Industrial Attachment On Garment Manufacturing Technology (GMT) Of Interestoff Apparels Ltd

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  1.1 About inters off / Factory Overview:
Name of the Project:                               Inters off Apparels Limited
Vertical knit unit :                                          Fabric, garment, print & laundry
      We are committed

  • To our Customers: Total Satisfaction through On-Time Deliveries of Quality Products & Services
  • To our Employees: Good Work Environment & Compliance with National & International Rules
  • To our Society: Creation of a Better Tomorrow
1.2 Lay out of the mill:


                    Section                   Boiler
                                                  Ground Floor Finishing Section
                                                 1st to 5th Floor Garments Section

                              Administrative                                           Dyeing Floor

  Batch Section

Fig: Layout of Interstoff Apparels Ltd.
2.1 History & Evolution of Inters off Apparels Limited 


The factories also have experience to work with many other buyers. But now they create a good relationship above of this buyer those who are very famous in this Garment business world .They provide them their require quality &other satisfaction .Sometimes they also work with sub–contract. This help to maintain there production flow and build a good relationship to other garments. As like in this Post MFA when there order quantity is become down then they try to hold the experience worker by sub-contract.

  • Europe
  • Marks & Spencer
  • Sainsbury’s
  • Kappahl
  • Esprit
  • Debenhams
  • U.S.A/Canada
  • Polo Ralph Lauren
  • Columbia Sportswear
  • Kenneth Cole                                                                                                                                                                
    U.S.A:  20%
2.2 Key Statistics & Expansion Plans…….
     Key Stats of IAL:
  • Land Area                               : 3 acres
  • Developed Area                       : 2.25 acres
  • Building                                 : 2,60,000 sft
  • Total Investment                      : $12.50M
  • Total Workers              : 4000
  • Total Capacity             : 2,000,000 per month
 Expansion Plans:
  •  Increase in fabric production by 10 MT/Day
  •  An addition of 20 Sewing lines , which will increase the productivity by approx 15,000 pcs/day
2.3 Benefit for Workers…….
  • Yearly Festival Bonus- Twice a year.
  • Attendance Bonus of BDT 400/Month.
  • Other allowance for Chemical Store, Washing & Batch Workers @ 400/Month.
  • Earn Leave Encashment.
  • Group Insurance coverage for all workers.
  • Full time primary Medical Facility, free of cost.
  • Children day Care centre.
  • Maternity (112 days) benefit for all. This year we paid 0.8 million taka as maternity benefits among 45 employees.
2.4. IAL’s Working Hours, Wages, Benefits:
  • Daily working hours-8 hours from 8:0 am to 5:0 pm with one hour lunch break.
  • Standard workweek – 48 hours as established by BGMEA.
  • Permissible daily overtime –not more than 2 hours
  • Minimum wage for a permanent worker – according to BGMEA 1662.50
  • Frequency of payment of salary – once a month paid within the first week of the next month
  • Leave facility – maternity leave –16weeks, festival holiday –10 days year, earned leave –one day @ 18, sick leave- 14 with salary, causal leave – 10 days/year.
  • Other facilities:- one child care.
  • Overtimes calculation formula –

2.5 Our CSR Activities…….

  • Recruiting disabled persons from Centre for Rehabilitation of the Paralyzed (CRP). At present 27 nos. of girls are working in the garments.
  • Every month donating an amount of money to a school.
  • Fair Price Rice and essential commodities’ distribution among the workers.
  • Giving cricket training to the boys of North Bengal through the North Bengal Cricket Academy.
  • Relief to the Natural Calamity.
  • Free Eye Campaign for all workers.
2.6 Our Future Plan
  • To build up a Community Hospital / clinic for the workers as well as for the local people.
  • To increase the education level of the society we are planning to build up a community school.
  • To prepare a dormitory for the workers, which will provide more security to the workers?
  • Day care centre for the children whose parents both are working.
  • To build up efficient workers’ and employees’ training is must, so we are planning to set up a training centre for the people.
2.7 Environment….
  • Effluent Treatment Plant, 30 cubic meter capacity, designed to meet World Bank guidelines.
  • Use of high efficiency production machinery reducing overall water usage from 200 liter/kilo to 100 liter/kilo of product.
  • The use of power generation reduces gas consumption.
  • The use of modern dyestuffs reduces the concentration of waste products in the effluent.
  1. Organizational structure of the Interstoff Apparels Limited
Interstoff Apparels Ltd.
 (Fabric, Garments and Print Unit)

Name of the Project               Interstoff Apparels Ltd.
Address                                   Office: Suite # B, House # 43, Road # 35/A, Gulshan-2, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh.
Tel. No. (8802) 881 7881, 989 4544; Fax No. (8802) 882 8458, e-mail
Factory: Chandora, Kaliakoir, Gazipur, Bangladesh.
Tel. No. (8802) 928 9103. (88) 06822 51925-6; Fax No. (8802) 928 9240, e-mail:, 
Banker                                    Mercantile Bank Ltd, Dhanmondi Branch, 2/1 Cosmos Tower, Road No. 28 (old), Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Tel. No. (8802) 9130500, 8126768; Fax No.: SWIFT Code: MBLBBDDHA006. Telex No. 642529 MBL DN.
Name of Contact Persons       1. Mr. Md. Shahriar Alam
    Managing Director
    Mobile No. (88) 01711 524 823
2. Mr. Shaikh Mohd. Ilias
    Mobile No. (88) 01711 566587
3. S. M. Shafiqur Rahman
    Manager, Product Development
    Mobile No. (88) 01711 609545
Nature of Business                  100% export oriented knit/woven garments manufacturing and exporting. It has also fully vertically integrated Knit Fabric manufacturing plant (knitting, dying and finishing). 
Production Started from        February 2000.
Number of Employees            4000 (till date).
Floor Area                              Total floor space is 3,25,000 sft.
Products & Customers           Fashion T-shirts, Polo shirts, Knitted shorts,   Leggings Nightwear and School wear etc. The factory ensures Safe/Metal-free garments as per customer's requirements, through practice of Metal Detection & Needle/ Metal Control procedures.

Marks & Spencer
Polo Ralph Lauren
Columbia Sports Wear
Kenneth Cole
Production Capacity              :           Currently 2 million pieces of garment per month.              12000 kg of fabric per day
Turnover                                :           US$ 45 million per year.
  • IAL is certified by Fair Trade.
  • IAL’S Fabric and Garments are Oeko-tex Certified.
  • IAL is CTPAT certified.
  • IAL is WRAP Certified
  • We are ISO 9001:2000 certificate



Some special Features:

  1. Washing: We have in-house garments washing facility.
  1. Knitting Capabilities: Apart from the Single Jersey, Polo Pique, Herring Bone, Crape, Bubble Knit fabrics, we can produce Engineering Stripe, Feeder Stripe, Interlock, Rib, Waffle and other various knit fabrics in our knitting plant.

  1. Uninterrupted Power Supply: 2 units of Waukesha (USA) Gas Generator with capacity of 2500 kw, which can support the entire plant.

Garment         : Factory is set up with brand new imported machinery from Japan, UK and Singapore. At present, over 1400 sets of machines & equipments are installed and operational. A list of machinery is enclosed.
  1. Printing     :          
    • Two 12 head auto carousal ( MHM brand)
    • 2 Dryer (MHM and ADELCO)
    • 4 x 50ََ  Hand-Print Table

  1. Embroidery          : Currently this unit is located at the different place. We have 14 no. of BARUDAN. We also offer hand embroidery.
Management team is headed by the Managing Director Mr. Md. Shahriar Alam, an
MBA from IBA, Dhaka University, the leading business school of Bangladesh, who
has decade-long hands-on experience in all the facets of the RMG industry. Mr.
Alam is having good understanding of the market with skills of 'innovation' & 'getting
things done'. He is assisted by a highly qualified & dedicated team of
Merchandisers & Commercial managers/executives.

Garment Production team is headed by Production Director, Mr. Sk. Md. Ilias, a Mechanical Engineer from BUET, who stays at factory, most of the time to monitor production and quality.

We have a separate Print and Embroidery Unit. Print and Embroidery unit is equipped with brand new imported machineries. We are doing many complicated Printing and Embroidery.
Working Environment          
IAL strives for safe and healthy work environment. The number of helpers is much below than the local industry standard. Employee benefits and working conditions are as per guide line provided by the government that includes Maternity Leave with pay for 4 months, Two Festival Bonus per year, Attendance Bonus, Performance Bonus, adequate safety & security measures. Initiatives have been taken to introduce Time & Motion Study to enhance productivity and Quality Certifications to match global competitiveness. Other notable features to ensure excellent Work Environment are:
  • All employees have to undergo a 2-day of orientation course. Special training program for new and unskilled workers and supervisors are arranged regularly.
  • IAL has separate Training Room for imparting training to workers, supervisors on various aspect of production process, quality control of garments, etc.
  • All workers are provided with bar-coded ID cards.
  • Salaries including overtime are paid regularly by 7th of the following month.
Occupational Health, Safety, & Concern for Environment
  • Spacious purpose-built safe and secured factory building
  • First-Aid
  • Doctor is available to provide full free medical services to workers.
  • Well trained Fire-fighting team with Advance Fire Fighting Equipments.
  • Fully equipped and operational Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP). Even, we kept dyeing plant idle, till Operational ETP.

Raw Material Storage           
IAL's storage facility is safe, systematic, and fully compliant with the local laws. The factory follows 4-point fabric inspection system to ensure fabric quality. Apart from this, other standard measures for Quality Assurance like Shade Continuity, 100% Garment Parts Inspection & Numbering are strictly followed.
Final Inspection                     
100% of the garments are inspected and IAL works in a strict AQL Level of 2.5. The company always stands by its quality.
Interstoff Apparels Ltd. is fully approved by several globally accepted Certification bodies like Oeko Tex, SGS, and WRAP etc. IAL is also FAIRTRADE certified by the FLO-Cert Trade Certification Committee (FLO ID: 18123). IAL is an approved factory by MARKS & SPENCER, TESCO, POLO, COLUMBIA , KAPPAHL, ESPRIT, WAL MART and other reputed international brands.
 IAL’s mission statement:

