Management of Technology

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of Technology

is the usage and knowledge of
tools, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization. The
technology comes from the Greek technología — téchn?
, an ‘art’, ‘skill’ or ‘craft’ and
the study of something, or the branch of knowledge of a discipline. The term
can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include construction technology, medical technology, or
state-of-the-art technology
high technology. Technologies can also be
exemplified in a material product, for example an object can be termed state of
the art.

Dictionary meaning of technology-

The branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of
technical means and their interrelation with life, society, and the
environment, drawing upon such subjects as industrial arts, engineering,
applied science, and pure science.

The terminology of an art, science, etc.; technical
nomenclature, a technological process, invention, method, or the like.

The sum of the ways in which social groups provide themselves
with the material objects of their civilization.

of Technology

Development of industries

industry development technology has great impacts. The modern age was
introduced by the industrial revolution. So, technology is the key to
development of industry.

Global Communication

Information Technology has created a new line for business as well as in our everyday
life. Because of IT people now can communicate within the minimum time anywhere
in the world. It is clear that no organization can run their operation effectively
without using the Information technology.

Standard of Living

increasing the standard of living technology has huge impacts. Due to IT we are
able to communicate faster, Medical Technologies are saving our life,
transportation technologies are making movement easy etc. So, all types of
technologies increase the standard of living.

Infrastructure Development

For any
type of infrastructure development
technology plays the vital role. Infrastructure is vital for any

Safe Nation

Technology has brought a new era for us and saving millions of life with its
advance application. Many diseases are cured today with advance machineries of
medical science. Operations have become more accurate. That’s why people are
enjoying more safety.

Higher Productivity

modern technology has reduced the employment opportunities, it has increased
the productivity of the industries. Due to use of technology production speed
has increased and labor cost has reduced too.

Knowledge Development

in the education sector especially computer has added a new dimension for the
learners. Students of today can learn anything with the usage of internet.
Modern books are shared and students can gain knowledge faster than ever.

New Business Development

innovation of new technologies is creating new business areas for the
entrepreneurs. Many small industries are growing depending on the large
industries. They are manufacturing parts and accessories for the large

Making Country Competitive

If a
nation becomes developed in technology, it can easily develop its economy and
makes the country competitive to other nations. The country gains higher
economic growth.

Development of the nation as a whole

If all
the above develop a nation can achieve, it can be said that the nation will go
through higher development and economic growth will increase undoubtedly.

So, it
is obvious to us that technology plays significant roles in development of a
nation . In business perspective technologies are the heart of any organization
and no business organization is thinkable today without technology.


Applied science

Archaeology · Artificial intelligence ·
Ceramic engineering ·
Computing · Electronics · Energy · Energy storage · Engineering geology ·
Engineering physics ·
Environmental Engineering Science · Environmental technology · Fisheries science ·
Materials science and engineering · Microtechnology · Nanotechnology · Nuclear technology ·
Optics ·
Particle physics ·


Communication · Graphics · Information technology ·
Music ·
Speech recognition ·
Systematics · Visual technology


Business informatics ·
Construction ·
Financial engineering ·
Fishing ·
Industrial technology ·
Machinery · Manufacturing · Mining


Military technology ·
Military technology and equipment · Ammunition · Bombs · Military engineering · Weapons engineering ·
Military communications ·
Army engineering maintenance


Educational technology ·
Domestic appliances ·
Domestic technology ·
Food technology


Aerospace ·
Agricultural ·
Architectural ·
Audio ·
Automotive ·
Biochemical ·
Biological ·
Biomechatronics ·
Biomedical ·
BioTech ·
Broadcast ·
Building officials ·
Ceramic ·
Chemical ·
Civil ·
Computer ·
Construction ·
Control ·
Cryogenics · Electrical ·
Electronic ·
Engineering Management · Engineering technology · Enterprise ·
Entertainment ·
Environmental ·
Food ·
Genetic ·
Hydraulics · Industrial ·
Management ·
Materials · Mechanical ·
Mechatronics ·
Metallurgical · Mining ·
Naval ·
Network ·
Nuclear ·
Ocean ·
Ontology ·
Optical ·
Petroleum ·
Radio Frequency ·
Software ·
Structural ·
Systems ·
Technician ·
Telecommunications ·
Textile · Tissue ·
Traffic ·

Health / safety

Bioinformatics · Biomedical ·
Biotechnology ·
Cheminformatics ·
Fire protection engineering · Health technologies · Medical technology ·
Nutrition · Pharmaceuticals · Safety engineering ·
Sanitary engineering


