“Industrial Training” In Oeko Tex Group
Bangladesh is one of the leading readymade garments exporters of the world. Every year Bangladesh exports more than one third of the total garments requirement of the RMG market of the world. Every year Bangladesh earns more than 76% of its foreign currency from this sector .That is why the study of garments technology does deserve well practical practice. OEKO-TEX GROUP is a truly Exclusive fashion house that deals with lots of stuff like fabric quality, garments quality, embroidery quality, washing quality. The Garments Division has the capability to offer a complete product range for the 100% export to EU & USA market. The vision of the Garment Division is to become the preferred partner for sourcing high quality value added garments from Bangladesh. With an urge to developing local human resource, the Garments Division has the potential to make an important contribution to the nation’s growing RMG export sector to make it more competitive.
|Status||Private Limited Company|
|Type||100%Knit Garments Manufacturing Factory|
|Established||22nd August, 2002|
|Year Of Established||11 Year|
|Daily Capacity||20,000 Pc’s Per Day.|
|Annual Turnover||$18 Million|
|Product||All Types Of Knit Garments.|
|Total Employee||10,000 Persons, Male 40%, Female 60%|
|Office||House#103, Northern Road, DOHS,
|Factory||South Panishail, Zirani Bazar,
Kashimpur, Gazipur Sadar, Gazipur
|Concern Business Unit||OEKO TEX LTD.
YASIN KNITTEX LTD.
EQUI TEX ACCESSORIES
1. “Garments merchandising is the combination of some works like buyer development, work order collection, prizing, sample development approval of sample, fabrics and accessories collection, production follow up, documentation, delivery in time etc.”
2. “To know about garments for selling is called garments merchandising”.
Responsibilities of Merchandiser:
- To negotiate the prize for the seller, if prize is high, then it is less chance to get the order. On the other hand if prize is low, then there is a chance to incur loss for the factory, so it is very risky job for a merchandiser and have to remember it.
- Have to give more competitive prize without compromising the quality.
- They have to maintain good relation with the buyer for getting more business in the future.
- Have to purchase all material (fabrics & accessories) within competitive prize for making the garments as per buyer instruction regarding quality.
- To execute the order within limited time that is timely delivery shipment is must, otherwise if goods are not shift in time, then buyer will not accept the goods, in that case it will be loss for a factory.
The term “merchandising” is well known to the persons specially involved in garments trade. The term merchandising has been derived from the term merchandise. Merchandise means goods that are bought & sold.
The term “merchandiser” may be defined as the person who merchandises the goods. Garments merchandising means buying raw materials & accessories, producing required garments, maintaining required quality level and exporting the garments within time frame.
We can assume that a person involved in garments merchandising need a wide range of knowledge & skill to perform his job successfully a merchandiser should possess the following basic knowledge and skill.
a) Command of English and adequate knowledge of technical terms for accurate and efficient communication.
b) Knowledge of yarn, fabric, and dyeing, printing, finishing, dyes color fastness garments production, etc.
C) Conception of usual potential quality problems in the garments manufacturing.
d) Knowledge of the raw materials inception systems & garments inspection systems.
Activities of Merchandising
Activities of Merchandising Department are as follows:
?? Communication with Buyers
– Procure Order & Order confirmation
– Price Quoting
– Sample Control & Approval
– Potential Sourcing of Materials & Approval Fabric, Trims & Accessories
– Lab dipping & Approval
– Purchasing of Materials
– Factory Scheduling / Planning
– Order Follow up: all steps of production & Quality
– Ensure On Time Delivery
– Liaison with the customer during Design, Sourcing, Production & Shipping
– Conduct coordination Meeting with other departments / Pre production meeting
– Attend Buyer’s meeting
– Ensure Customer Satisfaction
– Product Development etc.