  • To be acclaimed by our customers as among the best manufacturers of high quality garments
  • To be seen as a good business partner by our suppliers of goods and services
  • To be a hailed as a model employer by our work force
  • To be a socially responsible organization
  • To be a profitable organization that maximizes the return on investments.
5.  Infrastructure of IAL:
Interstoff Apparels Ltd. is not only a name but also it is a strong shed of some well establish department. The departments are highly efficient of their duty and works. The responsibilities of sections will be clear from the following follow up —
  1. HR & Compliance:
Human Resources is the arm of the company which houses various data (Benefits, Compensation, Workers' Compensation, Training, etc.). It is the place which provides resources for managers and employees alike. Human resources management involves several processes. Together they are supposed to achieve the above mentioned goal. These processes can be performed in an HR department, but some tasks can also be outsourced or performed by line-managers or other departments. When effectively integrated they provide significant economic benefit to the company.
Human resource department is responsible for:
Ø Recruiting
Ø Training
Ø Compensation
Ø Performance appraisal
Ø Firing
In Radial International Limited for management hiring three interviews are conducted if they are experienced. If they fresh graduate then first written test is done after this initial interview, and then final interview is conducted. This process is done for management trainees.
For workers and officer level the head of department hire. His criteria will accord job requirements.
On the job training is mostly provided. But sometimes for management we conduct seminars; in LUMS some lectures are scheduled. Some mangers they visit to foreign countries for getting training.
For management trainees they provide Rs.12000 and other according to job requirement and skills of the employee. They also compensate according market going situation. For workers they are providing minimum Rs. 3000 according to government rolls. For officers the G.M decide how much salary will be provided. This depends on the nature of the job and skills, experience of the employees.
 Firing the employees:
If any employee is not doing his job very well then the Head of the department fire the concern employee.
5.1.1 Recruiting:
Conducting searches to recruit faculty and staff employees is an important and time-consuming task. Every technique used to attract and screen applicants must measure up to the University’s EEO responsibilities. Increasing diversity should be a significant part of the hiring process. Vacancies are to be filled with qualified candidates either by promoting or transferring employees from within, or by hiring from outside the University. The following steps have been established to facilitate the search process.
1.  If there is no current job description then the department must develop a detailed job analysis, by investigating the duties, tasks, responsibilities, functions and purpose of the position for which you are hiring. Human Resources (HR) is available to assist you in developing a job description.
2.  Once the electronic authorization has been routed through the appropriate channels and sent to HR, the position will be posted on the online applicant system.
3.  Non exempt positions must be posted for a minimum of five calendar days. Exempt and Faculty positions should be posted for a minimum of ten calendar days. Positions are posted with the state employment agency and may also be advertised through other sources as needed. Advertisements for exempt staff positions that are sent outside the university should be approved by Public Affairs.
The Provost office will approve Faculty ads. Advertising must include the standardized advertising requirement: “Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer – Security Sensitive Position – Criminal background check required for successful candidate”. Human Resources cover the expense of advertising in highbred jobs. Additional advertising is at the expense of the hiring department.
4.  All applicants must use the online applicant system to be considered. Candidates must not be considered if the requested documents are not completed. All candidates will be directed through instructions on the online applicant system as to what documents they must submit. Accuracy of the statements on the employee’s application will be certified by the signature of the applicant. Falsification, misstatement or omission of information may be grounds for refusal to hire or, if hired, termination.
The applicant’s signature authorizes persons to give you references; any and all information concerning previous employment, education, or any other information they might have personal or otherwise, with regard to any of the subjects covered by the application, and releases all such parties from all liability from any damages which may result from furnishing such information to you.
5.  Once the position has been posted and the department is ready to start interviewing they may request a search committee training session through HR. The search committee process is required for faculty and exempt positions but may be used for all openings.
6.  Appoint or designate a search committee. When feasible, the search committee should be diversified in nature (minorities and females should be represented). If the department is homogeneous, consider inviting members of other departments that are representative of underrepresented groups to participate as a member of the search committee. Search committees should have an odd number of members.
7.  Appoint or designate an Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Coordinator within the search committee to sign off on the hiring decision signifying that the committee complied with SFA selection guidelines and state and federal laws. The EEO Coordinator will have the responsibility of justifying a hiring decision. The EEO Coordinator may be the hiring manager or search chair.
8.  It is recommended that the Affirmative Action Officer (or designated representative) from HR meet with the Search Committee Chairperson and/or the search committee to discuss proper search procedures prior to implementing the search. At this time HR will apprise the department of any under representation of females and minorities in the respective department. HR may offer assistance in recruitment outreach.
9.  It is no longer necessary to mail the EEO data from to candidates as this information is requested on a voluntary basis in the online applicant process.
10. Develop a list of basic interview questions and appropriate answers to be asked of all applicants interviewed. This basic list does not preclude the committee from asking more specific questions as a result of answers from the basic list. When interviewing, ask each applicant to answer the same job-related and experience specific interview questions and/or complete the same job-related practical exercises, which can be quantifiably measured. Focus exclusively on the applicant’s professional and technical ability or knowledge to perform the particular job.
11.  The search committee must use a Hiring Matrix to objectively and more accurately compare an applicant’s qualifications to a job vacancy and to one another. This tool will help to ensure that hiring selection decisions are made only on lawful job-related and non-discriminatory criteria, thus providing Equal Employment Opportunity to all applicants.
12.  Screening of applicants must be done in accordance with Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) laws and the selection criteria. Reasons for the non-selection of applicants must be documented for all applicants interviewed but not chosen. In the online system there is a drop down menu for non-selection codes. All committees must complete this section on non-selected candidates. This information will be retained online and be accessible for any potential audits or open records requests.
13.  Documentation is critically important before, during, and after the interview/hiring process. The hiring authority must thoroughly document the recruitment and selection processes used to fill the position. The hiring department may view all applicant information online, but if the department makes any written notes then those must be retained for 2 years and 1 day. The purpose for this is to assure that if for any reason an applicant makes an open records request or the records are subpoenaed in a court of law that the information needed will be thorough and accessible. This information is also important should the department be audited for any reason.
14.  The search committee should check two employment references/current or previous work histories of their final candidates. An employment verification form is available to assist the search committee with this task. At least one reference should be a former supervisor or previous employer. Unsatisfactory references will take a candidate out of consideration for hire. It is acceptable to check references not provided by the applicant.
5.1.2 Training
Getting off on the right foot:
Many companies provide some sort of introductory training or orientation for most of their new employees. It may take the form of an older employee assigned to show the new employee "the ropes." Or it may be left to the HR department or the individual's new supervisor to show them where the coffee pot is and how to apply for time off.
Many organizations, especially in government and academia, have created new employee training that is designed, exclusively or primarily, to provide mandated safety familiarization.
There is a measurable cost to that training, but is it worth it? Let's look at some of the issues.
Some Background Facts:
The technology in the workplace is changing very rapidly and companies that can't keep up will drop out of competition. A survey by the Ontario (Bangladesh) Skills Development Office found 63% of the respondents planned to "introduce new technology into the workplace that would require staff training." A third of the respondents included "improving employee job performance" and "keeping the best employees" as desired outcomes.
The American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) reports that less than $1500 per employee was spent for training in 1996.
Reasons to Not Do New Employee Training:
Even at the less than $1500 per year for training an employee we reported above, it is still a cost. For some companies, especially those with traditionally high turnover, it can be a major expense. If your profit per employee is less than $1500, it would be difficult to convince the stakeholders that training is justified. Besides, we all know it is the responsibility of the school system to train people to be workers. And it is the worker's responsibility to learn how to do a job so they can get hired.
Required Training:
Government regulation, insurance coverage’s, and common sense dictate some training that MUST be given to every new employee.
Other Reasons for New Employee Training:
American International Assurance is an ISO 9002 certified insurance company. AIA makes a commitment to training for their staff because AIA "recognizes that the training and development knowledge, attitude and skills of the staff and agency field force are fundamental to its continued efficient and profitable performance.”
An Interesting Proposal:
Dr. Edward Gordon recommends companies make training a stand-alone function, separate from HR. He points out a twenty percent increase in training expenditure since 1983 has not kept pace with the twenty-four percent increase in workers in the same period. He suggests Training Managers use Return on Investment (ROI) to demonstrate that the training function is a profit center, not just a cost center.
 5.1.3 Compensation:
Some business costs, such as rent, materials, and borrowing, often decline during economic downturns. Rising unemployment may also tempt business owners to assume they’ll be able to pay new hires much less than when times were better. But determining how to compensate new employees involves more than the unemployment rate.
Base wage rates and salaries do not typically fluctuate much in accordance with the overall economy, so don’t make major adjustments to these when formulating offers to job candidates. Keeping salaries fairly stable avoids friction between recent hires and other employees. Long-term employee discontent is not a good trade-off for short-term salary savings. Many employers do better taking a long-term approach and adjusting salaries and benefits to meet typical market conditions rather than risking being seen as taking advantage of an employer’s market.
You can find out what a fair salary is for existing company positions or newly created ones by checking compensation surveys and other sources. The federal Bureau of Labor Statistics publishes several free reports, including information on salaries in broad occupational niches, such as the Occupational Outlook Handbook. Private sources may deal with more specialized data. For instance, Radford, a compensation consulting company, publishes a quarterly survey of trends in technology and life sciences practices.
5.1.4 Firing
The Lowdown on Firing Employees
"Of all confrontations with an employee, the response you get from firing someone is the most difficult to predict. One employee may thank you for giving him or her the opportunity to work with you, while another may .."
How to Fire an Employee
"After you have taken all of the preliminary steps, considered all of the potential ramifications, legal and otherwise, and have made the difficult decision to let someone go, stick to it. "
Severance Pay Issues
" First, by law, you need to immediately remunerate a terminated employee for any unused vacation or personal time, all regular and overtime hours worked, and previously unpaid, earned bonuses and any other earned pay. "
Legal Risks
"Thanks to your friends in the federal government, you need to carefully consider any potential termination from a legal perspective. If you aren’t sure where you would stand legally should a terminated employee bring suit, consult an attorney.
Avoiding a Lawsuit
 The first way to avoid getting sued is to be sure that you and all other supervisors understand discrimination law. Go one step further and be sure that all supervisors really believe .
Compliance means obeying by the rules revelation, convention of local labor laws constitution ILO is one of the biggest human resource obligation and environmental regulation organization. IAL’s compliance policies are explained below: –
 General principles:
           IAL highly determined on-
  • Satisfy to customer for best quality of product
  • To follow all business rules
  • Make a healthy environment at work place, and maintain workers health & security maintain.
  • To ensure more than fire extinguishers system
  • To follow local rules and regulation
  • By training personnel & make them efficient
  • Not irritation on- sex, religion, age etc.
Quality principles:
IAL believe quality product is only way of success & IALs’ promises below-
  • To achieve Zero defect
  • To satisfy the buyers
  • To help in al sections in the company by best investment of training, machinery and Processes for best quality of product. Quality less product is valueless.
  • Need to more practice in all internal division for best quality.
 Recruitment and others principle:
  • No child labor recruitment
  • The job will give the right candidate
  • Do not have any biasness on recruitment
  • Candidate should write his/her educational background
  • At least 18 years people can come to the worker post. They must bring age certificate.
  • In present Local wages law of BGMEA is 1662.50 taka. in future  whatever wages law will make  BGMEA, we will continue that.
  • Employee will get vacation according to company regulation.
  • Increment and promotion depend on employer’s efficiency.
  • Female worker will get maternity leave that based on local industrial law.
  • Killer, thieves are not to recruit to the company.

