Indigenous populations are composed of the existing descendants of the peoples who inhabited the present territory-illustrate and explain
The Native individuals & commandment in Bangladesh
The world today is seeing a rapid decrease in cultural diversity and the extinction of indigenous peoples and their lifestyle. Indigenous Peoples worldwide number between 300-500 million, represents and supports 80% of the world’s cultural and biological diversity, and inhabits 20% of the world’s land. In some countries indigenous peoples are majority of the population and in some countries they are only minority like Bangladesh. Bangladesh is one of the 11 countries which withheld in voting on the United Nations (UN) Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. The cause as identified by the demonstrator of Bangladesh at UN is that the term ‘indigenous people’ has not been clearly well-defined or recognized in the stated Declaration. The government of Bangladesh has been continuously rejecting many of the borderline populations’ privileges to credit as indigenous peoples. The bordering groups of Bangladesh have worried the need for authorized credit as indigenous peoples. 24 They have also highlighted the status of credit of their right to property and control over regular properties. The native councils have said their anxiety about expansion issues connected to use of and in spite of the signing of an contract with the government. They have pointed out the fact of exclusion and shift of thousands of native peoples as a result of government-sponsored clearance programs into the indigenous areas. The native peoples have transported to notice that little had been done in the past years to improve the condition of health and hygiene.
2. Definition of Indigenous people
The definitions of Indigenous people are different from place to place but the most accepted definition is given by WGIP. In 1972 the United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Populations (WGIP) established as an earliest explanation a construction put ahead by Mr. José Martínez Cobo, Special Rapporteur on Discrimination against Indigenous Populations:
“Indigenous populations are composed of the existing descendants of the peoples who inhabited the present territory of a country wholly or partially at the time when persons of a different culture or ethnic origin arrived there from other parts of the world, overcame them, by conquest, settlement or other means, reduced them to a non-dominant or colonial condition; who today live more in conformity with their particular social, economic and cultural customs and traditions than with the institutions of the country of which they now form part, under a state structure which incorporates mainly national, social and cultural characteristics of other segments of the population which are predominant.”
There has been intense argument over the worldwide legal classification of indigenous populates in the earlier years since neither the indigenous peoples nor the government parties are pleased with the global lawful meanings of indigenous peoples. On top of that, the indigenous peoples have favored self-identification and deprived of any necessity for definition.
3. Current status of indigenous people in Bangladesh
A study of Bangladesh Society for the Enforcement of Human Rights (BSEHR) publicized that some 61.44 percent of native individuals still face discrimination, 41.86 percent are sufferers of exploitations, and 18.67 percent dispossessed from their descendants land. In recent months many Bangladeshi indigenous people have taken the highways holding conferences, human chains and gatherings, demanding constitutional acknowledgment of their population. The ‘indigenous’ argument arose after some comments of a special legislative group occupied to alter the current constitution coming back to the 1972 constitution. According to Asia Indigenous Peoples Pact the main concern that affects the Indigenous peoples are:
(a) Recollecting of In the name of Allah in the opening of the constitution.
(b) Absorbent of ISLAM as state religion: Islam alone cannot be the state religion as there are people who practice and follow other religions such as Hindu, Christian, Buddha and Indigenous Performs.
(c) Non acknowledgment of Indigenous Peoples as Indigenous (Adibasi). Upajati(tribes)/Khudra Jatisatta(minor races)/Nrigosthi-sampradai(cultural sects and societies) are the terms inserted. These terms are not satisfactory to the native populates.
(d) The Nationality and Residency: The Individuals of Bangladesh will be known as Bengali as a country and the people of Bangladesh shall be known as Bangladeshis. Indigenous peoples of Bangladesh do not want to be recognized as Bengali. In this way Native peoples own nationwide individuality will get misplaced.
(e) Liberty of Suggestion: There is every option for the dogmatic parties/societies/connotations of the Indigenous Peoples to be immobile terming them shared.
The Indigenous Peoples of Bangladesh are one of the utmost underprivileged crowds in many parts of economic, communal, traditional and administrative privileges primarily due to their position of ethnic minority. Indications displays that the indigenous folks of the nation have very inadequate contact to basic human rights as well as right to basic community facilities. The major fields of problems faced by the indigenous peoples are given below:
A. Distinctiveness of Native Bangladeshi:
Government outlooks on the distinctiveness of indigenous peoples are different. It wishes to use the terms “tribe” and “tribal” (“upajati” in Bangla), and is contrasting to the use of the words “indigenous” and “adivasi”. The government’s does not want to recognize that the indigenous peoples is mostly politically inspired and has its origins in Bengali independence. The legitimate condition, on the other hand, is fairly mixed, and redirects, in its totality, the money of all the terms is mostly favored by administration bureaucrats of the country and indigenous peoples mutually.
B. Property Privileges and Property Withdrawal:
The properties of the indigenous peoples are still powerfully being occupied away mainly for establishment of eco-park and national parks, sheltered and held in reserve jungle, withdrawal, disbursement of government funded non-native refugees and creation of armed bases and training centers and improvement projects. The native peoples in CHT are on the limit of complete removal from their inherited land wherever they have been living and nurturing Jumpa from generation to generation.
C. The Natives Human Rights Issues:
National technologies continue to interrupt the domestic and civil human rights and joint rights of indigenous populates with exemption and there is no actual process available for reimbursement in addressing these damages. A number of cases of human rights damages devoted by Government Militaries are opposing to its general regulations and its worldwide human privileges. Further, the government being a associate of the Human Rights Board should make itself more clear and responsible for what it does to its international human rights responsibilities.