Aerospace · Aerospace engineering ·
Automotive engineering ·
Marine engineering ·
Motor vehicles ·
Naval engineering · Space technology

Some example of technologies in different categories are given

of Technology

are four kinds of technology. These are as











Instructional technology is “the theory and practice
of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes
and resources for learning,” according to the Association for Educational
Communications and Technology (AECT) Definitions and Terminology Committee. Instructional
technology is often referred to as a part of educational technology but the use
of these terms has changed over the years. While instructional technology
covers the processes and systems of learning and instruction, educational
technology includes other systems used in the process of developing human

Advantages of instructional technology

More Time for Teacher

When instructional technolgy is used in education it is
easier for the student to gather the material. On that moment the teacher can
concentrate more on the study materials.

Enhance student acheivement

With the deployment of instructional technology in education
would increase the student’s achievement as they find it easier for them to
grab the information provided by the instructor.

Greater interactions

Instructional technology ensures the greater interactions
with the teacher and student and student to student.


technology available today has made a wealth of knowledge available to
students, which offers great potential for the speed and style of learning.

Access to all

is no longer the elitist privilege it once was. The information on the Internet
is there for all who have access, without discrimination.

Disadvantages of Instructional Technology

of Skills

this increased access to knowledge also comes a probable loss of communication
skills and interactive abilities between students and teacher, and students to
peers. These skills are not as necessary in a classroom of computers, where
individuality is a component of learning and is encouraged.


from learning, conflict resolution and socialization used to be two prominent
reasons children came to school. The emphasis now has shifted away from these


can enhance traditional methods of learning but cannot replace the human touch.
Ultimately, the quality of the class will depend solely on the quality of the
teacher and not the presence of technology.

Assistive Technology

Assistive technology (AT) is a generic term that includes assistive,
adaptive, and rehabilitative devices for people with disabilities and includes
the process used in selecting, locating, and using them. AT promotes greater
independence by enabling people to perform tasks that they were formerly unable
to accomplish, or had great difficulty accomplishing, by providing enhancements
to or changed methods of interacting with the technology needed to accomplish
such tasks. Likewise, disability advocates point out that technology is often
created without regard to people with disabilities, creating unnecessary
barriers to hundreds of millions of people.

Advantages of Assistive Technology

Cost Effective

Once implemented it is expected to be cost effective as it is
not needed to do repetative things.  This
also reduce effort of the person who are using the technology.

Reduction of

Assistive technology helps the person to overcome the
disabilities and overcome the unnecessary barriers .

Promote Independence

technology promotes greater independence by enabling people to perform tasks
that they were formerly unable to accomplish, or had great difficulty
accomplishing, by providing enhancements to or changed methods of interacting
with the technology needed to accomplish such tasks.

 Body Support,
Protection and Positioning

support, protection and positioning issues are associated with the functions
needed to stabilize support or protect a portion of the body while sitting,
standing, or reclining.


technology may include hearing amplifiers, magnifiers, pointers, alternate
computer input, augmentative communication devices and services, social skills
training, and speech/language therapy services.

Disadvantages of Assistive Technology


person using the assistive technology is solely dependent on these instruments.
They don’t even move a single without these.


in the existence area are associated with the functions needed to sustain life,
including eating, grooming, dressing, elimination, and .

of Technology

power and promise of assistive technology can be realized only when the needs
of a person with a disability are identified and the assistive technology is
designed to meet those needs. If this is not done, the potential power of
assistive technology will not be realized.

Medical Technology

Medical technology is a part of the Health technology which encompasses a wide range of health care
products and, in one form or another, is used to diagnose, monitor or treat
every disease or condition that affects humans. These innovative technologies
are improving the quality of health care delivered and patient outcomes through
earlier diagnosis, less invasive

options and reductions in hospital stays and rehabilitation times.

Advantages of Medical Technology

of Mortality Rate

With the
improvement of medical technology the rate of mortality is reduced. It prolongs
the life expectancy of people around the world.

of Diseases

treatment has been going well for a long period of time with the help of modern
technology. These days, most of the hospitals are using modern technology as
the assistance for the operation, for example. Some doctors use new machines to
produce medicine which effectively cures people.

the Patient’s Condition

Technology provides greater access to personal health care information being
shared between patient and physicians. Test results will become available
online, patients can inform physicians about their conditions, and unnecessary
office visits can be replaced by an e-mail from the patient explaining

Low Errors

technology will result in a decrease in medical errors due to handwritten
prescriptions and orders. IT will help to automate and standardize caregiver
decisions, identifying errors before they occur.

Disadvantages of Medical Technology


medical technology brings loneliness to old people in some countries. In
England, old people are left at the government homes that make them feel
isolated from their off-springs.