5.2              Apparel Technology:


5.2.1 Product development & Marketing:

Product development:
IAL has a good sample room; this room develops patterns. After get buyer spec sheet, merchandiser submit it to the sample room. Pattern master make the pattern according to the measurement. 
The apparel industry  is dominated by  numerous small to medium sized  business & product development is vital to the survival  success of any business whatever its size o\r  type of  production .The future of textiles & apparel depends on companies  adding  value to their products   & /or services .Companies need to understand the product development process to control quality & costs.
Large  organizations  may have department  devoted to the research & development of products  or design department who are constantly producing  new products & ranges  .However the product development process is just as important for smaller organizations & ………………
                       Product development section helps in the Apparel Industry
  •  We will gain a full understanding of the product development process.
  • We will be able to plan a development process suitable for our company needs.
  • We will be able to strength our teams awareness & understanding of other department needs.
  • We will be aware of ways of reducing development & company costs.
  • We will become aware of ways of improving customer service.
 Product development Cycle:
 The owner /manager or the one need & only technician person often carry out the development or design process .innovation & creativity are necessary for any busine3ss to move forward & take advantage of prevailing market conditions .The increasing use of computer aided design & manufacturing has helped all types of business to speed up the process of product development & to-do this more cost effectively.
The process of product development varies from textile context .The development process  covers a wide range of diverse products from new fibers ,sibre blends , new yarns , fabric structures, finishes & surface effects 7 all types    of made  up  products  such as knitwear, hosiery , cut & sewn garments , household products & technical & medical products.
Despite the diversify of textile products the development process a similar for all & the process has been transferred  by the increasing use of Cad /Cam ,computer aided design & computer aided manufacturing .these enable new ideas & effect to be reproduced on computer & tried & tested in a  cost effective & visually acceptable way.
The product development process can be splits into three main phases:
  • Phase 1 – Covers the development of the initial concept or design idea through to its approval by the customer & full review /risk analysis by the development & production teams.
  • Phase 2 – covers the process following acceptance of the first prototype sample & includes of sourcing & ordering, testing the product & carrying out trails.
  • Phase -3 – Once the finalized     product specification  has-been drawn up  the third & final phase comments .This include a range of activities that are carried  out before large scale or bulk production can begin .This final stage  includes sour4cing  production capacity outside the home producer /developer where this is applicable­­.
 Major process of product development:
           The origin of style
Market research [To find out information required  to develop new styles)
Information is gathered through.
  • Fashion shows
  • Fashion Journals
  • Style & color forecasting
  • Garment competitions
  • Final consumers in the retail stores
                           Design concept
  • Fashion shows.
  • Fashion Journals.
  • Style & color forecasting services.
  • Garment competitions.
  • Final consumers  in the retail stores.
 By sketching new styles
                              Serious of trails are carried out to find shape, colors &                                                           surface decoration
                            Market Screening.
                         Check the existing of a target population.
          The developed of samples
                                    Creation of prototype pattern (Design Activity0
                                                Used Technology of block pattern.
                                          Figure types in the market segment.
                                          Material technology.
                                      Sample making.
                                    Using information collected through the market research                                  skilled sample machinist construct first sample.
                                     Conducting range meeting
                                                (Key decision – Making pointy in the whole sale process.
        The refinement of business objectives.
                       Pattern Adoption
                                    Plan the sequence of construction to be used in mass  
                            Make proposal to purchase new machine for mass production.
Attach by fluids
                       Over of objectives



                                    -Resistance to


                                    -Behavior in washing & dry cleaning.
       The attainment of commercial   products.
                       Production patterns making.
                        According to necessary pattern specification.
                                    Information from sizing surveys can be used to grade the
                       Marker making.
                                    Minimize the wastage.
                                    Maximize the utilization of Material without breaking marker                                                            making rules.
                       Production of templates.
                                    For button hole marking, pocket , marking collar marking.
                       Finalizing the specifications
                                    Feed back from manufacturing.
                                    Based initially on attest based.
                       Feed back from market place.
Market Research:
Before product development can star it is essential to carry out market research top find out what the market wants .There are both internal & external factors to be considered which will affect potential markets & products .Social economical & political environments can all have an influence Factors closer to home such as competitor activities & company policy may also have an effect .market information gathered from trade shows, trade, journals & market reports is also important.
Every business decision made by the company if affected by affected a no of factors .The below chart is a representative of the various factors.

5.2.2 Sample section:
            Process flow chart of sample section:
                        Work sheet or sketch
Pattern making according buyers specification in computer or manually

Pattern cutting in winda pattern cutter m/c or using scissor.


Fabric marking by using pattern
Fabric cutting according to pattern by straight knife fabric cutter or by scissor
Printing or embroidery if required
Sewing the different part of garments by different m/c

Making button hole and attach button

Quality checking by quality inspector


Final quality check

Sample send to buyer
            Different type of sample for different buyer:

Sl. No Sample status Size Quantity
01 Development Department size 4
02 Fit/Red seal Base size 4
03 Press sample Base size 4
04 Wash test Buyer need 4
05 Gold seal Base size 3
01 Development Department size 4
02 Fit Base size 4
03 Size set All size 4
04 Wash test Buyer need 4
05 Gold seal Base size 3
H & M
01 Development Department size 4
02 Quotation Edge color 4
03 Size set Any color 4
04 Counter sample Edge color 4
05 Shipment sample Base color 3
01 Development Department size 4
02 Fit/Red seal 18/24-7/8-12/13 8
03 Press sample Any size 6
04 Wash test Any size 6
05 Pre production All size Every size-1 pcs
06 Green seal Base &all size 6
01 Development Department size 3
02 Contract seal graded size Base 6-all size
03 White city Any size 4
04 Press ecomase Any size 4
05 Rack sample Base 6
01 Development Department size 3
02 Style sample Base 3
03 Photo sample Buyer need 7
04 Counter sample each color 3 pcs 68/80 3
05 Lab test each color 4 pcs Any size 4
06 In house test each color 4 pcs Any size 4
07 Size set jumping each color 1 pcs All size  
08 Pp sample buyer need requirement Base&all size 4
Ralhpa polo/
01 Development Base size 4
02 Top Base size 8
03 Shipment sample Base size 4
Now days, major companies are adopting merchandising concepts, which comply with all procedures to execute and dispatch the shipment on time, considering quality, cost and time. Merchandisers are serious in the success of any garment retail business. They provide the right products at the right time, enabling a company to match with latest market trends and meet the market demand. In the merchandising concept, time management is a gig to manage one's time properly, so he can focus on value adding actions.
Today's garment merchandisers have to move with frequent changes in demand and the developing technologies utilized in manufacturing and production. To find out customer requirements, they regularly visit retail outlets, and come up with latest updates from frontline staff. In order to keep an eye on developments in sourcing, site visits are made every week to mainland factories to meet suppliers and study production.
In garment merchandising, there is no specific rule, so it's important to be able to think on one's feet.
 Mission & Vision:
Our country Bangladesh has already achieved a global reputation of reliable supply base for knit. We have established our knit factory Interstoff Apparels Ltd with a vision to become a high grade manufacturer in Bangladesh. With a decade of experience of our qualified management team, our objective is to concentrate on specialization in the production of a single item-knit and create our own niche in the market.
The word came from the work” Merchandise” meaning a product meant for selling and buying. Merchandising involved with trade (buy & sale). The person dealing with the merchandise is called Merchandiser. If it is apparel product then the person is apparel Merchandiser. Apparel merchandising involved in garments trade (goods are bought and apparel sold).
In the other way Merchandising may be defined as- Person who merchandises the goods, specifically for export purposes.
Objects of Merchandising:
Merchandising denotes all the planned activities to execute and dispatch the merchandise on time, taking into consideration of the 4 Rs to replenish the customer.
  • Right Quantity: To dispatch right quantity of product what buyer ordered.
  • Right Quality: It should be with right quality as accepted both parties.
  • Right Cost: Everybody wants more from what they are paid.
  • Right Time: No one wants to wait idle even in a Restaurant. Keeping delivery schedule is mandatory.
 Qualities of Merchandiser:
  1. Communication Skill: The communication is very much important to promote the business activity. The merchandiser should remember that communication must be lurid and should having face to face conversation with the buyer.
  2. Planning Capability: Merchandiser should be capable of planning, based on the planning the order is to be followed. If the planning is not done properly it will directly affect the delivery time of the order.
  3. Decision making: For a Merchandiser, decision making power is most important. He should think about the decision to be taken and to act in a right way.
  4. Loyalty: Loyalty is an essential character of human beings. Especially for the business people like merchandiser it is a must.
  5. Knowledge about the field: Merchandiser should have adequate knowledge about the garments, Computer knowledge, and technical knowledge to communicate with different people in the business is a must.
  6. Co-ordinate & Co-operate: Merchandiser is the person who is actually co-ordinate with the number of departments. To Co-ordinate with different people in the industry he should be co- operative.
  7. Monitoring ability: Merchandiser should monitor to expedite the orders.
  8. Other qualities: Education, Experience, Situational Management, Ability to Evaluate, Dedication, Knowledge of expediting procedures.
Term of apparel merchandising:
  • Order confirmation by negotiation
  • Buying raw materials and accessories
  • Producing garments
  • Maintaining required quality level
  • Exporting the garments with in schedule time.
In apparel merchandiser must have a wide range of knowledge and skills to perform his/ her job successfully. The job itself is Technical and general as well.
Qualifications of merchandiser:
  • Good commend of English and good communication skills in English.
  • Good knowledge of Yarn, Fabric, Dyeing, Printing, Finishing, Dyes, Color Fastness, Garments production, etc.
  • Clear conception of the usual Potential Quality problems and garment manufacturing.
  • Good knowledge of the usual raw materials inspection systems and garments inspection system.
  • Knowledge of the compliance, buyer’s code of conduct, SA 8000, Warp, International human rights, Core ILO conventions and various standards.
  • Knowledge of quota system and category countries, duty rate, custom regulation, shipping and banking documentation.
 Roles & responsibilities:
When an export order is placed to a merchandiser, he has to schedule the following main functions to execute the export order perfectly in time (schedule):-
  • Fabric requirement calculation (consumption, YPD).
  • Accessories requirement, calculation (Example, Thread, button, interlining, label, poly bag and cartoon etc).
  • Sourcing of fabrics.
  • Sourcing of accessories.
  • Production follow-up with fabric and accessories, be possible date of arrival of fabric and accessories in garment factory.
  • Costing of garments.
  • Garment analysis and production planning.
  • Performa making, swatch making and distribution to the production unit and quality concern people.
  • Pre-shipment inspection schedule.
  • Shipment documents
  • Have to prepare proper time and action plan
  • Arranging shipping documents and final inspection.
 Function of Merchandisers:
  • Developing new samples, execute sample orders
  • Costing
  • Programming
  • Raw materials / Accessories arrangement
  • Production scheduling (or) route card drafting
  • Approval of various Process, Pattern and size set
  • Pre production follow up
  • Meet Inspection Agencies
  • Production controlling
  • Identifying shortages and make arrangement for the shortages
  • Following quality assurance procedures, quality control procedures
Execution process for garment export:
  • Order inquiry from buyer to factory.
  • Approval of order from Buyer, as per the costing given by the Merchandiser.
  • Buyer Bank gives master L/C to the factory. Commercial dept deals with the follow up of L/C matters.
  • B/B, L/C is given to the suppliers of accessories and fabric, etc.
  • Fit sample sent to the Buyer for fit approval.
  • Pre-Production sample submitted to Buyer with original accessories and fabric.
  • Fabric and trims to be in housed on due time as per time and action plan.
  • Pilot production to be started as per time and action plan. (Pilot production or initial production can consist of 100to 200 pcs.)
  • Online inspection by buyers Q.C certifies the quality of the garments.
  • Bulk production to be started, as per the time and action plan.
  • In the main time commercial section, prepare the shipping documents
  • Final inspection as per time and action plan (after final inspection ok).
  • Goods are made ex factory.
  • Goods handed over to the shipping line (Sea shipment)
 As a merchandiser:
  • He / she should be hard worker
  • He / she should be responsible for the job 
  • He / she should be not bureaucratic
  • He /  she should be must have knowledge in computer literacy
  • e- mail website ,windows, ms, power point, excel etc
  • He / she should be able work intelligently
  • He / she should have ability to improve public relation
  • He / she should be well behaved personality
  • He / she should be pleasant behavior to motivate people
  • He / she should be good knowledge on calculation
  • He / she should be goal achiever
 Merchandising chorological process:
  • 1st pattern (first sample)
  • 2nd pattern (second sample)
  • Approved sample and counter sample (three pace)
  • Sales man sample (for sale every chain store can take 20)
  • Size set sample
  • Pre-production sample (production running in that time merchandiser take)
  • Production sample
  • Shipping sample (before shipping merchandiser takes some sample)