Fabric Consumption Calculation of a Knit T-Shirt
|75 cm ( length) x 50 cm ( Chest width)||3750 scm|
|75 cm ( Front length) x 50 cm ( Front chest width)||3750 scm|
|24 cm ( Sleeve length) x 40 cm ( Armhole width) x 2 ( 2 sleeves)||1920 scm|
|Total Fabrics Consumption||9420 scm|
|Let us make the 9420 scm into Meters than Kg:|
|9420 scm divided by 10000 scm ( 100 x 100 = 10000 scm)||0.942 m|
|Let us say 1 square meter fabric weight||140 gm|
|140 gm divided by 1000||0.14 kg|
|0.942 m fabric weight ( 0.942 x 0.14)||0.13188 kg|
|1 Pc Knit T Shirt Weight||0.13188 Kg|
|Therefore, 12 Pcs Knit T Shirt Weight (0.13188 X 12)||1.59 Kg|
Garments accessories means all items used in the garment except the basic is called garments trims. There are hundreds of items used to manufacture the garments which are used as trims.
1) Sewing threads and sew able item
c. Main label
d. Size label
e. Care label
f. Velcro (Hook and loop fastener)
1) Finishing item:
a. Price ticket
b. Hang tag
c. Poly bag
d. Back board
e. Neck board
f. Collar inside
g. Butter fly (Single, Double)
h. Tag pin
i. Tissue paper
j. Draw string and stopper
k. Scotch Paper
l. Tissue Paper
m. Plastic: clip
n. Collar insert
o. Collar bone
Order follow-up and execution:
They do it during running the production. As a result if any fault occurring it rectified in the primary stage.
Arranging final inspection:
After completion the garment making merchandiser arrange final inspection date with quality department. Inspection is also depending on the wishes of buyer.
Ensuring on time shipment:
Once the inspection is done and the goods found ok for shipment, then the goods handed over to the clearing and forwarding agent for on time shipment.
Cost Calculation System
During the fixation of price following notes are to be followed carefully:
- Cost of fabric Cost of accessories /Doz. garments.
- C. M (Cost of manufacturing)/Doz. Garments
- Cost of transportation from factory to sea port or airport.
- Clearing & forwarding cost
- Overhead Cost.
Cost Calculation of a Garment
|item||width||consumption||unit price $||amount $|
|Shell “A”||65/35 TC PU Coating||58”||3 YDS||0.75||2.25|
|Shell “B”||65/35 TC||58”||0.11 YDS||0.70||0.08|
|Lining||NT 210 T PD||60”||2.59 YDS||0.73||1.89|
|Padding||AFD 500 D 150 GM||60”||2 YDS||0.80||1.60|
|Zipper||V # 5 One Way||1.02 PCS||0.35||0.36|
|Plastic Button (Small)||1.02 PCS||0.02||0.02|
|Plastic Button (Big)||13.26 PCS||0.02||0.27|
|Main Label||Woven||1.02 PCS||0.20||0.204|
|Size Label||1.02 PCS||0.10||0.102|
|Care Label||1.02 PCS||0.10||0.102|
|Stopper Bead||4.08 PCS||0.01||0.04|
|Velcro Pile||25 MM||0.15 YDS||0.10||0.02|
|Velcro Hook||25 MM||0.23 YDS||0.10||0.02|
|Cotton String||6 MM||4 YDS||0.04||0.16|
|Hang Tag||1.02 PCS||0.15||0.15|
|Packing||Poly, Blister, Carton etc||1.02||0.25||0.26|
|Cost of Manufacturer||1.00|
|Cost of Production||9.10|
|Transport Cost from factory to sea port or airport (0.5% Of Cost of Production)||0.05|
|Clearing & forwarding Cost (2% Of Cost of Production)||0.18|
|Overhead Cost (0.5% Of Cost of Production)||0.05|
|Commission (10% of Total Cost)||0.94|
|Net FOB Price||10.32|
– SOME BUYER’S NAMES:
v Lotto, Trinova, Spring field, Women Secret, sela.
USA – JC PENNY
EU – MERKS & SPENCER
– CELIO SPORTS, ZARA
CANADA – GAP
– HUDSON’S BAY COMPANY
OTHERS – VOILANCE (BROUCHU)
TYPES OF ORDER:
FOB (Free on Board) Order: This is the export term of delivery and price quotation. The sellers send the goods for export and deliver them on board. The risk is past from seller to buyer, when the goods are loaded in the ship at the port at departure. The buyer pays the freight charge and the seller does not include the freight charge with his costing.