As the
life expectancy of the people increased and the low mortality rate the
population of a country increasing quickly.

Training and Education

For the
proper utilization of medical technology it is necessary for the medical
professional to have specialized training and education which is cumbersome and


Information technology
(IT) is “the study, design,
development, implementation, support or management of information
systems”. Information technology is a general term that describes
any technology that helps to produce, manipulate, store, communicate, and/or
disseminate information.

Advantages of Information Technology


IT has
not only brought the world closer together, but it has allowed the world’s
economy to become a single interdependent system. This means that we can not
only share information quickly and efficiently, but we can also bring down
barriers of linguistic and geographic boundaries.


With the help of
information technology, communication has also become cheaper, quicker, and
more efficient. We can now communicate with anyone around the globe by simply
text messaging them or sending them an email for an almost instantaneous
response. The internet has also opened up face to face direct communication
from different parts of the world thanks to the helps of video conferencing.

Cost effectiveness

technology has helped to computerize the business process thus streamlining
businesses to make them extremely cost effective money making machines. This in
turn increases productivity which ultimately gives rise to profits that means
better pay and less strenuous working conditions.

Bridging the cultural gap

technology has helped to bridge the cultural gap by helping people from
different cultures to communicate with one another, and allow for the exchange
of views and ideas, thus increasing awareness and reducing prejudice.

More time

IT has
made it possible for businesses to be open 24 x7 all over the globe. This means
that a business can be open anytime anywhere, making purchases from different
countries easier and more convenient. It also means that you can have your
goods delivered right to your doorstep with having to move a single muscle.

Creation of new jobs

the best advantage of information technology is the creation of new and
interesting jobs. Computer programmers, Systems analyzers, Hardware and
Software developers and Web designers are just some of the many new employment
opportunities created with the help of IT.

Disadvantages of information technology


information technology may have streamlined the business process it has also created
job redundancies, downsizing and outsourcing. This means that a lot of lower
and middle level jobs have been done away with causing more people to become


information technology may have made communication quicker, easier and more
convenient, it has also bought along privacy issues. From cell phone signal
interceptions to email hacking, people are now worried about their once private
information becoming public knowledge.

Lack of job security

experts believe that the internet has made job security a big issue as since
technology keeps on changing with each day. This means that one has to be in a
constant learning mode, if he or she wishes for their job to be secure.

Dominant culture

information technology may have made the world a global village, it has also
contributed to one culture dominating another weaker one. For example it is now
argued that US influences how most young teenagers all over the world now act,
dress and behave. Languages too have become overshadowed, with English becoming
the primary mode of communication for business and everything else.

of Technology

Our world today has
changed a great deal with the aid of technology. With the aid of technology we
are not only able to stream line our business processes but we are also able to
get constant information in ‘real time’ that is up to the minute and up to
date. With technology we enjoy luxuries such as movies, television, fresh food
and refrigerators, ovens to cook on and bake in.

of Technology in Society, Politics and Economics

 The development of technology with the onset
of the Industrial Revolution, capitalism, and modernism created significant
changes in the culture and institutions of human societies. Science is largely
responsible for a growing public awareness that people share the planet with
all other living creatures, that the environment which supports all life is
subject to change, and that human activities are presently changing this
environment and threaten to change it seriously. In the past two centuries,
science has been used mainly as a tool for economic expansion and military
power for the wealthier segments of the human race. Science, which helped to
bring about this situation, now has an over-riding responsibility to help
societies make a transition from an obsession with growth to achievement of a
dynamically stable and sustainable ecological and economic system.

of Technology in Business

plays a vital role in business. Over the years businesses have become dependent
on technology so much so that if we were to take away that technology virtually
all business operations around the globe would come to a grinding halt. Almost
all businesses and industries around the world are using computers ranging from
the most basic to the most complex of operations.

Role of Technology in
Health Care

With the improvement
of technology new machines are invented to diagnose the disease. The effective
use of Statistical Process Control (SPC) methods and technology tools can be
utilized successfully for improving the quality of care for many areas such as
optimal health of stays, patient’s perceptions, improved mortality,
hypertension control, drug and billing error rates, and diabetes control etc.

of Technology in Globalization

Technology is the
vital force in the modern form of business globalization. Technology has
revolutionized the global economy and has become critical competitive strategy.
It has globalized the world, which drive all the countries to more ethical
standards. The technological advancement has helped a lot in creation and
growth of global market. Multinational Corporations (MNC) can be seen as a
central actor in globalization. Markets have become global at a rapid pace, as
indicated by several kinds of trade extended to foreign countries. The
innovation in host country is often undertaken by MNC based in one country and
due to the technological advancement MNC(s) have expanded to other countries by
some kinds of FDI also facilitating the movement of research and
development.  The researchers have analyzed that though the technology has
globalized the business but economically well developed countries have been
more benefited.