The main procedures of merchandisers are as followed:
Understanding Sample Order

Merchandiser has to understand the buyer's requirements after receiving specification in the sample order. In many cases, there are modifications pertaining to the specifications in the order to dispatch on time and the right quality.
He has to talk with the in-house veterans on the execution problems of sample orders, as the right information is required in decision making.
Managing order route card and production timetable
Merchandiser has to manage every single production schedule and order route card that helps to follow-up the execution in the planned way. It is expected to be acknowledged of the various descriptions like: design, no. of modules, no. of operators, how many processes, date of dispatch, quantity, output capacity, and deadlines in the schedules.
The sub-ordinates are normally assigned to follow-up with execution of the plan. Merchandiser plans the activities depending on the essentials or non-essentials, and top priority are given to the most essential tasks. This is customary that the essential activities are handled personally or with the support of junior merchandisers/sub-ordinates.
In a "daily schedule", merchandiser has to carry-out and categorize which is the most significant and urgent task. The activity that has to be focused with full attention to sweep-off non-essential activities and have to be to be corrected by prioritizing to meet the deadlines.
Using route card to reschedule activities
To get updated on the current status on the order, the route cards should be utilized. The latest status can be fed into the computers. In case, the buyer ask for the goods prior to the deadline, then merchandiser has to reorganize the schedules to accomplish tasks, output capacity, no. of pieces to be produced daily, substitute arrangements, time availability, supply time, scheduling critical ratio, etc.
Submitting pre-production samples
The pre-production samples should be provided on time to the concerned buyers. Quality of the sample must be verified. If required, revised samples should be made available to the buyers. Merchandiser should adjust to the required changes demanded by the buyer. The execution of bulk orders should be made only after samples are approved by the buyer.
In-process inspection denote between any tasks in order-execution. In case of non- conformation, it is better to focus on the concerns of quality. Merchandisers that works on complete orders have to check deviation to the production teams so that any amendments can be done to avoid the non-conformities.
Solving shortage problem
The merchandiser should know about the dearth of any commodity such as fabric, yarn, etc… from the beginning. Actions should be taken immediately to arrange required materials, after discovering the shortage. It is expected that the merchandisers should verify quality of the goods prior to execution of the order. If the material is found unavailable, the superior should be informed about the concern.
Communicating with associated people and buyer
It is essential to communicate with the buyers regarding the order. It is expected to give some time to the buyer to read the sent messages. Merchandiser should to go through the messages received from the buyer and reply on time. In many cases, merchandisers have to provide order status to the buyers. Also, merchandiser has to communicate with the people that are in-house, venders, contractors and job-workers. Only through the right communication can one meet deadline for the concerned orders.
· Costing.
· Determination of Fabric requirement.
· Determination Accessories requirement (Thread, Button, Interlining, Label,                                                      Poly Bag, Carton etc)
· Sourcing of fabrics.
· Sourcing of accessories.
· Possible date of arrival of fabrics & accessories in the garments factory.
· Garments production planning.
· Inspection schedule
· Shipping documents.
Time & Action plan:


Check Next Page


Consumption & costing:
Fabric consumption:-
To make a garments how much fabric is necessary that is called fabric consumption after making the sample garment if we want to know the value of the sample then at first it is important to know the fabric consumption. So we want to show the fundamental theory of fabric consumption.
For knit fabric:-
Consumption = Length X Width X GSM
For woven fabric:-
Consumption = Length” X Width”
                             Fabric Width”         36 yards
Knit Fabric
For, T-shirt {(s/j) 30/1 combed yarn}
                   Length = 70 cm
                   ½ chest = 60 cm / dia
                   Sleeve length = 25 cm
                   Arm hole width = 40 cm
                   GSM = 145
Find out consumption / dz in kg?
(Back length + sleeve length) × ½ chest × 2 × GSM ×12
  = {(70 +5) + (25 +5)} × 60 × 2 ×145 ×12     {B.L + S.L × chest × GSM   ×12}
                  10000000                                              100          100      1000
= 2.28 kg + 7%
= 2.28 kg +0.159
= 2.439 kg      [neck and sleeve are made rib so add 0.10]
                          All time collar in rib = (350-400)
Cost Calculation:
Cost is divided in to:-

  1. Pre- cost——- Merchandiser
  2. Final costing ——– Merchandiser + import section
Garment for example: – $ 5.00 = cost
Garment costing: – $ 5.00 + profit = costing
 Pre- cost:-
  1. It is an estimate made before the garment is adopted in to the line
  2. Fabric, trim and labor costs for each garment is calculated
  3. The merchandiser / designer usually keep a record of all materials costs on a work sheet.
  4. Then the costing department can roughly estimate the cost and price structure. (Normally over head cost is 30-40%)
 Final costing:-
  1. It is an exact calculation by the costing or import department
  2. Using actual figures for fabric,, accessories and labor cost
  3. Costing department uses-
    1. Merchandiser work sheet
    2. A proto type garment
    3. Production pattern                                                                        
  4. A detailed cost analysis is made for each garment the final cost is plotted                                                                                                                                        on a “cost sheet”.
Analysis a cost sheet:
  1. Materials:- Total amount of material × ($ 1) / yd = Total price
  2. Trimming :- Button(BTN), thread(THD), interlining(INT), level & packing
  3. Production pattern making, grading, marking, spreading and cutting
  4. Assembly and finishing:- Calculated the average time of operations
  5. Over head cost: – Salary, rent, utilities > (30- 40%)
  6. Freight :- Air freight / sea freight
  7. Quota change
The Types of Items are Produce in the IAL:
IAL is fully knit composite, it can produce almost 15000 pcs in a day. Here produce lots of items, generally whichever buyer want they can produce or can fulfill buyer’s requirement. Nut generally they produce: 
Items are Produce
Men Ladies Children
Basic T-Shirt
  • With sleeve
  • Without sleeve
Basic T-Shirt
  • With sleeve
  • Without sleeve
Basic T-Shirt
  • With sleeve
  • Without sleeve
Polo Shirt
  • With cuff
  • Without cuff
Polo Shirt
  • With cuff
  • Without cuff
Polo Shirt
  • With cuff
  • Without cuff
Tank Top
Tank Top  
  • Long sleeve
  • Short sleeve
  • Long sleeve
  • Short sleeve
  • Long sleeve
  • Short sleeve
Sports Wear
Sports Wear  
Night Wear
  • Long length
  • Short length
Night Wear
  • Long length
  • Short length
Night Wear
  • Long length
  • Short length
  • Short
  • Long
  • Tapered
  • Bellbottom
  • Straight
  • Short
  • Long
  • Tapered
  • Bellbottom
  • Straight
  • Short
  • Long
  • Tapered
  • Bellbottom
  • Straight
 Undertaking price quotation for buyers:
There are following process for fixation price:-
  1. FOB ( Free on board)
    1. Exporter does not bear the cost of freight of ship or air
    2. It is buyer who him self bear the freight
  2. C & F ( Cost & freight)
    1. Free on board + freight = c & f
    2. In this case ship or air freight is carried by the exporter while quoting price.
    3. This price a bit higher than FOB
  3. CIF ( Cost, insurance & freight)
    1. C& f  + insurance = CIF
    2. In this case in addition to the bearing of freight, the cost of insurance is also borne by the export.
  4. CM ( Cost of making / manufacturing)
    1. Manufacturing or exporter will get only making charge of that garment
    2. Fabric, trimming and other materials is supplied by the buyer.
5. CMT (Cost of manufacturing and trimming)
  1. Manufacture or exporter will get the  making charge and at the same time will get the trimming cost
  2. Fabric is supplied by the buyer
Costing of garments in (FOB) cost:
Costing of a garment for example in a shirt:
1. Fabric costing
2. Garment accessories:
                                    1. Button
2. Interlining
3. Label
4. Thread
5. Collar bone
6. Hang tag/ price tag
3. Finishing accessories: 
                                           1. Poly bag
2. Plastic clip
3. Gum Tape
4. Neck board
5. Tag pin
6. Sticker
7. Butterfly
8. Collar insert
9. Back board
10. Neck insert
11. Scotch Tape
12. PP belt
13. Carton
4. Labor charge
5. Washing charge (If it is garment wash)
6. Commercial and transportation cost.
+ 10% profit margin.
(% of profit margins is the distortion of the exporter)

5.2.4 Production planning & co-ordination
 Work study process:
Work study is a management technique by which we can determine standard time of a task and discover the easiest and most economical way of doing the job.
Work study is a scientific method which ensured measurement of work content of a job and takes recourse to better method of doing the job and thus realizes the best utilization of human, machinery and other resources of an organization
Work study is a very valuable tool of substantially improving productivity of an organization at very cheap cost; Work study is a systematic and comprehensive method of analyzing a problem, so that no factor overlook in evaluating the problem of finding out a solution.
Work study can be easily implemented and at a relatively cheap cost, it’s provokes benefit as soon as it is applied and continuous till it is in use and it can reduce hazard b y developing safer mood of operations.
It the most effective tool of investigation of process, it helps find out problems and workout a right solution. Standard time can be determined for a definite work. Production quota may be determined for daily organization hourly works.
Work study is the most accurate method of setting Standard of performance upon which effective planning and production control relies upon.
Important definitions of work-study:
Observed time:
It is the time taken by the operator to operator complete his her job as observer d time by work-study officer.
Basic time:
It is the time taken by the operator to operator complete his or her job had she or he worked at 100% performance.
Allowance time:
It is the time allowed to an operator for non performing task such as going to laboratory, rest, changing needle, taking instruction of supervisor etc.
Relaxation allowance:
It is the time allowed to an operator to attend to personal need.
Contingency allowance:
It is the time allowed to the operator when uncertain problem occur.
Machine delay allowance:
It is the time allowed to an operator for delay due to machine maintenance.
Style change allowance:
It is the time allowed to the operator where frequently style change occurs.
Special allowance:
It is the time allowed to an operator for start up time, shut down, cleaning etc.
Standard time:
It is the time required by operator to complete a job had she worked at 100% rating plus allowance time.
Bottleneck time:
It is the highest time taken b y an operator compared to other operator’s time, generally it is the time beyond the U.C.L.
Rating is a speed of a qualified worker.
Organization efficiency
It is the efficiency of the production time.
Basic work content:
It is the time contents the work without any undue loss of time.
Work count:
It is the time value required by operation.
Ineffective time:
It is the time means time loss due to different design fault, production fault, finishing fault etc.
Upper control limit:
Upper control limit is the time limit represents efficiency.
Lower control limit:
Lower control limit is the time limit representing 115% efficiency.
Pitch time:
Pitch time is the time taken by operator on average or Industrial operator’s time shown on the pitch diagram is called pitch time.
How work study can be realized?
Work study method comprises eight steps, which are given below,
Select: Select the job to be investigated.
Record: record data by collecting organization by direct observation.
Examine: Examine data critically; what is the purpose of action, where is the place of performing it, the sequence in which the job is done, the person doing the job etc.
Develop: Develop the easiest & the most economic methods.
Evaluate: Evaluate the results of alternatives ways of doing the job.
Define: Define new method & time & present them to the concerned people.
Install: Install new method & train persons to apply them.
Maintain: Maintain new standard practice & set control procedures.
Why bottleneck time created?
-The operator has not the right skill.
-The operator makes more rejects & rework takes time.
-The machine is definite.
-The operator is not following work standard.
– The operator is not motivated etc.
How to eliminate the bottleneck time?
-By using automatic organization high performance machine.
-By mechanizing the relevant processes.
-By using better tools, folder, special work aids etc.
-By allotting the bottle process between more than the operator.
-By improving operator skill/ speed.
-By using addition machinery/ operator etc.
Production calculation formula:

  • BPT (Basic Pitch Time) = Total standard time÷ No of operator
  • UCL (Upper Control Limit) = Basic pitch time÷ 0.85
  • LCL (Lower Control Limit) = 2×BPT-UCL
  • Organization Efficiency = BPT÷ Highest bottleneck time×100
  • Productivity = per hour production ÷ Total operator
  • Production Target = (No of operator×3600) ×85% ÷ Total standard time
  • Actual production = 3600÷Height bottleneck time
5.2.5 Cutting & CAD section:
Pattern Grading:
Pattern grading also done by sample room. In buyers’ spec sheet, have mentioned grading measurement. Through some basic points pattern grading is accomplish. Those points are mention below: –