FOA (Free on Air) Order:
The seller delivers the goods to the air carrier at the airport of departure. The buyer bears the risk from that moment and pays air transport cost. The seller bears the cost of materials and making, does not include air freight.
C & F (Cost and Freight) Order:
The seller sends the goods for export, pays the freight charge also and delivers the goods on board. The seller bears the cost of materials, making also freight charge.
CMC (Cutting, Making and Carton) Order:
Like CM order, the seller does not add the price of fabrics and trimmings but add the price of the carton with carton.
CIF (Cost Insurance Freight) Order:
An agreement between a buyer and a seller in which the seller is responsible for paying for shipping and providing a minimum amount of insurance coverage up to the named port of destination, while the buyer is responsible for the transportation risk beyond the minimum coverage as soon as the good or product is loaded onto the ship. Legally, risk transfers when the good or product crosses the outer rail of the ship.
CIFC (Cost, Freight, Insurance and Commission) Order:
At this order seller include the cost of insurance, freight and commission for local buying house.
CMT (Cost of Making and Trimming) Order:
In this case the buyer fixes the rate of CMT with the factory, so the seller does not add the price of fabric with his costing, but at L/C buyer gives all money to the factory, factory collects only C.M money from bank and balance return to fabric supplies. The order system is following the tailoring shop.
CM (Cost of Making) Order:
In this case buyer fixes the rate of CM only with factory. So the seller does not include the prize of fabric and trimmings with his costing, but at L/C buyer gives all money to factory. Factory collects only CM money from the bank and balance money return to trimmings and fabric supplies.
TT (Telephonic Transfer) Order: When order quantity is very small and need urgent delivery, in that case buyer gives purchase contract instead of L/C and sends money to seller bank by TT. After getting money seller sends the goods to the buyer.
It is indirect order. The order received by another factory and when it is not possible for that factory to complete the production within the time in that case they share the order with other factory by giving subcontract. The subcontract factory only get the CM charge by local money from the order taker.
In this case the buyer did not pay any money against by garment from Bangladesh. Instead of money they are giving us another goods or product which is surplus in their country. But we need it very much. This type of business is very rare. They use L/C for doing this type of business.
STORE OR INVENTORY SYSTEM
Inventory is the stock of any item or resources used in an Organization.
Supplied Grey fabrics are first subjected to the 4 point inspection system and fabric allowance point is 28 per 100 yards. Only those goods are stored here which are passed from the quality control department. And defected fabric is back to the supplier.
The types of fabric defect are check in 4 point inspection system.
– Oil spot – Net.
– Missing yarn – Knot
– Dye defect – Broken yarn.
– Hole – Slub yarn
– Color yarn – Color shading.
– Drop pick
4- Point inspection system:
Defects (length wise): Penalty point:
1. 0-3 inch……………………………1
2. 3-6 inch……………………………2
3. 6-9 inch……………………………3
4. 9 inch & above…………………….4
5. Any hole& miss pick………………4
Example: Suppose inspected fabric length=100 yds, fabric inch, and following faults are found.
Faults length No of faults
0-3 inch 3
3-6 inch 5
6-9 inch 3
9 inch & above 2
Points/100 yds= Total penalty points*100*36
Fabric length*Fabric width
Points /100 yds = ????×100×????
= 09.36 per 100 sq/yds
Various types of fabric and accessories such as sewing tread, button, interlining, zippers, label etc are stored in central room. Here also machine sparse parts and stationary are stored in store room.
The flow sequence of fabric inventory is given below:
Received the fabric
Make the swatch card
Prepare blanket shade
Issue fabric to cutting room.
Fabric is separated and stored according to lot number.
