Jobs and Job Analysis Chapter Objectives
¡ Discuss workflow analysis and business process re-engineering as approaches to organizational work.
¡ Define job design and identify five design characteristics for jobs.
¡ Explain how work schedules and telework can change jobs and work.
¡ Describe job analysis and the stages and methods used in the process.
¡ Identify the behavioral and legal aspects of job analysis.
¡ List the components of job descriptions.
Nature of Jobs and Work
• Dividing Work into Jobs
v Effort directed toward producing or accomplishing results.
v A grouping of tasks, duties, and responsibilities that constitutes the total work assignment for an employee.
Influences Affecting Jobs, People, and Related HR Policies
• Workflow Analysis
Ø A study of the way work (inputs, activities, and outputs) moves through an organization.
Approaches to Dealing with Jobs
Business Process Re-Engineering
• Business Process Re-engineering (BPR)
Ø Measures for improving such activities as product development, customer service, and service delivery.
• Job Design
Ø Organizing tasks, duties, and responsibilities into a productive unit of work.
• Person/job Fit
Ø Matching characteristics of people with characteristics of jobs.
Possible “Levers” for Job Design
Classic Approaches to Job Design
FIGURE 6-3 Job Characteristics Model
Using Teams in Jobs
FIGURE 6-4 Factors Affecting Virtual Team Success
ØThe process of going to work via electronic computing and telecommunications equipment.
• Effects of Alternative Work Arrangements
ØMore self-scheduling by employees
ØA shift to evaluating employees on results
ØGreater trust, less control and direct supervision
ØLegal issues related to state and federal laws
ØCareer impacts of lack of direct contact (visibility)
FIGURE 6-5 Growth of Telecommuting
The Nature of Job Analysis
• Job Analysis
ØA systematic way of gathering and analyzing information about the content, context, and the human requirements of jobs.
v Work activities and behaviors
v Interactions with others
v Performance standards
v Financial and budgeting impact
v Machines and equipment used
v Working conditions
v Supervision given and received
v Knowledge, skills, and abilities needed
Approaches to Dealing with Jobs
Task-Based Job Analysis
Competency-Based Job Analysis
Ø Individual capabilities that can be linked to enhanced performance by individuals or teams.
v Technical competencies
v Behavioral competencies
• Reasons for using a competency approach:
Ø To communicate valued behaviors within the organization
Ø To raise competency levels throughout the organization
Ø To emphasize people’s capabilities for enhancing the competitive advantage of the organization
FIGURE 6-7 Typical Division of HR Responsibilities: Job Analysis
Stages in the Job Analysis Process
Job Analysis Methods
FIGURE 6-9 Typical Areas Covered in a Job Analysis Questionnaire
Job Analysis and the U.S. Department of Labor
Behavioral Aspects of Job Analysis
Legal Aspects of Job Analysis
• Job Analysis and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
ØEssential job functions—fundamental duties of the job that are performed regularly, require significant amounts of time, cannot be easily assigned to another employee, and are necessary to accomplish the job.
ØMarginal job functions—duties that are part of the job but are incidental or ancillary to the purpose and nature of the job.
FIGURE 6-10 Determining Essential and Marginal Job Functions
Job Analysis and Wage/Hour Regulations
• Fair Labor Standards Act
ØTo qualify for an exemption from the overtime provisions of the act:
v Exempt employees can spend no more than 20% of their time on manual, routine, or clerical duties.
v Exempt employees must spend at least 50% of their time performing their primary duties as executive, administrative, or professional employees.
Job Descriptions and Job Specifications
• Job Description
ØIdentification of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job
• Performance Standards
ØIndicators of what the job accomplishes and how performance is measured in key areas of the job description.
• Job Specification
ØThe knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) an individual needs to perform a job satisfactorily.
Sample Job Description
Job Description Components
Ø Job title
Ø Reporting relationships
Ø Date of analysis
• General Summary
Ø Describes the job’s distinguishing responsibilities and components
• Essential Functions and Duties
Ø Lists major tasks, duties and responsibilities
• Job Specifications
Ø Knowledge, skills, and abilities
Ø Education and experience
Ø Physical requirements
Ø Of implied contract
• Signature of approvals