything through his mobile and internet. He told these parties, how and where to deposit the amount through online banking, send him the passwords, etc. Failure to deposit money by any party would result in the death of his/her son/daughter. In another case of technology becoming cheaper for common people, a person was arrested for keeping hidden cameras in rooms meant for hostel girls. Cameras nowadays are very cheap and affordable, making it possible for him to hide them in various places of the girls’ room.

Predictions are already being made, that the next world war would not be waged in open fields and water and air, but will be organized and played on the Internet. Hackers would be generals, commandants and captains. Keyboards and screens, their ultimate weapons. Your borders will be servers that the other country would try to hack upon. Once you lose control of your servers, you lose the battle. Instead of multi-million dollar deals involving tanks, guns and missiles used for defense, we’ll have million dollar deals with Anti-Virus and Anti-Cracking companies.

Might sound like imagination gone wild, but taking into consideration the speed at which the technology is changing the world around us, this sort of future seems much closer than expected. Beware of the Digital Virus.

2.4 Important is Technology in Education

There is a seemingly endless debate in the educated society about how important is technology in education. Read this write up and get your answers.

The mere fact that technology is the order of the day is sufficient to highlight the question, ‘how important is technology in education’. It’s probably scary to imagine a life without all the technology around us, as we’re so much habitual to it. Using technology in education has become an intense topic of debate, as many scholars and experts are concerned that teaching computer and technology to school going students can give them access to inappropriate material and they may become over dependent on technology to learn new things. On the contrary, some believe what if they’re not taught the advancement in latest technological developments they will be unable to compete in the information and communication dominated age. The solution to this debate will clear up after you have read the importance of technology in education, in this article.

Importance of Technology in Education

In case, you’re wondering, ‘how important is technology in education’, then take a look at our past generations and compare the life we’re living today. Had our forefathers not made revolutionary discoveries and produced series of technological breakthroughs, would our life had been same as it is today? Would it had been possible for us to gain so much knowledge and exchange information with everyone across the globe? And as our world is developing and global communication is taking a new dimension, technology has a great impact on our society, environment and life. Without making our children adapt to these growing technological advancements, won’t we make a grave mistake?

Since our children are the builders of tomorrow, they must be in sync with the pace with which our society is transforming. When we focus on the history of technology in education, we find that children who have basic computer literacy and are aware about fundamentals of technology, perform better in their college and graduation years. It is a misconception that technology should only be studied by students who are studying technology related subjects. The mere fact is that use of technology in education has spread in every sphere of subjects, be it arts, commerce or science. And while a computer science engineering student needs to be aware of computer programming, an art student is not expected to know computer programming but certainly the art student has to be aware about using computers easily.

Moreover, to understand how important technology in education is, one has to understand that technology provides rich and varied experiences to students. Online education has become possible only due to the extensive use of technology in schools and colleges. Obtaining online degree programs has become easier by signing up for some simple certificate courses. A study conducted by an educational organization suggests that interaction with technology for students in the early years of life is better, as kids have an inherent ability to understand and grasp things faster. Moreover, reading, writing, analytical and visual skills of children have been found to improve after they’ve been trained in technology.

The importance of technology in schools can be attributed to the fact that through interactive video lectures, power point presentations and live explanation of science topics, kids have been able to develop a better understanding of various subjects. Video conferencing has made it easier for various schools to help their kids listen to important lectures by their teachers if they are not physically present in classrooms. Special education has become easier after introduction of technology in educational system for candidates who are unable to be taught some subjects due to physical limitations.

How important is technology in education? This answer can be best answered by considering the fact that the advent of technology in schools has made the administration process simpler and less ambiguous. School records, attendance and school data base maintenance has become very simple, allowing the schooling system to be simpler. Lastly, how important is technology in education can be understood by the fact that it has become a need in today’s scenario. Every job profile in today’s work environment demands use of technology. There are both sides of the use of technology in schools but if we analyze pros then they certainly outweigh the cons, because ultimately technology is a necessity in today’s life. What are your views? Share them with millions of readers by using our platform, right here in the comments column.

2.5 The Cultural Impact of Computer Technology

Some sociologists believe that technological innovation is the single most important source of social change. But just how does a technological advancement spur social change? What are some of the changes taking place due to the proliferation of technology in our society? In this curriculum unit we will survey some of the technological breakthroughs being made today while simultaneously exploring how these advancements are impacting our culture, our relationships and our individual lives. The content in this unit will challenge students to:

____a. understand the connection of the past to conditions today

____b. examine the relationship between innovation and the American living standard

____c. explore how the “information marketplace” has been a catalyst for change

____d. assess how the job market has evolved and will continue to evolve

____e. hypothesize on future trends and inventions in the twenty first century

Societies are constantly changing. Some of these changes are subtle and barely noticeable. Other changes are blatant and abrupt. Social changes can affect the values, norms, roles and institutions within a particular community. The Industrial Revolution for example, which began circa 1750, was a true revolution or radical change for English society. Studying the effects of the Industrial Revolution on English society can help us identify patterns or similarities with the changes taking place today.


The Industrial Revolution was a period of dynamic change and dramatic innovation in the history of human society. During this period, which lasted from approximately 1750 to 1850, new methods were adopted which forever changed the means of producing goods. The development of factories, the introduction of mass production methods, the utilization of steel and the emergence of new forms of transportation and communication – all had a profound effect on where and how people lived, worked and interacted. The long term changes ushered in during this period still resonates today. Of all the places in the world, why did the Industrial Revolution ignite in England. What domestic considerations permitted England to become the world’s first industrial country? In his book, The Silent Revolution, author John Osborne warn us not to oversimplify any explanation for this historical occurrence (1). The author points to the fact that England had favorable advantages over its neighbors during the mid 1800s. First, England had a stable but not oppressive governmental system. Secondly, England benefited from a favorable geographical location. Lastly, the English had a relatively flexible class structure. Compared with other countries on the European continent England was economically and socially well off. In most of the other countries tradition smothered innovation (2).

The British drive toward eco