In the United States, the law regarding murder varies by jurisdiction. In most U.S. jurisdictions there is a hierarchy of acts, known collectively as homicide, of which first degree murder and felony murder are the most serious, followed by second degree murder, followed by voluntary manslaughter and involuntary manslaughter which are not as serious, and ending finally in justifiable homicide, which is not a crime at all. However, because there are at least 52 relevant jurisdictions, each with its own criminal code, this is a considerable simplification.

Sentencing also varies very widely depending upon the specific murder charge. “Life imprisonment” is a common penalty for first degree murder, but its meaning varies widely.

Capital punishment is a legal sentence in 32 states, and also the federal civilian and military legal systems. The United States is unusual in actually performing executions, with 34 states having performed executions since capital punishment was reinstated in 1976. The methods of execution have varied but the most common method since 1976 has been lethal injection. In 2014 a total of 35 people were executed, and 3,002 were on death row.

The Unborn Victims of Violence Act, enacted in 2004, codified at 18 U.S. Code § 1841, allows for a fetus to be treated as a victim in crimes. Subsection (c) of that statute specifically prohibits prosecutions related to consented abortions and medical treatments.

Homicide in Florida

Murder is generally defined as the unlawful killing of a human being. This general definition is applied differently from state to state. In the state of Florida there are many situations resulting in death that can be deemed as murder or homicide. In Florida, homicide is an act resulting in the death of a human being. Homicide can be criminal or non-criminal. Murder is a more serious charge of homicide that comes with increased penalties.

Types of Homicide in Florida

The following are situations that can be deemed as homicide within the state of Florida.

  • Justifiable use of deadly force
  • Assisting self-murder
  • Commercial exploitation of self-murder
  • Manslaughter
  • Vehicular homicide
  • Vessel homicide
  • Unnecessary killing to prevent criminal act
  • Killing of an unborn child by injury to its mother
  • Excusable homicide
  • Murder
  • Attempted felony murder

Murder in Florida

Murder can be punished more harshly than the homicide charges outlined above, and it usually has a more serious connotation. The following are examples of murder charges in the state of Florida.

  • Murder occurs when the premeditated or malicious intent to kill another person is acted out and results in the death of the intended person(s) or another human being.
  • When murder is committed in the completion or attempt of the following crimes:

– Arson

– Sexual battery

– Robbery

– Burglary

– Aggravated child abuse

– Aircraft piracy

– Kidnapping

– Aggravated stalking

– Carjacking

– Resisting an officer with violence

– Terrorism

  • When a drug or substance, such as opium, heroin, cocaine, or any natural or synthetic salt, is distributed with the knowledge that consumption of said drug will kill the user. Or, when the substance is prepared by a person over the age of 18 for use, with knowledge that use will result in the user’s death.

With any of these instances, if the crime is attempted by not completed a charge of attempted murder, attempted homicide or attempted manslaughter can be given.

Killing of self

  • Suicide – intentional killing of self.
    • Autocide – suicide by automobile.
    • Medicide – a suicide accomplished with the aid of a physician.
    • Murder-suicide – a suicide committed immediately after one or more murders.
    • Self-immolation – suicide as a form of protest, often by fire
    • Suicide by cop – acting in a threatening manner so as to provoke a lethal response from law enforcement.

Killing of other people

All of these are considered types of homicide.

Killing of family

  • Avunculicide – the act of killing an uncle. (Avunculus being Latin for uncle, specifically a maternal uncle)
  • Familicide – is a multiple-victim homicide where a killer’s spouse and children are slain.(Familia being Latin for family)
  • Filicide – the act of a parent killing their child. (Filius being Latin for son.)
  • Fratricide – the act of killing a brother, also in military context death by friendly fire. (Frater being Latin for brother)
  • Geronticide – the abandonment of the elderly to die, commit suicide or be killed. See also Senicide.
  • Honour killing – the act of killing a family member who has or was perceived to have brought disgrace to the family.
  • Infanticide – the act of killing a child within the first year of its life.
  • Mariticide – the act of killing one’s husband.
  • Matricide – the act of killing one’s mother. (Mater being Latin for mother)
  • Neonaticide – the act of killing an infant within the first twenty-four hours or month (varies by individual and jurisdiction) of its life.
  • Nepoticide – the act of killing one’s nephew
  • Parricide – (also parenticide) the killing of one’s mother or father or other close relative.
  • Patricide – the act of killing of one’s father. (Pater being Latin for father)
  • Pedicide – the act of killing a child.
  • Prolicide – the act of killing one’s own children.
  • Senicide – the killing of one’s elderly family members when they can no longer work or become a burden. (Senex being Latin for old man)
  • Siblicide – the killing of an infant individual by its close relatives (full or half siblings)
  • Sororicide – the act of killing one’s sister.(Soror being Latin for sister)
  • Uxoricide – the act of killing one’s wife (Uxor being Latin for wife)