Role of Science and Technology in Future Design

With the improvement
of science and technology scientists are now focusing more on the research and
development.  This requires funds which
are arranged by the institutions and the government. Societies whose
governments recognize the dependence of the development of successful novel
technologies on broadly supported basic research are more likely to be
healthier and economically prosperous in the future than those do not.


Role of Technology in

In Education,
technology plays are role in the classroom, in assistive technology products,
and software that is brought into the school. Technology has been proven to
help students achieve in reading, writing, and arithmetic. Not only does
technology benefit students in the education system, it also benefits the educator.
There are so many opportunities for teachers to learn and acquire new skills
over the internet, keep up with credentials and in return help them improve
their teaching abilities. Technology is making it possible for teachers to
reach more students, allowing students the time they need to succeed, and
providing our future workforce with competent, knowledgeable employees.

Role of Technology in

The invention of the printing press made it possible for
scientists and
to communicate their ideas with ease, leading to the
Age of Enlightenment;
an example of technology as a cultural force.

Technology has allowed
countries across the world to connect and interact without having to fly
thousands of miles to communicate with each other. Governments and industries
are able to communicate and work together towards the future. This allows
successful countries to communicate with other countries that lack essential
resources and help them find ways to combat their challenges. Before the
invention of the internet, there wasn’t email. Many people in the business world
communicate solely with email and without it, they are lost.

E-Commerce & E-Business

While Internet-based
applications can greatly enhance a firm’s competitiveness, they require a
significant initial investment of time and resources. In another survey, almost
half (47%) of the CFOs said their firms offer access to products or services
through the Internet; the remaining half said they would conduct more business
online if only costs could be reduced and internal staff had greater technical

Role of Technology in

Computers and
accounting software allow accountants to use electronic
spreadsheets—eliminating the need for adding machines, calculators, and pencils
and ledgers in one fell swoop. It became much simpler for accountants to keep
track of information on a minute-by-minute basis and completely eliminated most
mistakes. This has led to greater efficiency and accountability, and has
changed the face of accounting considerably.

Role of Technology in War

The era of destructive
weapons are reveled with the improvement of technology. Now countries with
super economic power wish to have nuclear weapons which are the adverse effect
of technology. More research is conducted to enhance the diversity of weapons

Technology Policy

Technology policy is
rarely post-modern. Its goal is the improvement of policy and organizations
based on an understanding of the underlying scientific and technological
constraints and potential.

Issues of Technology Policy


Rural areas of a
country are deprived of facilities like internet, new technology. In
formulating the technology policy it should be in the consideration of the
policymakers to promote high speed internet facilities to rural people and new
technology as well as reducing the gap between the rural and non-rural area of
a country.


In formulating the
technology policy the security issues must be given preference.  Here the security issues consist of new
technology, computer and internet security.


In formulating the
technology policy paper it is needed to form a group of expert people who will
share their views and logic. In this group the government officials would have
present as they are the main policy maker in a country and help the players to
have a sound technology policy.

Internet Privacy

Concerns related to
Internet privacy encompass a wide range of issues.  At the center of these issues is how networks
can facilitate the collection and transfer of data inexpensively and on a large
scale.  While such data transfers can
improve the efficiency and effectiveness of services, they can also pose great
risk if the information is not appropriately protected.  One example is the surreptitious installation
of software (“spyware”).

Research and

It is needed to
identify how much fund will be allocated for technological development from
both the institution and the government side. 
The organization that gives more importance on the research and
development will be able to develop new technology very swiftly.


Electronic government
(e-government) is an evolving concept, meaning different things to different
people.  However, it has significant
relevance to four important areas of governance: (1) delivery of services
(government-to-citizen); (2) providing information (3) facilitating the
procurement of goods and services (government-to-business, and
business-to-government); and (4) facilitating efficient exchanges within and
between agencies (government-to-government,).