Flow sequence of accessories inventory is given below
Swatch approval from buyer
Register/Record the entry
Supply to sub store according to demand
Issue to bulk production
Accessories inventory item:
Hanger size: Identify the size of the garment by hanger
Label: Labels are the most important trimmings by which customer easily, know about the product. Here two types of label are available:
1. Main label: It contains the name of buyer and country. Ex. Wal-Mart, USA etc.
2. Sub label:
i. Size label: It contains the size of the garment
ii. Care label: It contains care construction. Different types of care label are given below.
a. Washing code
b. Bleaching code
c. Ironing code
d. Dry cleaning code
e. Drying code
iii. Cost label: It contains the cost of garments.
iv. Composition: It contains fiber composition of the fabric. Ex 65% cotton, 35%polyester.
Different types of sewing treads are available in store room. Such as
- 60/3 (100% polyester)
- 50/3 (core spun yarn)
- 40/3 (100% polyester)
- 20/3 (100% cotton) etc
Many types of button are available in store room. Some examples of button are given below.
· Horn button
· Purl button
· Shank button
· Snap button
· Coconut button
· Chalk button
Amount determination of button:
There are two systems of determination the amount of amount. These are given below.
- 1G.G =12GRS
- Each cartoon contain 750 gross
1 gross =144 pc’s.
750 gross =144×750=108000 pc’s.
Special type of accessories used in jacket, bags etc. To reduce and increase the length and also for better fitting, it is used.
Types of interlining are available in store room are given below.
o Dot fuse.
o Paper fuse.
o T.C interlining.
o Woven fabric fuse.
o Non fuse etc.
Various types of packing accessories are available in store room such as polybag, packing board, tissue paper, hanger, scotch tape, gum tape, carton etc.
Flow sequence of packing section is given below:
Make shipping mark according to P/O, PDM sheet
Approve from buyer
Carton measurement confirm from Q.C dept
Sample make (carton)
Re-approved from buyer
Ensure net and gross weight
Go to bulk production
Complete the carton with garment
Cartons are made according to buyer instruction and length wise it contains the buyer name, widthwise it contain the measurement, net & gross weight. Carton contain the information are printed by screen print style.
Quality for Inventory/Storage:
Fabrics or other Raw Materials and Accessories should be safe from the following:
2. Mechanical damage,
3. Environmental damage due to temp. & R.H% which may cause dimensional changes,
4. Fungal Attack,
5. Fadding due to light exposure,
6. Damage during Handli
The main function of this department is to re- engineering the garment from the sampling stage so that it would be production friendly for the production as well helps to increase the productivity through machine layout, time and motion study.
In the sewn products industries we must continually ensure that we remain competitive and profitable whilst also striving to improve our personal and community’s standard of living.
Productivity improvements may be achieved through:
Industrial Engineering Department :
– To follow up the production process
– Work process development
– SMV calculation & Line target
– Efficiency control
– Time study
– Capacity study
– Workers training
– M/c sequence lay out
– Thread consumption
– Operator Interview
Duties and Activities of a Work Study Officer:
· Style details collect
· SMV make
· Layout make
· Machine arrange
· Attend P.P meeting
· First week production plan
· Line feeding
· Work aid arrange
· Method study (innovation) & take video & record
· Time study
· Line capacity find out
· Bottle neck operation find out
· Individually follow up bottle neck operation and try To increase production
· Capacity & efficiency wise target setting & try to achieving
· Line balancing
· Motivation the worker
· Maximum time stay in production line & try to solve any kinds of production related problem
· Monitoring the production achievement hourly & daily
· Loss time record
· Overall, try to increases the productivity.
All work study- techniques are classified into two main groups the specimen bellows by typical:
Layout Time standards
Work flow Hourly targets
Machinery Production checks
Standardize method Line balancing
Quality specification Training curves
Capital investment appraisal Maintain payment systems
Sewing method specification
May be defined as:
The systematic recording and critical examination of existing and alternative methods of work, to facilitate the introduction of more efficient and cost effective methods.
The basic procedure:
Select: identifies the areas where results can be achieved these are usually where there are:
Bottlenecks increased cost persistent overtime working,
Excess fatigue safety hazards high labor turnover high absenteeism
Record: Record though observation all of the exact details of an operation with regard to:
Machinery used attachments used operator method quality specification
Handling system work place layout sequence position online
Examine: critically examine all of the recorded method details. Question each detail:
Can it be eliminated? Can it be combined?