D. Women and Children Rights:
In the third Upazila election held on 22 January 2010, no native womenfolk were elected in the position of the leader. Nevertheless, in 25 Upazila under the three hill districts of 15 native women have been voted as the vice-chairs. Between them ten are Chakma, two Marma, two Tripura and one from Tanchangya public. On the opposing, only one native woman applicant in Madhupur upazila Ms. Jostina Noknek won the voting for the position of Female vice-chair.
E. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights:
Annual Development Programme (ADP) plans cannot be considered as indigenous Concentrated as Administration has no clear distribution for indigenous peoples. Even there is no distribution openly for teaching books in mother tongue and authorization of the native females.
With regard to the admission quota for indigenous students, there is no coherent policy and the entire issue is often embroiled with bureaucratic interventions. Eighteen indigenous communities of the country are going to be left out from the next population census. The finalized questionnaire, now being printed for the census, which will be held on 15-19 March 2011, mentions only 27 indigenous communities.
F. Government recognition:
So far there have not been any official steps by the administration to reserve the individualities of the “tribal inhabited region” by protecting their existence and existing uninterrupted and reaching the general expansion thereof as exemplified in the Accord.
Full performance of the Regional Board Act has not been approved as yet. Instructions of Corporate of the CHTRC are kept undecided as it still delays for administration support for nearly last 12 years. In deficiency of this facility CHTRC is unable to use its right as authorized in the CHTRC Act to manage and organize the actions of all relocated topics under the three HDCs, law and order, general supervision, improvement platforms, the actions of CHT Development Board, management of NGO activities, catastrophe supervision and relief procedure, traditional and social integrity etc.
No other topics, particularly the most significant land administration, general management and law forces, have so far been moved to the three HDCs since the validation of the Agreement. Voting of the HDCs is yet to be held and a Supporter list with only the permanent inhabitants of the CHT, to be qualified by the Circle Chiefs, is yet to be equipped for the voting of HDCs.
Property Commission is yet to begin its job and its Action is yet to be revised in the light of the constitution. This has not only kept property disputes unsettled but also unlocked the floodgates of new property disputes to arise, making things more difficult for plane determination. Only few provisional sites out of 543 camps were reserved so far. Rest of the provisional sites is yet to be undone. Moreover, safety action codenamed ‘Operation Uttaron’ which was resorted to in 2001 to squeeze safety noose, is still in process.
G. Implementation of Chittagong Agreement:
The execution of the Chittagong Agreement is vital for unhindered development of the country. For the peace to succeed and constancy to continue in a emerging country like Bangladesh, it is the call of the hour to media for all the good will at the removal of the state to materialize all that the Agreement stands for. For good governance and rule of regulation to succeed in the Chittagong agreement, there is no choice but to guarantee that Chittagong Accord is respected and is given a reasonable attention.
H. Language Problems:
Almost 98 percent populates of Bangladesh are Bengalis and they communicate using the Bangla language. The subgroups contain Chakmas, Khasi, Santhal and additional tribes totaling more than a million (about 1.2% of total populace) who typically live in the various mountainous areas. Some of the areas are hardly visited by any government agencies or international organizations. In latest years many Bangladeshi native people have engaged in the streets holding seminars, human chains and assemblies, demanding legitimate acknowledgment of their own language. They have been using their own language since their existence and there is no books published in our country in their language. So sometimes it is really hard for them to get higher education.
In British-India, the mainstream inhabitants have its place to the Hindu and Muslim religious conviction came out conquering in the struggle against colonization and could establish themselves into states. However, the bordering communities who were unable to establish themselves into states at the time of decolonization for whatever reasons have found themselves overwhelmed in the nation-states. The idea of Indigenous populates could verify to be hugely valuable in order to deliver lawful shield to the bordering populations against judgment and discrimination as well as regarding traditional and other privileges. Since the most common population of Bangladesh, it creates no sense to debating that the majority of Bengalis are native in order to criticize of the privilege of publics who are in genuine need of such gratitude to break through the chains of non-dominance. The earlier the administration of Bangladesh understands this, the better it will be for the citizens of Bangladesh.
1. United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 13 September 2007, available at http://www.ohchr.org/english/issues/indigenous/declaration.htm
2. Siegfried Wiessner, ‘Rights and Status of Indigenous Peoples: A Global Comparative and International Legal Analysis’, Harvard Human Rights Journal 12 (1999), available at http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/hrj/iss12/index.shtml
3. S James Anaya & Robert A Williams, Jr., ‘The Protection of Indigenous Peoples’ Rights over Lands and Natural Resources Under the Inter-American Human Rights System’, Harvard Human Rights Journal 14 (2001), available at http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/hrj/iss14/williams.shtml
4. S. James Anaya, Indigenous Peoples in International Law (2nd ed. 2004)
5. Explanation of vote by Robert Hagen, US Adviser, on the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, to the UN General Assembly, with Annex: Observations of the United States with respect to the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 13 September 2007, USUN Press Release # 204(07), available at http://www.diplomacymonitor.com/stu/dm.nsf/dn/dn9694A1E7EC293A8585257355006729CE
 The study titled ´Legal and human rights of ethnic minorities in Bangladesh´ was conducted on 332 indigenous people of Jessore, Mymensingh, Chapainawabganj, Gaibandha, Jamalpur, Pabna, Rangamati and Sylhet districts from April 2007 to March 2008.
According to the study, 50 percent of these people are not getting fair price of their agricultural products while 49.39 percent complained that they are not getting treatment in public hospitals, according to The Daily Star.