High Speed Internet

For transferring and
receiving the data effectively there is no alternative to high speed internet
and information is inevitable for the technological improvement. To ensure high
speed internet it must be in the top priority in the technology policy

Government Information
Technology Management

The evolving role of
information technology in the political economy of a country requires increased
attention from the government to the government’s information technology
management issues. Interest has been further national information
infrastructure development efforts, e-government projects and homeland security

Broadband Internet

Broadband Internet
access gives users the ability to send and receive data at speeds far greater
than conventional “dial up” Internet access over existing telephone lines.
Broadband technologies — cable modem, digital subscriber line (DSL), satellite,
wireless Internet, and fiber — are currently being deployed nationwide by the
private sector. There must be a broadband internet regulation particularly for
the ISPs and the subscribers.

of Technology Policy

The technology policy
is important from different perspective. These are as follows

Guideline for Technological

The policy matters of
technology define the way to improvement of technology and the regulation of
doing it. It includes what should be done and what should be abandoned.

Ensure Effective Use
of Technology

The technology policy ensures
the effective and efficient utilization of technology. It defines which
technology to be used where, how the information would be collected and how it
would be used.

Reduce Theft

With the improvement
of technology theft is increased as well. By deploying effective technology
policy it is possible to reduce the theft of contents and design.

Ensure Security

Every day, persons
gain access, or try to gain access, to someone else’s computer without
authorization to read, copy, modify, or destroy the information contained
within. Effective policy regarding the server and domain access would ensure
the security of the computer and internet.


Technology can ensure
the effective governance by 

of services (government-to-citizen);


the procurement of goods and services (government-to-business, and
business-to-government); and

efficient exchanges within and between agencies (government-to-government)


Effective and
Efficient Communication

Information technology
ensures the effective and efficient way of communication. E-mail, telephone,
mobile phone, conferencing etc are the form of communication. Policy regarding
these would boost the communication.   

Geographic Distribution

Technology policy
ensures the maximum coverage of the populace through the use of internet and in
turn distributes the necessary information to the people of lower vicinity to
other resources.

Ensure Effective Transfer
of Information

Proper utilization of
internet and information technology it is possible to receive and transfer
information. The policy and regulation regarding internet would ensure the
transfer without any problem.

Effective Utilization
of Resources

A proper technology
policy ensures the effective and optimum utilization of resources. It ensures
which item is needed where, who will work on what, how they will work, and how
the goals be achieved.

Proper management of
government information system

Technology policy
ensures the proper management of the information system of the government of a
country. In the political economy information is very important and management
of this information is also important.

Challenges of Technology Policy

In formulating a technology
policy there are several challenges it face. Constraint is also found in
carrying out the policy. Some of them are as follows:

Preparation of
Effective Policy

The main challenge of
technology policy is its effective formulation. It is necessary to devise a
proper policy to get the best benefit out of it. It needs proper collaboration
of the key players and the policy makers.

Mitigating the
Interest of Stakeholders

The policy should give
elative focus on the parties related with the policy. The parties include the
organization, the institutions, the government, the regulatory authority and
the people. Improper way of emphasis would bring a disorder in the system.


Optimum Use of

One of the prime
challenges of formulating the policy is to make sure that the optimum use of
the resources. It should define what should be done, how it is done, when it is
to be done, who is to do, and what process would be used to complete the job.

Ensuring High Speed

Ensuring high speed
internet for the people of maximum area is a vast challenge in the policy
matters. It is not an easy task to set up a high power internet facility within
a short period of time and also the cost associated with this is very high



To develop an
effective policy plan requires proficient people on that issue. To hire these
people must have been very costly. But the policy must be an effective one and
it should cope-up with this challenge.


Another challenge in
developing a technology policy is how well it will provide the definition of
all the technology issues and secures the computer and internet.


The coordination from
all the parties associated with creating the policy is another challenge for
the technology policy. It is must to have coordination within the parties for
an effective policy plan on technology.

Research and

Another challenge in
technology policy is how these plans are carried out in the research and
development department. Proper management of fund, information and scientists
is necessary to have these plans a success.

Influence of Internal
and External Environment

One of the vital challenges
in technology policy is the influence of internal and external environment. The
policy of other countries and the demand from within the interest group
influence the policy matters.


Technology transfer
is the process of sharing of skills, knowledge, technologies, methods of
manufacturing, samples of manufacturing and facilities among governments and
other institutions to ensure that scientific and technological developments are
accessible to a wider range of users who can then further develop and exploit
the technology into new products, processes, applications, materials or
services. It is closely related to (and may arguably be considered a subset of)
knowledge transfer.
Technology brokers are people who discovered how to bridge the disparate worlds
and apply scientific concepts or processes to new situations or circumstances.
Related terms, used almost synonymously, include “technology
and “technology commercialization”. While conceptually the practice
has been utilized for many years (in ancient times,
was notable for applying science to practical problems), the present-day volume
of research, combined with high-profile failures at
Xerox PARC
and elsewhere, has led to a focus on the process itself.