Can the sequence be changed? Can it be simplified?
Easy motions characteristics
The methods analyst should strive to incorporate the following into methods:
Minimum: Using finger, wrist, and elbow movements rather than making shoulder and body movements.
Simultaneous: Using both hands at same time whenever possible.
Symmetrical: Left and right arms moving at the same time in opposite directions.
Natural: Free sewing movements are faster and easier then controlled movements.
Continues: Continuous curve movements are better than straight line movements involving sudden or Sharpe changes in directions.
Rhythmic: Smooth automatic movements must be encouraged.
Habitual: ` Movements that have become automatic as they do not require additional Concentration.
The layout of a workplace impacts directly on the pattern of movements and consequently time taking to perfume and operation
When analyzing a method the following steps should be considered:
Sketch the existing workplace layout.
Sketch the shape of the work table noting any modification to the standard, e.g. extensions or cut downs
Sketch the position and clearly identify any work aids or attachments e.g. guides, reel feed etc.
Sketch in the position of products parts before they are processed; clearly identify the part of parts
Sketch where the parts are placed after processing
Step 2: analyzed how to products parts are moved within the work place
How part is first obtained how the operators holds the part
Where the part is move to how the part is presented to the machine
How the part is disposed of by the operator where the part is disposed to.
Describe the method in simple movements; GSD is the best analysis tool for this.
The motions are typically:
From the list of movements the key points for attention should be identified
Finger/ hand position
Number of sewing bursts
Quality specification- tolerances, notch alignment, fabric position etc.
Special skill requirements
The critical examination stage:
Identify and eliminate excess movements’ e.g. checking, smoothing and positioning motions that are not fundamental to the method or company policy.
Identify and eliminate stretching or body movements.
Strive to achieve a method that contains only motions with “Easy Characteristics”
There are number of different techniques that can be used to carry out work measurement within the sewn products industries, the traditional alternative to general sewing data is time study.
The skills required are:
1. The ability, skill and experienced to read and operate a stopwatch.
2. The ability, skills and experienced to assess the rate of working (performance) of individuals workers.
This is the process by which we calculate the SMV (standard minute value) in “in process inspection”. There are two types of SMV such as estimate SMV and garments SMV. It is done by following formula,
Take a stop watch and take times for 10 times for a operation and finally calculate the SMV of this operation and production per hour.
.Steps in taking time study:
A glossary of terms is contained in the manual so that the student may refer to it for specific definitions.
1. Prior to commencement it is essential that there are commutations to all interested parties.
Manager’s supervisor’s workers representative’s operators
2. Ensure the prevailing conditions are suitable for a reliable time study.
· The operators are properly trained and skilled – not trainees
· The materials being used are of the correct quality.
· There is sufficient work available for a time study to be completed without interruption.
· The machine, equipment and work aids are correct and in working order
· Ensure that health and safety rules are observed
· The work place and working method meets the official special specifications.
3. It is vital that all relevant details are recorded before the start of study e.g.
Study number date name of work study engg. Date of study product type
Style reference size color fabric type trim details quality specifications
Department line/team/section machine type machine speed stitch density Attachments work aids.
4. Before commencing the study break the operations down into elements so that observed
Assessment of rate of working and time taken can be recorded during the study.
After completing the study:
1. Record the watch elapsed time and calculate the observe study time . Then calculate unaccounted time and watch error. The tolerance allowed – ± 2%
2. Extend the observe elemental /operation rating and times into basic time
3. Calculate the average basic time for each element /operation cycle.
4. Apply the appropriate relaxation, Delay and contingency allowances to the basic times in order to calculate the standard time either for each element or the operation as a hole.
5. Where an appropriate some all of the elemental standard times in order to compile a standard time for the operation.
6. As appropriate convert the standard time to the standard time allowed time by applying the appropriate performance factor to the standard time using the formula below.
SAM= SMV ×
Line balancing is the allocation of sewing machine according to style and design of garment. It depends of that what type of garment we have to produce.