Killing of others

  • Amicicide – the act of killing a friend. (“Amicus” being Latin for friend)
  • Androcide – the systematic killing of men.
  • Capital punishment – the judicial killing of a human being for crimes.
  • Casualty (person) – death (or injury) in wartime.
  • Collateral damage – Deaths during wartime due to imprecise or incorrect targeting or friendly fire
  • Democide – the murder of any person or people by a government.
  • Ecocide – the destruction of the natural environment by such activity as war, overexploitation of resources, or pollution.
  • Extrajudicial killing – killing by government forces without due process
  • Euthanasia (also known as “mercy killing”) – the killing of any being for compassionate reasons, e.g., significant injury or disease.
  • Familiaricide in commutatione eius possessio – the act of killing a family for their property and/or possessions (From “familiaris” being Latin for of a household,”in commutatione eius” being Latin for in exchange for, and “possessio” being Latin for a possession or property)
  • Femicide (also gynecide, gynaecide, or gynocide) – the systematic killing of women.
  • Feticide – the act of killing a fetus.
  • Gendercide – the systematic killing of members of a specific sex or gender.
  • Genocide – the systematic extermination of an entire national, racial, religious, or ethnic group.
  • Homicide – the act of killing of a person. (“Homo” being Latin for man)
  • Justifiable homicide
  • Human sacrifice – the killing of a human for sacrificial, often religious, reasons.
  • Massacre or mass murder – the killing of many people.
  • Murder – the malicious and unlawful killing of a human by another human.
  • Manslaughter – murder, but under legally mitigating circumstances.
  • Omnicide – the act of killing all humans, to create intentional extinction of the human species. (“Omni” meaning all)
  • Populicide – see Democide above.
  • Xenocide – The genocide of an entire alien species. Often used in science fiction, one famous example being the novel “Xenocide” by Orson Scott Card.

Killing of superiors

Giganticide: David hoists the severed head of Goliath.
  • Deicide – the act of killing a god or divine being
  • Dominicide – the act of killing one’s master. (Latin: dominus means “master”)
  • Episcopicide – the act of killing a bishop.
  • Giganticide – the act of killing a giant.[citation needed]
  • Regicide – the act of killing a king (Latin: rex, Gen. regis means “king”)
  • Tyrannicide – the act of killing a tyrant.
  • Vaticide – the act of killing a prophet.

Killing of intangibles

  • Famacide – the killing of another’s reputation, a slander.
  • Urbicide – the destruction of a city or the stifling of an urbanisation. (“Urbs” being Latin for city)
  • Linguicide – intentionally causing the death of a language

Killing of animals, disease, and pests

  • Algaecide – a chemical agent that kills algae
  • Acaricide – a chemical agent that kills mites.
  • Avicide – a chemical agent that kills birds
  • Bactericide – a chemical agent that kills bacteria.
  • Biocide – a chemical agent that kills a broad spectrum of living organisms.
  • Canicide – the killing of dogs. (Canis being Latin for dog)
  • Fungicide – chemical agents or biological organisms used to kill or inhibit fungi or fungal spores.
  • Germicide – an agent that kills germs, especially pathogenic microorganisms; a disinfectant
  • Herbicide – an agent that kills unwanted plants, a weed killer.
  • Insecticide – an agent that kills unwanted insects.
  • Larvicide (also larvacide) – an insecticide targeted against the larval life stage of an insect.
  • Microbicide – an agent used to kill or reduce the infectiousness of microorganisms.
  • Miticide – {a chemical to kill mites.
  • Nemacide (also nematicidenematocide) – a chemical to eradicate or kill nematodes.
  • Parasiticide – a general term to describe an agent used to destroy parasites.
  • Pediculicide – an agent that kills head lice.
  • Pesticide – a general term to describe an agent used to destroy or repel a pest.
  • Scabicide – a chemical agent for killing scabies.
  • Spermicide – a contraceptive agent to render sperm inert and prevent fertilization.
  • Teniacide (also taeniacidetenicide)– a chemical agent that kills tape worms.
  • Vermicide – an agent used to kill parasitic intestinal worms.
  • Virucide (also viricide) – an agent capable of destroying or inhibiting viruses.
  • Vulpicide (also vulpecide)- the killing of a fox by methods other than by hunting it with hounds.