of Technology Transfer

Many companies, universities and governmental
organizations now have an “Office of Technology Transfer”, TTO (also
known as “Tech Transfer” or “TechXfer”) dedicated to
identifying research which has potential commercial interest and strategies for
how to exploit it. For instance, a research result may be of scientific and
commercial interest, but patents are normally only issued for practical
processes, and so someone—not necessarily the researchers—must come up with a
specific practical process. Another consideration is commercial value; for
example, while there are many ways to accomplish nuclear fusion, the ones of
commercial value are those that generate more energy than they require

The process to commercially exploit research varies
widely. It can involve licensing agreements or setting up joint ventures and
partnerships to share both the risks and rewards of bringing new technologies
to market. Other corporate vehicles, e.g. spin-outs, are used where the host
organization does not have the necessary will, resources or skills to develop a
new technology. Often these approaches are associated with rising of venture
capital (VC) as a means of funding the development process, a practice more
common in the US than in the EU, which has a more conservative approach to VC
funding. Spinoffs are a popular vehicle of commercialization in Canada, where
the rate of licensing of Canadian university research remains far below that of
the US.

In recent years, there has been a marked increase in
technology transfer intermediaries specialized in their field. This was
stimulated in large part by the Bayh-Dole Act and equivalent legislation in
other countries, which provided additional incentives for research

of Technology Transfer

transfer is a system that encompasses the social and economic fabric of a
country. “Technology transfer” includes a range of formal and
informal cooperations between technology developers and technology seekers. In
addition, technology transfer involves the transfer of knowledge and
technical-knowhow as well as physical devices and equipment.It benefited the
organizations as well as the country a lot.

To Share of
Skills, Knowledge, Technologies, Methods

 Technology transfer involves the transfer of
knowledge and technical-knowhow as well as physical devices and equipment. Thus
it help the less developed apply these knowledge in their different sectors. It
ultimately increases its productivity.

To Ensure Further

transfer is the process of sharing of skills, knowledge, technologies, methods
of manufacturing, samples of manufacturing and facilities among governments and
other institutions. It ensures that scientific and technological developments
are accessible to a wider range of users. These users can then further develop
and exploit the technology into new products, processes, applications,
materials or services.

To Reduce Risk

process to commercially exploit research varies widely. It can involve
licensing agreements or setting up joint ventures and partnerships to share
both the risks and rewards of bringing new technologies to market. It ensures
the safety o0f the business.

To Develop
Basic Science Research and Fundamental Discoveries

technology transfer basic science research and fundamental discoveries are
developed into practical and commercially relevant applications and products.
Technology Transfer personnel evaluate and manage invention portfolios, oversee
patent prosecution, negotiate licensing agreements and periodically review
cooperative research agreements already in place.

 To Increase Coordination

between technology users and developers, between researchers and manufactures
is an important element of technology transfer. Access to relevant internal and
external resources to individual projects and enterprises is enabled by this
process.Thus coordination among these parties are increased.

To Develop New

One of
the major functions of TT is establishing link. Cataloging resources related to
business enterprises and connecting would-be entrepreneurs/researchers and
other technology developers to outside groups and organizations which can help
in the process of starting new products, companies etc. Such linkages provide
referrals for individual business counseling, sources of financing or the names
of individuals who can help with a particular facet of business development.

To Increase
Technology Marketing; Licensing

process enables the exchange of access to a technology and perhaps associated
skills from one company to another of different countries. The inventing
company can be benefited by marketing; licensing of their technologies. It
enables them to earn profit.

To Assist in
Creating New Businesses

As the
technologies can be available by this process, the cost of using technology is
decreased. It assists the new businesses to start with comparatively less
capital. It help to increase the investment of the society.

9. To Promote
the success of existing firms

transfer provides minority businesses and various divisions with technical
assistance. Thus the existing firms can easily grow up their business and can
easily compete with the global businesses.

10. To
Generate new products & more high-quality jobs

By this
process the companies use the modern technology. By the assistance of new
technologies the can create more new types of products. It also enhance the
scope of technology related different jobs.

11. To
Facilities expanded economy

transfer develops the infrastructure of the society by facilitating modern
technology. It develops the production, quality of goods and services. Thus it
increases the total productivity of the economy.

12. To link the Science Education and External
Relations program with the Technology Transfer Initiative

transferring technology related knowledge the people of least technically
developed countries people can be educated. They can enlarge their technical
knowledge by participating in different related programs. It enriched the human
resources of the countries.

13. To
minimizes the duplication of research

When a
technology is invented the invented firm can share it with other institutions
or with other countries. The other firms need no further research for the same
type of technology. It reduce the duplication of research.