The Objectives of Line Balancing:
Line balancing is a main part of a mass production. These kinds of systems, regardless of being different in details, are workstations in a sequence. Row material is included in the line at the beginning or in the middle. Parts included in the system transfers from one workstation through the other and at the end leaves the system as a completed product. Transfer lines uses manpower very little when compared to assembly lines. The certain properties of Transfer lines are transfer and process of a product automatically through a line.
Objectives that should be gained balancing an assembly line are as follows;
o Regular material flow;
o Maximum usage of man power and machine capacity;
o Minimum process times;
o Minimizing workstations;
o Maximum outputs at the desired timed;
o Agreed quality maintenance of the garments;
o Reduce production costs.
Importance of Line Balancing:
The importance of line balancing could be summarized as follows –
- Good line balancing increases the rate of production;
- This is the pre-condition for smooth production;
- Line balancing helps to compare the required machinery with the existing one and make a balance;
- It also helps in the determination of labor requirement;
- Good balancing reduces production time;
- Profit of a factory can be ensured by proper line balancing;
- Proper line balancing ensures optimum production at the agreed quality;
- It reduces faults in the finished products;
- Line balancing helps to know about new machines required for new styles;
- It becomes easier to distribute particular job to each operator;
- It becomes possible to deliver goods at right time at the agreed quality for least costs.
Steps in Line Balancing:
Now-a-days, Standard Minute Value (SMV) is used as a tool for the line balancing, production control and the estimation of efficiency. In a similar way, the time taken to do a job for making garments like shirt/trouser/blouse/dresses could depend upon a number of factors like –
§ The length of the shirt/trouser/blouse/dress;
§ The number of stitches per inch;
§ The presentation of item;
§ The pricing of garments.
Sample section is the most important section in the Garment industry. Here all types of sample are developed. Sometime developing section help to develop a new type of sample. Here the operator and the managerial level are very much efficient than the other section. Here the operator is selected according to their work efficiency & also the experience. Skilled operator is allowed to work in this section. Because sample must has to be unique & the best quality, out looking also very good. Without a skilled setup this is impossible.
Buying office reference merchandiser
Merchandiser to pattern section
Quality final inspection & measurement
Folding & packing
Send to buyer
Types of sample produce by OEKO GROUP according to buyer demand:
There is various type of sample those are given below:
1. Original sample:
This type of sample made of original fabric and accessories according to buyer sketch and measurement.
2. Proto/ Develop sample:
Here measurement is very important but need not to match the fabric and accessories.
3. Seal sample:
Seal sample is approved by the buyer with tag.
4. Size set:
All sizes of sample are produced such as S, M, L, XL, etc, and send to buyer.
5. Wash sample:
Shade of wash sample must be matched with original sample after washing. It also determined by grey scale.
6. Pre-production sample:
First garment of bulk production is called pre- production sample.
7. Add sample:
For advertising of the product buyer want this type of sample.
8. Sales man sample:
To supply the new product in different showroom, buyer wants this sample.
9. Photo sample:
Only photograph of the product is send to buyer.
10. Shipment/ Reference sample:
After completion the shipment of the garment some garment are kept in sample room which are known as shipment or reference sample.
11. Pre-line sample:
This type of sample is collected from anyone line during production.
12. Lab-test sample:
Sample is tested by third party or buyer’s nominated lab.
In this section normally pattern is modified. The main pattern of garment is made by the buying house (Shing on) and sends to the sample section thru merchandising department.
After receiving an order in most cases buyer gives them a complete pattern and they make sample according to given pattern. But in some cases they prepare the pattern by own when buyer don not give any pattern.
Working procedure of this section:
- Collect pattern from merchandising department.
- Check pattern by following the tech pack.
- If the measurement is correct then make a sample and send it for wash.
- After washing check the measurement again, if any shrinkage is found then modify the pattern according to shrinkage and again send for washing.
- Again check the garment, if it is correct then send it to the merchandising department for getting approval.
- After getting approval make samples according to buyer’s requirement and send it for wash.