 Marker making:
Marker is very important element in garment section. By achieving better marker wastage we can cut our cost, so that our profit margin will be high. The formula of Marker efficiency shown below: –

The fabric cost of a garment required ½ (half) % (percent) value. So if 1% fabric is possible to save by efficient marker, this will increase the profit margin, the variable facts of marker making mentioned below: –

  • Marker maker
  • Sizes of the garment
  • Length of the marker
  • Pattern engineering
  • Fabric type
  • Marker width
  • Way of marker making
  • Garment type, etc.
There are two way of marker making, they are: –
  1. Manual marker making
  1. Computerized marker making
 Cutting section flow chart :

Cutting hierarchy:
Below shown the organ gram of cutting section in IAL: –

Cutting In charge
Cutting manager
M/C Cutting Man
Cutting Floor Supervisor

  • How spreading is accomplished?
Generally 12 persons make a group (in IAL) including machine man, helper and spread man and start spreading. First spread man collect the marker ratio paper to know the marker length. Fabric will be spread on the bases of marker length. The fabric ply is 1” (one inch) bigger then marker length. If the fabric is defected (crease mark, hole, fixed spot, foreign yarn etc) then spreading is not stopped, but when the cutting QC get reject pieces and inform it to hand cutting seizer man. Then seizer cutting man cut the reject pieces to recover the reject from any matched fabric lot.
  • Cutting table and spreading machinery.
IAL do not use very up dated machinery in cutting room.  IAL have 12 pieces of cutting machine, 8” and 10” blade are used by those machines.
  • Is there semi-automatic or automatic spreading machinery?
There are no semi-automatic or automatic spreading machinery, and they believe they can achieve better efficiency by manually than auto or semi-automatic spreading machinery.
  • Is there computer-interested cutting table? If yes, illustrate how do they work.
They do not have computer-integrated cutting table. They make patterns and markers manually. But it is difficult to get marker efficiency.
  • How ply ends are controlled to minimize fabric lose?
IAL have some scales, after spread the fabric the scale brings onto the ply so that extra fabrics are not cut.
  • Make a list of cutting room machinery
IAL have 12 cutting machine.170-person work for cutting in IAL exclude seizer man and marker man, there are 158 cutting man and spread man, 12 stuffs.    
 Some important terms/things of cutting department:
Role divider: a piece of fabric by which, easy to identify the roles from the lay. This thing is essential to not to mixed the different roles in one garment.
Thin papers: a thin paper is used at both top and bottom of the lay, generally it top paper content the marker, and bottom paper is use for easy to move and easy to cut the lay.
Lay capacity of different knit fabric:
Item Tube Open
S/J 60 –70 110 –120
I/L 40 –50 80-100
RIB 40 –50 80-100
2X2 RIB 35 -40 60-70
       Why cutting QC is essential:
After cutting Generally we can find 2% reject from knitting, dyeing and cutting section. This reject value is shown below:
IAL’s daily cutting quantity is 20000 pcs/day
2% reject from knitting, dyeing and cutting
Each garment’s value (minimum) is 2 dollars
Cutting QC department’s salary is 70000/=
Total reject is 20000 X2% = 400 pcs/day
USA’s dollar value is 70 taka
So total money amount is =400 X 70
                                             =28000/= (Day)
Monthly reject money is    = 2800 X25
Monthly profit is                  =700000-70000
                                             =630000/ (taka)
Quality policy:
 Cutting section
System adopted in cutting section:
  1. All fabric are being inspected and relaxed before spreading.
  2. During spreading all reject areas are marked for easy identification and replacement after cutting.
  3. All parts are checked after cutting and reject parts are replaced from the cutting from fabric of same roll.
  4. All important areas are given cut – mark for easy control and to maintain quality.
  5. To control twisting of fabric we are tumbling the fabric (especially for low GSM fabric).
  6. For all stripe fabric we are giving smaller lay and is going hand – scissoring for stripe matching.
  7. Cutting parts from top, center and bottom are checked with the pattern avoid any gross deviation after cutting.
Arrangement & organization of inputs:
Before starting the sewing production have to PM check about the materials that are required to sew. For an example, to sew we need cut pieces (fabric), sewing machine, thread, label, button, work force etc. so a PM make sure himself that all are in his hand. When all are in his hand, then PM organize the floor by his efficiency. Then PM input the cut bundles in sewing line.  This is the Arrangement & organization of inputs processes in IAL.
 20.1 Movement of materials and their documentation:
There are several documentations have to use in sewing room, this documentation are very important to run the sewing line smoothly. On the other hand we can say these documents are the software of the section.
Pre-production meeting:
It is a meeting called by GM before start the production. There are some important person has to come to the meeting. in this meting people discuses on a particular order to execute the order easily. Knitting manager, knitting master, knitting in charge, dyeing manager, dyeing in charge, Dyeing finishing Dyeing finishing In charge, cutting In charge, Production manager, quality in charge and other concern people Have to participate in this meeting In this meeting. They are discussing on: –

Garments Machinery & Equipment:

Sl. No Machine Name Manufacturer name, Model & Origin Quantity
1-needle lockstitch sewing M/C Juki, DDL-5530N, Japan 56
1-needle lockstitch sewing M/C Juki, DDL-5550N-3-WB/EC-10BF, Japan 16
1-needle lockstitch sewing M/C Juki, DLM-5200ND, Japan 4
1-needle lockstitch side cutter sewing M/C Juki, DLM-5200ND, Japan 10
1- Needle Lockstitch Sewing M/C Juki, DDL- 8300N, Taiwan 10
1-needle lockstitch automated trimmer
 sewing M/C
Juki, DDL-87007 WB/EC10BF, Taiwan 130
1-needle lockstitch Button hole sewing M/C Juki, LBH-781KU, Japan 4
1-Needle over lock  button end sewing M/C PEGASUS, M-752-90-6, CHINA 4
1 needle, 1 step & 3 step zigzag stitching    Juki, LZ-2284 NT, Japan 1
1-needle lockstitch  Automated trimmer
sewing M/C
Juki, DDL-5530N 7 WB/EC 10BF, Japan 20
1-needle 3Thread Over lock sewing  Juki, MO-3604F-OE4-40H/F, Japan 2
2-Nedle, Needle Feed Lockstitch Juki, MF-7605UU03-B56, USA 2
2-Needle,4-thread,2-looper over lock sewing Juki,MO-3614E-BE6-44H/F/G39/Q141, Japan 29
2-needle 4 Thread, 2-Looper, OVL M/C Juki, MO-6714SBE644H/G39/Q141, TAIWAN 6
2-Needle Needle feed Lock stitch sewing M/C Juki, LH 3128SF, Japan 3
2-needle 4 thread, cylinder bed over lock M/C YAMATO, AZF 8420-Y5DF/K2/RS25/TL1,Japan 9
2-Needle 4-Thread, 2-Looper, Over lock M/C Juki, MO-6914R-BE6-307, Japan 3
2-Needle 4-Thread,2-Looper, Over lock M/C Juki, MO-6714 SBE 644H/G39/Q141, Japan 32
2-Needle,5-Thread,3-looper safety stitch
over lock
Juki, MO-3616E-DE4-40H/F/E35, Japan 6
2- needle, 4-Thread, over lock, S. M/C   Pegasus,M752-13-2X4/KS391/LC001, Taiwan 10
2- Needle, 5-Thread, 3-Looper S.M/C Juki, MO-3616E-DE4-40H/F/E35, Japan 6
2- needle 4 thread, over lock general
 sewing machine
AZ 8125G-Y6DF-8/MT22/TL1/CLUTH,Japan 15
2-needle, needle feed lockstitch machine Juki, LH3128SF, Japan 3
2-needle, double chain zig zag machine Kansai, PX-302-4W, Japan 1
2-needle, 4 thread, over lock machine  Yamato, AZ8125G-Y6DF-8/MT22/TL1, Japan 28
2-needle, 4 thread, over lock machine  Yamato, AZ8125G-Y5DF-8/MT22/TL1, Japan 24
2-needle, 4 thread, over lock machine  Yamato, AZ8125G-Y6DF-8/MT22/TL1/UB6,
2-needle, 4 thread, cylinder bed over lock
AZF8420,Y5DF/K2/RS25/TL1,Japan 3
3-Needle 5-thread,flat bed top & bottom cover
 S M/C
Juki,MF-7723 U 10B 56, CHINA 6
3-Needle 5-thread,cylinder bed top &
 bottom trimmer
Juki, MFC-7605 U-H21-B56/UT5, USA 4
3-Needle 5-thread,cylinder bed top &
 bottom trimmer
Juki, MFC-7605 UU-06-B56/UT5, USA 8
3-Needle 5-thread, flat bed top &
bottom stitching M
Juki, MF-7723U 10 B 56, Japan 6
3-Needle 5-thread, cylinder bed top
 bottom Stc. M
Juki, MF-7823 U 10 B 56, TAIWAN 4
3-Needle 6-thread, safety stitch over
lock M/C
Juki, MO-6743 STD 640 H, TAIWAN 4
3-Needle Flat Bed Top & Bottom
Cover stitch                      
Juki, MF-7605UU03-B56, USA 2
3-Needle 5-thread, cylinder bed Interlock St. M/C YAMATO, VG2713-156M-K4N/UTA34/
3-Needle 5 thread, cylinder bed interlock S M/C YAMATO,VG3721-156S1-8F-WF1/UTA44/ST2A/CC7
3-Needle 5 thread, flat bed interlock stitching M/C YAMATO, VF 2503-156M-21/EC/TL1, JAPAN 10
3-Needle 5 thread, flat bed interlock stitching M/C YAMATO, VF 2500-156M-8UTA24/TL1, JAPAN 4
3-Needle 5 thread, flat bed interlock stitching M/C YAMATO, VF 2500-156M-8/UTA24/ST2A/TL1,
3-Needle 5 thread, cylinder bed interlock M/C YAMATO, VE 2713-156S-2-KAN/UTA24/ST2A/
3-Needle 5 thread, flatbed interlock machine PEGASUS, W1562-02GX356BS/TK3C
3-Needle 5 thread, cylinder bed interlock M/C PEGASUS, W664-01GBX356/UT333, JAPAN 2
3-needle Flat Bed Top & Bottom Cover Stitch Juki, MF-7605UU03-B56,USA 11
3-needle 5-Thread,Cylinder Bed Top & Bottom Cover Juki, MFC-7605U-U03-B56,USA 4
3-Needle 5 Thread Flat Bed Top Bottom
Trimming Machine
MF-7605UE12-B56/MD6, Japan 2
3-Needle,5-Thread,Flat bed Top &
Bottom Stitching
Juki, MF-7605UC02-B56, USA 2
3-Needle,6-Thread,Safety Stitch Over lock M. MO-3643E-FBD6-40H/F, Japan 2
3-Needle5-Thread,Cylender Bed Interlock M/C Pegasus, W264-03FBX356, Japan 4
3-Needle5-Thread,Cylender Bed Interlock M/C Pegasus, W664-01GBX356, Japan 4
3-Needle5-Thread,Cylender Bed Interlock M/C YAMATO,VG2713-156M-4N/UTA34/ST2ATL1, JAPAN 9
3-Needle5-Thread,Flad Bed Top Bottom
Stitching sewing machine
Juki, MF-7605U-C02-B56, Taiwan 3
3-Needle, 5 Thread, stitching S. M/C Juki, MFC7605U-U06-B56,Taiwan 4
3-Needle5-Thread,Flad Bed Interlock machine Yamato, VF2503-156M-8/EC/TL1/EL1,Japan 7
3-Needle5-Thread,Flad Bed Interlock machine Yamato, VF2500-156M-8/UTA24/TL1, Japan 10
3-Needle5-Thread,Flad Bed Interlock machine Yamato,VE2713-156S-2-K4N/UTA24/ST2A/TL1, Japan 4
3-needle, 6 thread, over lock machine  YAMATOAZ8520G AY5DF/K1/CC4/TL1,Japan 3
4-Needle, 8 Thread, Sewing M/C Kansai, DBF-1404 PMD, Japan 7
Computer controlled Lockstitch Sewing M/C Juki, LK-1903ss-304/mc-590-3k, Japan 4
Computer controlled Bar taking M/C Juki, LK-1900ASS/MC596K,JAPAN 4
Computer controlled Lock stitch M/C Juki, LK1903ASS301/MC596KSS,JAPAN 5
Computer controlled Bar taking M/C Juki, LK1900SS/MC-590-K, Japan 3
Computer controlled Button sewing machine Juki, LK1903ASS301/MC596KSS,JAPAN 2
Fully Automatic Flat Knit machine Matsuya, M-100 14GG 6 COL, Japan 1
Circular single Knit machine New, S-296, Germany 3
7.2 Other Machine of Garments Section:
        Sl.                           No Machine Name Manufacturer name, Model & Origin Quantity
Cloth Cutting machine  K.M, K.M K.S AU-V-8”, Japan 7
Brand knife cloth cutting machine EC-700N, TAIWAN 1
Straight knife cloth cutting KS-AU-V-8, TAIWAN 4
Rib cutting machine IDEA, IDEA SM-601, JAPAN 3
Rib cutting machine IDEA, IDEA SM-601, TAIWAN 1
Steam iron 1200X700, Sweden 4
Steam iron VEIT, AS1450, GERMANY 3
Steam iron NOMATO, HSL-620, JAPAN 30
Needle check machine 2000- CONVEYOR, ENGLAND 1
Suction machine LK 1903 ASS 301/ MC 596 KSS,
Needle check gold 30+conveyor England 1
Suction machine  TOYO, UZ-12N, THAILAND 1
Vacuame table NAOMATO, FB-130 S/D, INDONESIA 30
Vacuame table VEIT, 4425, GERMANY 3
Thread recoining machine HASHIMA, HW-40, JAPAN 1
Steam boiler NOMATO, NB-36C, Japan 1
Semi automatic strapping machine  Toyota, JW – 602, Taiwan 1
BUSBER, Trucking system BUSBER, France 1
Pneumatic  press PRYM/MAC/679243, Hong Kong 2
Calator rickh AS-2202, SWEDEN 1
Generator GS-250, France 1
Compressor FINI, PLUS-2510, ITALY 1
Air receiver ITALY 1
Air dryer FRIULAIR, DFE-23, ITALY 1
Line filter FRIULAIR, LFP-023, ITALY 1
Stenter machine VN-24/4, KOREA 1
Electic gas generator VHP-5900 GSI, USA 1
Steam boiler THERMAX, UK 1
Steam boiler INDIA 2
Cooling machine KST-N-350, CHINA 1
Cooling machine THAILAND 1
Busber trucking TURKEY 1
Compector RA-2500, ITALY 1
Straping machine TOYO, TY-JW-602, JAPAN 1
Formica laminated solid
 Top surface table
Bullmer brand spreding system COMPACTEE-600, GERMANY 2
Evaporative cooling system THAILAND 1
There are several processes content in sewing finishing; explaining below (workflow): –