14.  To provide economic potential and motivation

process provides economic potential and motivation for both technology donors
and technology receivers where the social impact is high and the potential
market is large.Both of the parties can achieve their own goals.

14. To
commercialize of new technology

If the
inventing organization is a private company, it may not have the resources
needed to bring the technology to market, Even if the company has those
resources, the technology may not be viewed as a strategic product for that
firm, especially if the technology was created as a byproduct of a research
project with a different objective.Thus they can  commercialize of new technology.

15. To
Generate Revenue

look to transfer technologies to other organizations as a potential source of
revenue, to create a new industry standard, or to partner with a firm that has
the resources or complementary assets needed to commercialize the
technology.It  generate financial
advancement of the companies.

16. To increase
production efficiencies

enables the organizations to develop the skills of their human resources and
develop their production system.Thus the production efficiencies are increased
in that organizations.

So it
can be said that technology transfer is a valuable mechanism by which industry can
accelerate its innovation activities and gain competitive advantage through
cooperation. Technology transfer can also boost overall economic growth and
regional economic development.

of Technology Transfer

technology transfer is a valuable mechanism for a countries development, it has
also some disadvantages.

1.  Weakened the strengths of governments:

In many
cases local capacity as well as the multinationals having financial powers have
weakened the strengths of governments. The governments decisions some times can
be hindered which is not desirable.

2.  Priorities of the donor:

times effective and appropriate technology transfer is focused on the
priorities of the donor or purveyor. In many cases the donors create
limitations. The financial limitations of most poor countries means that they
cannot choose the technologies best suited to them and, as a result,
flexibility is compromised and development stillborn. Thus the attempts to
control the terms of technology transfer will be resisted by local and
international vested interests.

Discouragement of local technology:

technology transfer arrangements are self-defeating because of the excessive
use of expensive expatriate expertise when either such expertise is locally
available or local people could be easily trained to the desired level of
competence. Some contracts even call for the discouragement of local
technological effort in the same field as the imported technology.

4. Weakening
control over the technology:

times control over the technology is weakened because it has been transferred
to an unaffiliated firm. Additionally, licensing usually produces fewer profits
than exporting actual goods or services. In certain developing countries, there
also may be problems in adequately protecting the licensed technology from
unauthorized use by third parties.

 A major
potential drawback of  TT by joint
ventures, especially in countries that limit foreign companies to minority
participation, is the loss of effective managerial control. This can result in
reduced profits, increased operating costs, inferior product quality, exposure
to product liability, and environmental litigation and fines.

6. Technology

One of
the imminent dangers of technology transfer is the perpetuation of
technological dependence. Unless safeguards are deliberately sought by
governments, the alliance between vested interests in the importing and
exporting countries will constitute a powerful combination that will continue
to defend and promote the existing political economy of technological dependence.

Discouraging innovation

As the
technologies are available, most of the firms may not interested on new
inventions. It will discourage the innovative persons to engaged in research
activities. This it discourage innovation.

8. Having less

technologies are used by licensing or by joint venture the companies have to
maintain the other parties imposed restrictions. They may be more profited if
they use their own technologies.

Thus it
can be said that if the related disadvantages can be reduced then technology
transfer will be definitely a great tool for the development of the economy.


The modern technology is
controlled by a few firms from a few countries. These countries  expose the developing countries to the
dangers of monopolistic pricing, technological dependence, and inappropriate

Unreasonable government guarantees:

exporters of technology demand guarantees against changes in taxes, tariffs,
and currency exchange rates. Others ask for guaranteed remittances and

11. Limits on
competing technologies:

is usually accomplished by imposing terms limiting the imports of similar
technologies, or through provisions of exclusive access to local resources

are limitations of technology transfer.

of Technology Transfer

In 1982
The Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States recognized that
software maintenance requires major management attention, and established a
maintenance producivity project (MPP). Maintenance was defined as any
programming effort that requires at least 25% of a programmer’s time to be
spent understanding an existing system. Three potential areas were identified
for technology transfer: the maintenance function, the maintenance environment,
and maintenance metrics. Ongoing programs include cooperation with vendors in
developing an integrated environment for the maintenance programmer and
manager, a maintenance management handbook, and a maintenance managers’ round
table. Maintenance is becoming an established and recognized area of
specialization for systems professionals at The Equitable.