- And check the measurement after getting the garment from washing section and send it to the merchandising department for approval.
- If it is approved then send the modified pattern to the CAD section for pattern grading.
- Then made different sizes of sample buyer asked and send it to them thru merchandising department for approval.
- After getting approval working procedure of sample section is finished
Marker is a thin paper which contains all the pattern pieces of a garment. It is made just before cutting and its purpose is to minimize the wastages. The width of a marker is equal to the width of the fabric and it should not be greater than the width of the fabric i.e. the width of the marker is kept less than or equal to the width of the Fabric.
The pattern pieces should be placed very carefully in such a way that it will obviously minimize wastages.
Objects of marker making:
– To reduce cost;
– To improve the quality of the garments;
– To reduce the cutting time;
– To facilitate large scale production.
– Possibilities of marker making:
Generally there are two methods by which marker can be made –
The man performs it by himself using his hands. It is a conventional system and requires more time. Manually two types of marker are made –
1. Full size marker:
Full size marker is made for production purpose.
2. Miniature type marker:
Miniature type marker is sometime made and its purposes are to plan or schedule and learn or study i.e. for planning and learning purposes.
Now the commonly used system of marker making is computerized method. In this system, a man performs it by himself using computer software (CAD and CAM) and it requires considerably less time than manual system. Two types of marker are generally made using computerized system –
1. Full size marker:
Using ‘Digitalizing Board’ the pattern pieces are input into the computer. Computer uses software and a marker paper is printed out that will be used in the production.
2. Miniature type marker:
Only for learning, practicing, and planning purposes this type of marker is printed from the computer.
Computerized system is also two types –
Manually it is done by using computer. Generally a computer operator can do it and requires less time.
The pattern pieces are replaced on to the marker by programming. A high technician can do so and it requires more time.
Factors considered during marker making:
The important factors considered during marker making are –
Nature of the Fabric:
The fabric may be either symmetric or asymmetric. Thus the nature of the fabric should
be considered during marker making.
Lay planning of patterns:
Improper lay planning of patterns may create more wastage. Thus it should be taken under consideration.
Alignment of the pattern pieces according to the grain line:
It is also another important factor that must be considered. The warp direction of a fabric is very much important for a garment and the grain line indicates the warp or wale direction.
Requirements of cutting:
Before placing the pattern pieces on to the marker or during marker making the cutting allowances are considered where necessary and where is not. It may produce more wastage and may reduce the dimensions of patterns.
Different types and sizes if garments manufacturing may un at a time in an industry. So during marker making it should be considered.
Size of marker:
During marker making we have to think about the table size, length of the fabric, etc.
The ratio between the total areas of the pattern pieces to the total area of the maker paper is technically termed as Marker Efficiency. It is expressed in percentage. If it is denoted by the symbol ? then –
Marker Efficiency (?) = (Total areas of the pattern pieces/Total area of the
Marker paper) * 100
The factors which influence the Marker Efficiency –
· Manufacturers of the marker;
· Size of pattern pieces;
· Length of the marker;
· Pattern Engineering;
· Nature of the fabric;
· Method of marker making;
· Marker width;
· Kinds or design of garments.
Constraint of Marker making:
The hinders of marker making are –
Grain line is a more effective constraint of marker making. Because of grain line sometimes it is tough to place the pattern pieces on to the marker, even though it is possible the wastage become higher.
Design of Garments:
Sometimes the designs and repeats of the fabric are regarded as constraints of marker making. The patterns may miss the designs or may overlap the designs.
Nature of the Fabric:
Nature of the fabric may sometimes be regarded as a constraint of marker making. Nature of the fabric includes symmetric and asymmetric.
Accurate cutting may be one of the constraints of marker making.
Production planning includes rate of production, types of garments, sizes of garments, etc.
Fabric wastages inside and outside of the marker:
That wastage that is obtained from the inter-spaces of the pattern pieces in the marker paper. It depends on the efficiency of the marker maker and on the size of the patterns as well.
Besides the inside wastages, some fabric is wasted outside of the marker –
Ends of the p