This is a basic workflow in IAL sewing finishing for a full sleeve T-Shirt, but it may vary from style to style. Say for example in half sleeve T-Shirt we do not need Sleeve Pair Matching in Workflow. Assortment, Blister is also auxiliary stage in sewing finishing.
List of machinery:
Lots of machineries are use in sewing finishing section. Few things are very primary what are very essential, fey machineries are auxiliary.  

SL.No Machine Type Manufacturer Quantity
1 Steam Iron HSL 620 73
2 Vacuame Table Naomato , FB130 73
3 Metal Detecter   2
Quality policy: Finishing section
System adopted in finishing section:
  1. After cleaning the thread all garments are being sent to iron man directly.
  1. In the iron table we are drawing size wise graded patterns of the body and the garments are being ironed conforming to the respective size.
  1. After ironing all garment are checked by QC and only OK garment are sent for  100% measurement and reject garment are segregated and taken away finishing floor.
  1. After doing 100% measurement of all bodies only the OK garment s are sent for folding and packing.
  1. We have appointed one QC to do the hourly checking of all garments and prepare a report in this regard and up to AGM of the floor for his review.
  1. At the end of the day another QC person is doing the day final and making a report in this respect and keeping record.
  1. After complete any of order we are doing the pre final from the point of view of buyer and making a complete report in this regard maintaining record also.
Once the garments pass the pre-final inspection then all the garments are kept under constant surveillance.
 Theoretical idea about quality:
  •  Quality is set of inherent characteristic that full-fill environment.
  • Quality is the difference between productions.
  • It is the goodness or badness in a product. This definition holds true till this data.
However, in general terms, quality encompasses important characteristics of a product for which, it is in demand. Quality of a product features in two ways: form and content. Thus quality may be defined as the features of a product, which satisfy customers or end-users quality imparts sale ability to product. Quality is also referred to as “conformance of goods to buyers’ satisfaction” I S O-9000: 2000 defines quality as “degree to which is set of inherent characteristic that full-fill environment.

Importance of quality:
Every product must feature functional characteristics as well as sum other aspects related to its shape, size and design. Consumers always demand following expectations of the purchased product:
 The product must satisfy consumer in terms of beauty, attractiveness, taste, shape, design and longevity etc. it’s depending on the type of the product.
Types of Quality:
As per excellence of satisfaction, quality may be grouped into three categories:

  1. Quality of general acceptance.
  2. Quality of satisfaction.
  3. Quality category of higher delight.
Work flow and Organization chart of QA (Quality Plan) in Garment division:-

  1. Ware House:
            Ware house is divided by different section. They are:
  1. Yarn
  2. Greigh
  3. Fabric
  4. Chemical
  5. Printing
  6. Garments
  7. Finished Fabrics
  8. General store
  9. Accessories store
  • Sequence of Yarn & Fabric storing:
  • L/C ( Back to back l/c)
  • In house
  • Lot & count inventory
  • Order wise batch (grey fabric)
  • Dyeing by turning m/c
  • Dryer
  • Slitting
  • Compacting by stenter m/c
  • Quality check
  • Delivery to cutting section ( if passed)
  • General  store:
  • Electrical item
  • Stationary item
  • Printing item
  • Fabric Store:
IAL stored fabric of their own manufactured and also from other manufacturer. Here mention some of the other manufacturer name;
  • Paramount textile
  • International Classic composite ltd.
  • NASSA Taipei
  • Evince Textile ltd.
Interlining collected from:
  • EACHEN Textile corporation
  • Vilene (Paper Interlining)
  • T & M Interlining
  • MFG company ltd
  • Kufner International
  • Accessories Store:
  • Sewing ticket / hang tag
  • Barcode/ UPC sticker
  • Transit label
  • Hanger sticker
  • Lb sticker/ price sticker
  • Cartoon sticker
  • Poly sticker
  • Hanger
  • Sizer
  • Transfer print/ Heat seal
  • Cartoon
  • Size label
  • Chemical store;
  • Soda ash
  • Glober salt
  • Caustic soda
  • Anti crease
  • Sequesterent agent
  • Ladiquest
  • Drimagan
  • Stabilizer
  • Anti musol
  • Imerol
  • Cyclaron
  • Lanaryl RK
  • Soaping
  • Scouring SPL
  • Uvitex
  • Synowhilte
  • Acetic acid
  • Hydrogen per oxide
  • Sirrix
  • Hydrose (Explosiv Substance)
Utility Services:
INTERSTOFF APPARELS LTD. is a big project. So, it required adequate utility services without the factory can’t run. Here the following utility services are available-
  • Water
  • Electricity
  • Steam
  • Gas
  • Compress air
Source of water is land water which is pumped by deep tube well.
Production capacity – 80 m3 /hr = 1920000 liter/day
Water treatment plant:
Row water content different types of foreign materials like oily or gummy substances, Iron, Copper, Manganese & their salt, ions etc. The hardness of raw water is 100 ppm or more. To use it in dyeing and in boiler this water must need to soft & foreign materials needs to remove. Otherwise this may create problem in processing like precipitation of dyestuff, precipitation of soap, redeposit ion of dirt on fabric & scale formation on pipe line etc. INTERSTOFF APPARELS LTD. mainly follows Permutit Process for water softening. The tested hardness of water after softening is 3-5 ppm.
Description of W.T.P:
Land water pump by deep tube well is collected to the hard water store tank. Water treatment is done in three steps by three by three filter tanks. The circulations of water at different stages are control by different bulbs like supply bulbs, backwash bulbs, drain bulbs.
Water collected by two parallel pumps is flowed to the stone filter for first filtration. Stone filter consists of six layers of stone of different size and shape. Stone filter helps to remove iron from the water. There is a dosing pump attach with the stone filter for the dosing of sodium hypo chloride. During stone filtration sodium hypo chloride is added to resist the deposition of iron on stone layers which might be rigid and hamper smooth operation.
After completion of stone filtration, water is fed to activated carbon filter for second filtration for the removal of order from the water.
At the end of carbon filtration, water is flowed to the resin filter for final filtration. Here hard water is treated with base exchange complex or zeolites to remove the hardness of water. Zeolites are naturally occurring insoluble mineral of sodium alumina silicate type complex (e.g. NaAlSiO4.3H2O ≈ Na-Permutit). When hard water passed through a bed of small particles of such mineral ion exchanger, an ion exchange reaction take place-
2Na-Permutit + Ca (HCO3)         Ca- Permutit    + 2NaHCO3 (For temporary hardness)
            2Na-Permutit + CaSO4                 Ca- Permutit   + Na2sO4 (For permanent hardness)
 Here the base part (Ca, Mg, Fe) of hard water are replace by Na; result is the salt of Ca, Mg, Fe (Ca-Permutit, Mg-Permutit, Fe-Permutit) and soften the water. After a certain period of times, whole sodium of base exchanger is replace by Ca, Mg, or Fe then it is said to be exhausted; because it will not soften hard water any more and then it need to regenerate by NaCl.
Ca-Permutit + NaCl             2Na – permutit + CaCl2
 Final filtration makes the water finally soft and drains it to the soft water reserve tank with             the help of a drain bulb. The hardness of water after treatment is 1-2 ppm. For the supply of soft water to the floor a pressure vessel is used. A minimum pressure of (4-5 kg/cm3) is maintained in the pressure vessel for circulation. Air is inject in the vessel to sustain the pressure is required range.
The flow chart of water treatment plant is given bellow –

Fig: Water treatment plan
Standard water Quality for dye house:

Parameter Permissible concentration
Color Color less
Smell No bed smell
Water Hardness <5 ppm
PH value 7-8 (Neutral)
Dissolve solid < 1 ppm
Inorganic salt < 500 ppm
Iron(Fe) < 0.1 ppm
Manganese(Mn) < 0.01 ppm
Copper (Cu) <0.005 ppm
Nitrate(NO3) < 50 ppm
Nitrate(NO2) < 5 ppm
Though the main supplier of electricity to run the factory and office of INTERSTOFF APPARELS LTD. is REB, but this electricity is insufficient & costly. That’s why INTERSTOFF APPARELS LTD. has two gas generators and one diesel generator.
Total electricity produce by gas & diesel generator – 1900 kw
Requirement of electricity to run the factory & office – 1250 kw (66% of its production) 
The technical details about the generator are given bellow.
Machine no: 01
Type of generator                                            : Gas generator (old)
Brand Name                                                    : WAUKESHA
Origin                                                              : USA
Model no                                                         : MTG 846
Capacity                                                          : 750kw
Volts                                                                : 415
Phase                                                               : 3
Power factor                                                    : 0.8
Frequency                                                        : 50 Hz
AMPS                                                              : 1304
Governed speed                                               : 1000 rpm
Machine no: 02
Type of generator                                            : Gas generator (new)
Brand Name                                                    : WAUKESHA
Origin                                                              : USA
Model no                                                         : VHP 5904 GSID
Capacity                                                          : 900kw
Volts                                                                : 415
Phase                                                               : 3
Power factor                                                    : 0.8
Frequency                                                        : 50 Hz
AMPS                                                              : 1565
Governed speed                                               : 1000 rpm
Machine no: 03
Type of generator                                            : Diesel generator 
Brand Name                                                    : DATE
Origin                                                              : Mexico
Model no                                                         : HC1434F
Capacity                                                          : 288kw
Volts                                                                : 415
Phase                                                               : 3-4
Power factor                                                    : 0.8
Frequency                                                        : 50 Hz
AMPS                                                              : 1304
Governed speed                                               : 1000 rpm
Diesel Consumption                                        : 55 lit/hr

Fig: WAUKESEA gas generator
Boiler (Cochran boiler):
The equipment used for producing steam is called steam generator or boiler. The boiler used for producing steam in IAL is Cochran boiler which is a fire tube type boiler. Simple vertical boiler of fire tube type is mainly used in small plant requiring small quantity of steam and where floor area is limited.
Here, gas is fed to the burner which run by thermo motor and produce flame. The flame produces hot flue gases, which pass through the tubes that are surrounded by water. This water is supplied from the soft water tank to the feed water tank, which is situated above the boiler. The heat energy of the flue gas is transfer to water which is converted into steam. This steam is supplied to the whole plant. The spent gases are then discharged to the atmosphere through chimney. The specification of Cochran boiler is describe bellow-  
Brand name                                                     : Cochran
Manufacturer Company                                   : BIB Cochran Ltd.
Origin                                                              : Scotland, UK
Capacity                                                          : 7.5 ton
Max. Allowable pressure                                 : 11 bar
Max. Allowable temperature                            : 1880C
Max. Heat output                                             : 4833 kw
Softy valve set pressure                                   : 10.86 bar
Year of manufacture                                       : 2004

Fig: Cochran boiler
Compress air:
Compressor no: 01
Brand                                                               : Worthington Creyssensae.
Model                                                              : Roll air 50
Origin                                                              : French
Max. Air pressure                                            : 10.5 bar
Voltage                                                            : 37 kw/ 400 v
Phase                                                               : 3
Frequency                                                        : 5 Hz
Motor rpm                                                       : 935 kg
Capacity                                                          : 353 m3/ hour
Compressor no: 02
Brand                                                               : Fini
Model                                                              : FIVS- 25
Type                                                                : Silenced screw compressor
Origin                                                              : Italy
Max. Air pressure                                            : 10.5 bar
Voltage                                                            : 400v
Phase                                                               : 3
Frequency                                                        : 5 Hz
Motor rpm                                                       : 50 kg
Capacity                                                          : 2.5 m3 /hour
INTERSTOFF APPARELS LTD. used natural gas from Titas Gas Transmission Company. Gas is used as the fuel of Boiler, Generator and also used for heating dryer, Stenter and compactor m/cs etc.
  1. Maintenance:
Machine, buildings and other facilities are subjected to deterioration due to their use and exposure to environmental condition. Process of deterioration, if unchecked, culminates in rendering these service facilities unserviceable and brings them to a standstill. In Industry, therefore has no choice but to attend them from time to time to repair and recondition them so as to elongate their life to the extent it is economically and physically possible to do so.
 Objectives of maintenance:
  1. To keep the factory plants, equipments, machine tools in an optimum working condition.
  2. To ensure specified accuracy to product and time schedule of delivery to customer.
  3. To keep the downtime of machines to the minimum thus to have control over the production program.
  4. To keep the production cycle within the stipulated range.
  5. To modify the machine tools to meet the need for production
 Types of maintenance:
Preventive Maintenance:
Preventive maintenance is a predetermined routine actively to ensure on time inspection / checking of facilities to uncover conditions that may lead to production break downs or harmful description.
Break down maintenance:
In this case, repairs are made after the equipment is out of order and it can not perform its normal functions.
Routine Maintenance:
Maintenance of different machines is prepared by expert engineer of maintenance department. Normally in case of dyeing machine maintenance after 30 days complete checking of different important parts are done.
  1. Export & Import
Major Responsibilities:
  1. Make UD, UD Amendment & Export Order.
  2. Prepared Import Documents.
  3. Collect Insurance Policy.
  4. Prepare The Goods Documents of AIR Port & DEPZ.
  5. Maintain Import Status.
  6. Collect the Bill of Entry.
 Detail Activities:
  1. UD, UD AMENDMENT & EXPORT ORDER: These are very important for both Import & Export department. After opening the back to back L/C, we have to ready Ud, Ud Amendment & Export Order.We help to make Ud, Ud Amendment & Export Order. We go to BGMEA with these to approve from BGMEA nominated authority.
  1. IMPORT DOCCUMENT: When we get the import document from the bank, we prepare it properly with the necessary papers. Everyday the document which we send to our Chittagong and Benapole C&F agent we note down that in a register book for our evidence.
  1. INSURANCE POLICY: We communicate with insurance company to collect insurance policy against foreign fabrics & accessories and send it our C&F agent for goods clearing.
  1. THE GOODS OF AIR PORT & DHAKA EXPORT PROCESSING ZONE (DEPZ): When the goods come by air or from DEPZ, we get copy of original document. Then we prepare it for bank endorsement with attested copy of export L/C & BTB L/C.
  1. IMPORT STATUS: We have to maintain Import Status which contains all information of imported goods. We send import status by e-mail to the merchandiser & store keeper once in a week to know the valuable information.
  1. BILL OF ENTRY:We collect the bill of entry and note down it in our register for customs purpose.
 Beside it we have to go to BGMEA in the following purpose.
  • To approve the machinery certificate for machinery release.
  • For BGMEA membership renewal.
  • For sample pass book renewal
  • To approve inter bond.
  • To approve free of cost certificate & all purpose in BGMEA.
  • We abide by everything as we directed the senior officer in our import department.
  • We also respect the all kinds of rules in our company.               
 Draft check list
  • Helping to make UD, UD amendment & export order and approve by BGMEA authority.
  • Prepare import document with necessary paper.
  • Forward to C&F agent and note down for evidence.
  • Collect insurance policy and sand to C&F agent.
  • Preparing DEPZ document by bank endorsement and add to attested copy of export L/C & BTB L/C.
  • Forward import status by online to merchandiser and store keeper.
  • Collect & noted the bill of entry in register.
  1. Barriers of Apparel Production & Remedies
Garments sector plays a vital role in Bangladesh. Now a day’s garments product is the number one export products in our country. Few years ago jute was the golden fiber of Bangladesh. But now this place is replaced by the garment sector. People come to this sector and stay with their giant pleasure. Because this sector creates a very large job market in our country. Most of the workers are very poor. But this sector removes their poverty. So, it can be told that the sector is the God gifted sector for our poor people.
The out put of garments per unit time ( second, minute etc) is an important factor in a garments industry. A split second is very significant for garments production. Sometimes garments production does not meet up the target making due to some problems or barriers. On the below has discussed about the barriers and remedies of garments production through out this paper.
 Types of problem:
  1. Economical problems: Economical problem is a major issue for growing a garments industry. If any garments owners have no good fund, he doesn’t build up his industry. As for example, at any time garments business may fall due to various reasons. Such as
  • Shipment date may fail
  • Suddenly need lot of money to buy some important parts that parts need for your better production.
  • To build up a new project which is helpful for the business?
At this purpose an owner need money to save his business. So every owner need to know money saving formula which is very helpful for themselves to recover that type of problem.
Banking problem is another big problem in our country. If the bank doesn’t give the loan in minor interest, an owner not able to establish the industrial project. There are various kinds economical problem. Such as:
  1. Community problems
  2. Political problems
  3. Transportation problems
  4. Drudge problems
 (i) Community problems:
Man is a social being. One can not live with the help of others. To work everybody as a team is important concern to increase the garment production. Lack of this type of attitudes creates a lot of problems. Such as:
  • The workers can not be helpful with each other.
  • The workers always look after others fault.
  • They can not work properly.
  • Lead time may increase.
  • The workers make quarrel with others.
  • Factory environment and production may fall.
Factory management should be very careful about the problems. The problems can be minimized only by improving the better relationships between the workers.
(ii) Political problems :
Political problem is very important for garment business. It creates very bad effects in garments production. The author has discussed only three major obstacles related to the political problems. Such as:
 Each buyer gives an order and a target date to the vendor. Due to Hartal the production process, inter factory transportation and shipment process may hamper. Sometimes garments
(End products) are exported by air to meet the buyers date. In this case the owner has to spend extra cost.
To remove this problem Hartal should be stopped.
Strike is one type of Hartal created by the workers. Workers are illiterate and so they are paid low wages by the owners. Sometimes workers are influenced by their leader and stop working to notify their owners about wages. In some cases the strike comes out a large volume that the workers act destructive works against the factory management and take place along the high way to create strike. As a result the productions go down.
To reduce this problem, the management should keep sound relationship with worker leaders and should meet their demands time to time.
 Internal politics :
 Internal politics mean the politics is created in garment factory among the workers and upper level stuffs. The workers perform their own duty under the supervision of their upper level stuffs. In some cases, the stuffs make bad behaviors to the workers. At that moment, the workers mentality falls down and production also decreases.
The management should convey cooperative attitude to the workers so that they can work liberally and get chance to make correct their own faults.
(iii) Transportation problem :
Transportation is a vital factor in apparel production. Transportation is of two types:
  • Internal transportation :
      The garment related accessories are transferred from one floor to another floor during production. Some important points should be considered to formulate internal transportation very efficiently . Such as:
  • At least four stairs for one floor are needed.
  • At least two lifts are required for one floor. One is used for heavy weight transportation and other is used for personnel.
              Smooth transportation system gives better production to the company.
  • External transportation :
      Transportation outside the factory premise is external transportation. Transportation system in our country is not very fine. Problems related to external transportation are as follows:
  • Traffic jam is occurred most of the entire road in the city. Enormous time is required to transport the garment products from one place to another. The company has to pay extra time, money, manpower and even has to fail the targeted lead time.
To remove this problem, we must develop our overall traffic system. At least 1 or 2 minutes are required to pass the vehicle of every sight.
  • Some times vehicle are stop running to product transport at any reason in the middle point of the road, at this purpose need time to repair it. As a result production may fall.
(iv) Drudge Problem:
The garment industry is far the country’s most important manufacturer earning around huge money annually and accounting about two thirds of all exports. About 80 percent of the garment workers are women. Despite the phenomenal success of the RMG sector the working condition and wages of workers in the industry are cause for serious concern
The problems in the industry pre-date the riots which took place just over a few times ago and which were attended by deaths, injuries, and destruction of property. Over the years, hazardous working conditions have resulted in the deaths of many workers through factory fires and collapse. The spectrum factory building collapse of April 2005 killed 64-70 people, injured over 70 (mentioning) and left hundred jobless. In February 2006 a fire destroyed the f our-story KTS Textile industries in Bangladesh’s port city of Chittagong again killing scores of mostly young and female workers. Workers, who are mostly young women, also face an acutely difficult working environment:
  • Wages are low
  • Hours are long
  • Forced labor is practiced
  • Child labor exists
  • Sexual harassment exists
  • Freedom is curtailed
  • Whether it be locked doors or right of association
  • There are a multitude of other practices which go against international labor standards    and codes of conduct (non compliance)
  • At the level of legislation and business dealings, lack of implementation of laws, restrictive laws and unfair buying practices by buyers compound the issue of noncompliance.
To eliminate this problem, we have to follow the “Compliance” with internationally social, labor and environmental standards. There are many initiatives underway-
  • Buyers have their corporate social responsibility initiatives.
  • The government has set up task forces.
  • There are the memoranda of understanding with the trade unions and the manufacturers and exporter’s association.
There are many stakeholders and dialog is imperative and all important. The needs to be the capacity and will amongst all the stakeholders and particularly the government, to take forward and develop “Compliance” and create an industry with an enhanced global image and global recognition of performance.
We should remove these types of problem, then the workers give their efforts more efficiently and sincerely. Ultimately production will be increased. We should increase the education level of our workers through different training facilities which will bring long term benefits for the company.
Area problems:
Selection of area is very important for establishing a proper lay out plan for a garment industry. The lay out plan has been discussed here which is the key factor for smooth production.
  • Lay out plan:
A methods permitting the most effective arrangement of plants, machinery and equipment; as well as the minimization of the manufacturing cost, by feeding the materials and parts sat highest possible speed and minimizing the transfer work among the process during the overall production from acceptance of the materials to delivery of the finished products.
  • Lay out of the plant by Production division
The flow of items should be considered first in the layout planning. In other words the arrangements of the divisions based on the order of the process. General stages for production process in any garments industry is given below:
In any garment industry orders are received by the merchandisers and finally the orders are executed by workers in the production floor. The whole process flow can be divided into four major areas:
  • Inventory Section  
It is one of the important section for the garments industry. Here the raw materials and accessories are first received and then supplied to the production floor according to the requirements. So the location and layout of this section are very essential.
  • Cutting section  
Cutting is the first step and very critical step for garments production. The wastage during cutting is an important issue. Different cutting faults can be occurred which should be minimized. Cutting faults are:
  • Faulty Pattern pieces
  • Faulty marker paper
  • Faulty machine
  • Faulty table
  • Ends of ply losses
  • Selvedge losses
  • Loss of fabric ends
  • Purchase loss
  • Sewing section
There are two types of defect:
Non-sewing defect:
  1. Defects occurring due to faulty raw materials
  2. Defects occurring due to cutting of fabric, ironing interlining by wrong pattern.
  3. Defects occurring due to wrong marking, spreading, cutting bundling, etc.
Sewing defect:
  1. Defects occurring due to problem of stitch formation.
  2. Defects occurring due to fabric distortion.
Defects occurring due to fabric damage along stitch line
 Remedies :
  • The cutting manager or responsible person should be very careful to detect the faults in source and remove it
  • Marker efficiency should be controlled.
  • Cutting should be done very carefully according to the fabric length & width.
  • Operator should be skilled.
    • Production section:  
In production section line balancing is very important for escalating garments production. The number of machines in a sewing layout depends on the product parts and order size. 20 machines or 26 machines in a layout is considered by the responsible person. This is also depends on  
      (a) Garments type
      (b) Shipment date
      (c) Fabric type
      (d) Available Machine
If line balancing is not done properly, production may be hampered. A line balancing of a shirt has been shown below :
  • Finishing section :
            Finishing section is the end side of any garment industry. Finishing section consists of
      Inspection and quality section
 The workers of this section should work very careful to keep the quality of the garments product.
  • This system should follow the 4 point system which is world recognized.
  • Faulty garments should not be packed. Follow the packing procedure of the  finished product.
  • Needle detector machine is used to find any loose needle or other metal parts in the finished product.
  • Increase the worker skill ness.
  • Use for two or three inspection tables for smooth inspection. The above criteria should be followed to accomplish the buyer requirements and satisfactions.
Considerable points in plant layout :
            The following factors should be considered during plant layout-
  • Employee ( the number of workers, male and female)
  • Machines (size , the number of units, machine weight by models)
  • Entrance, exit and passage, lifts, ventilation
  • Administration office, management office
  • Ware house (area, location, the number of warehouses)
  • Work shop
  • Floor condition
  • Floor space ( Machine to machine distance, section to section distance)
Site for the factory
 The following factors should be taken into consideration
      Economical factors: such as work forces, availability of materials etc.
      Natural factors: such as climate, service water for the factory, geographical features.
(ii) Environmental problems : Environment has an effect on the garments production.
      Season class:
      Season changes have a very big effect on the garment production. In summer season worker feels very hot due to the high temperature. So that they can not work properly. For this purpose, need sufficient air passing in the floor space. On the other side in winter season worker feels very cold due to the low temperature. So they need warm cloths to survive. The company should take necessary steps to help them by making a fund for them.
      Age class :
      Every company needs a responsibility of child labors. When they take the worker, must follow the age role of the country. A child can not give more production. They also can not do any hard work. So the company should follow the labor laws to recover this problem.
3. Utility problems :
Utility services in any garment industry is very important for increasing production. Load shedding is the common problem in our country. In summer season it affects our economy mostly. In a composite (garments) industry, utility section has some following important factors. Such as
  • Generator
  • Compressor
  • Boiler (Fire tube and Water tube)
  • Water treatment plant (Mainly Dyeing & Washing)
  • Sufficient water supply
Using equipments:
  • Fire extinguisher per floor (assume 10-12)
  • Smoke detector per floor (assume 10-12)
  • Sand full bucket per floor (assume 05)
  • Lock cutter per floor ( assume 01)
  • Hook per floor ( assume 01)
  • Fire bitter per floor (assume 01)
  • Stretcher per floor (assume 01)
  • Fire alarm per floor (assume 01)
  • Ring per floor (assume 12-13)
  • Automatic belt per floor (assume 01)
  • Fire proof hand glove
  • Flexible rope to rescue
To run smooth production the garments industry should maintain continuous power supply and safety equipments to protect from accidents.
 Administration and Maintenance Problem:
Administration section plays a vital role in garment industry. Any kind of problems are handled by this section. The agenda which are handled by administration section are as follows:
  • Workers agony
  • Workers wages
  • Trade union
  • Child care home
  • Medical treatment
  • Factory management
  • Security predicament
  • Training to make skilled workers
  • Mechanical problem
  • Electrical problem
  • Compliance problem.
The administrative structure of any garments factory:
Environment and physical security:
IAL believe that in environment & security is require in workplace. The Environment and physical securities are-
  • Workers are get good work environment here,
  • They are not forced to do their job
  • IAL has enough Fire extinguishers
  • IAL has several Firehouses
  • IAL has Fire alarm & public alarm
  • IAL has mark exits in all floors
  • IAL has emergency lights
  • IAL has first aid box
  • IAL has doctor’s room
  • IAL has mask for all production unit
  • IAL has evacuation plane
  • IAL has emergency exit
 Wastage principles:
  • To control extra chemical cost
  • If possible than use wastage
  • Wastage sanitation that is not harmful for environment
  • The raw materials supplier quality should measure
  1. Code of conduct / Social Responsibility Policy
Interstoff Apparels Ltd is promised to maintain a specific code of conduct in the work station. Management of Interstoff Apparels Ltd believes in equal treatment for all and do not focus on their culture, believes, religion, complexion, age, sex, marital, status or political belief.
Each and every worker has the right to know about the benefits recommended by the local low. Management ensures that, no workers are forced or mentally/ physically tortured.
To ensure proper treatment, the management of Interstoff Apparels Ltd. follows the following Code of Conduct or Social Responsibility Policy.
Child Labor: 
Interstoff Apparels Ltd. follows the local low and ILO convention definition in case of child labor. Interstoff Apparels Ltd does not recruit worker below 14 years of age, though we do not recruit workers less than 18 years.
Forced Labor: 
Interstoff Apparels Ltd is free from any prison labor, indentured labor or bonded labor. Interstoff Apparels Ltd. does not even deposit anything from workers during recruitment.
Harassment and Abuse:
Interstoff Apparels Ltd behaves with workers in honor.  Interstoff Apparels Ltd ensures that no workers are physically, mentally, orally or sexually, abused. If we found any case in this regard then we take action against the convicted as per local law as well as company policy.
Working hours and leave:
We strictly follow the working hour recommended by labor & industrial law. More than 48 hours a week is never imposed to any worker. All workers enjoy weekly holiday .We ensures that no workers perform more than 12 hours Over Time in a week. Over Time rate is as per labor & industrial law. After completion of one year each workers are entitled earned 01 day leave for every 18 days work. All workers also enjoy Ten (10) days casual leave, Fourteen (14) days sick leave and Eleven (11) days festival leave.

Salary & Benefit:
Interstoff Apparels Ltd. provides salary and benefit as per minimum wage rate published by labor & industrial welfare Ministry. Maternity leave is provided for 16 weeks with full salary with maternity benefit.
Working Condition:
 Interstoff Apparels Ltd behaves with full honor and respects to all workers and ensures a safe & healthy environment for them. Interstoff Apparels Ltd ensures all kind of physical & mental harassment.
Health & Safety:   
To avoid accident and to secure safe and healthy working environment Interstoff Apparels Ltd follows proper & well defined policy. Full time MBBS doctor and First Aid Box are always available in the work place. Interstoff Apparels Ltd ensures sufficient light, air, drinking water in the work station as per labor & industrial law. As per the ratio of Male / Female worker Interstoff Apparels Ltd ensures segregated toilet, safety training, fire drill etc.
Interstoff Apparels Ltd ensures basic human rights for all workers. Interstoff Apparels Ltd is free from any discrimination during recruitment, salary, training, promotion, termination, selection base on nationality, complexion, sex disability, marital status, political believe etc.
Environmental Rules & Regulation:
Interstoff Apparels Ltd respects all local laws and regulation regarding environmental rules & regulation and maintains for inventory of raw materials use, and disposal, Interstoff Apparels Ltd. always ensures the environmental safety. Interstoff Apparels Ltd is always ready to invent & maintain better policy & procedure to ensure environmental safety.
Supplier Control:
Interstoff Apparels Ltd. does business only with them who follows local & international law.
Freedom of Association:
Interstoff Apparels Ltd respects workers’ freedom to contact any association. We do not believe in protection workers from joining any association to protect their right and bargain.

Industrial training is an important and essential part of education as through this training we learn all the implimentation of the processes which we have studied theoriticaly. It gives us an opportunity to compare the theoritical knowledge with practical facts and thus develop  our knowledge. This industrial trainning also give us an opportunity to explore through knitting section, printing section,garments section and maintainance section, which enlearge our knowledge of textile adminstration, production planning, procuremant system, production process ,machinaries and learn us  to adjust with the industrial life.
We have found myself fortunate to have my industrial trainning at Interstoff Apparels Ltd. It has a huge production capacity with a very efficient production team. Interstoff Apparels has a very good, well equipoed and morden laboratories and producing a wide range of color. During my trainning period we have noticed that Interstoff is very concern about their quality and they rarely have any quality complain.The management of Interstoff Apparels is very organized, pre-active and co-operative.
This industrial trainning gave us a clear scheme about knit dyeing. The two months of trainning was actualy the memorable time of life. All the officials of Interstoff was very kind and helpfull to us and provide me all necessaries. This Trainning programm will be helpful us in future practical life.