Transfer Facility

Socializing technology is the rhetorical goal of
technology transfer. Specialists from all walks of the technical communications
profession can participate in this goal by involving themselves in key
processes such as developing market awareness, creating inreach and outreach
programs, and facilitating collaborative ventures. By broadening the market for
our services in the technology transfer movement, we will increase the scope
and value of our skills in a high-visibility endeavor that will be on the
national agenda for years to come

As the worst economic crisis in decades continues to
take its toll, one thing is now clear – its effects aren’t confined to rich
countries. The development and adoption of innovative technologies can help
developing countries better cope with the effects of the crisis. How can
developing countries best facilitate technology transfer from research

the need for further study of technology transfer, IFC has financed a study on
technology transfer and proposed some hypothetical interventions
may prove to effectively facilitate technology transfer from research
institutions. The report raises a number of questions, including:

  1. Has
    the US model been successfully replicated elsewhere? Can it be? More
    importantly, should it be?
  2. What
    are the strengths and weaknesses of the US technology commercialization
    model in the US context? What are the implications for emerging markets?
  3. What
    other models exist and what are their strengths, weaknesses, adaptability
    and implement ability?
  4. Who
    are the stakeholders in tech transfer generally? Which of these play an
    active role in commercialization? Which currently do not but should?
  5. What
    are the special technology transfer considerations by industry, e.g.,
    human health, agriculture and food, information technology, and
    alternative energy?
  6. What
    approaches might improve technology flows between developed countries and
    emerging markets?

Role of Government in Technology

have been involved with technology throughout human history, at least since the
days of the Pharaohs in ancient Egypt. Military technology was essential to the
power of medieval governments, and modern governments employ technology to
stimulate economic growth, improve their citizens’ standards of living, and
pursue missions in many other areas

1.  To Invest in Research and Development (R&D):

funding of research and development (R&D) provides government with
a means of shaping technologies. It provides the foundation for development of
products intended to be manufactured and sold by industry. Government’s
investments help build the nation’s long-range scientific and technological strength.

2. To Provide
Subsidies to the Private Sector:

also provide indirect support for technology development. Some of this support
takes the form of subsidies to the private sector through tax codes. Most
industrial nations encourage industrial firms to invest in R&D by allowing
100 percent of R&D expenses to be deducted from a firm’s income tax. It
will encourage private investment in R& D.

3. To Create
Suitable Environment for Technological Innovation:

indirect mechanisms that governments use to support technology development
include regulation and creation of a suitable environment for technological
innovation—for example, by providing protection for intellectual property. To
force the development of technology, government may establish a future
regulatory standard that it knows cannot be met with existing technology.
Governments provide the means for protecting such rights through patents and
copyrights in order to create an environment that will encourage technological

4. To
Establish Standards:

important way in which governments are involved with technology development is
through the establishment of standards. Standards are fundamental to
technology, commerce, and trade. It should 
provide basic reference standards and works with industry to calibrate
measuring instruments to those standards and with international organizations
to ensure compatibility with other.

5.To Fulfill
Social Goals:

Government should take proper steps to fulfill social goals. It can be done
by  bringing the benefits of technology
to diverse populations or geographic regions. It will spread the proper usage
of technology.

6. To
Formulate Regulations for Technology Commercialization, Adoption and Transfer:

Government should have proper policies and regulations not only for creating
technologies ,but also for technology commercialization, adoption and
transfer.It should properly commercialize the technology which it has created
to ensure proper usage of it.It should adopt the foreign technology  which will facilitates its different sectors.

7. To
Formulate the Structure of Science and Technology Policy:  

have to formulate proper structure where it can apply the proper usages of  recent technologies. This structure should be
clear and flexible so that up dated version of technologies can be adopted.
Thus it will ensure proper utilization of technology.

8. To Develop

has to develop adequate amount of infrastructures to support the different institutions
that’s are involved in technology innovation or commercialization. This will
encourage private sectors to involve technology development.

9. To Arrange
training programs:

Government should establish proper amount of training institutions for
providing related trainings about recent technologies. It should arrange
different seminars, courses to educate the people. It will create fruitful
human resources.

10. To Enhance
Agreements about Technology Transfer:

has to keep proper communications with different nations. It will enable
Government to enhance agreements about technology transfer. As a result it can
facilitate the commercialization of technologies.

12.To make
integrated technology transfer:

order to reach the creative stage, an integrated technology transfer should be
implement where know-how is blended with learning-to-know. In other words, to
move forward technologically the seed must be planted, and the possibility of
reaching the innovative and creative levels must not be foreclosed in any
technology transfer agreement.

13. To Include
Technological Knowledge in Education:

In the
curriculum of education related technological knowledge should be included. It
will help the students to implement their theoretical knowledge practically.

So it
can found that Governments support the development of technology both directly
and indirectly.

Role of Management in Technology

role of the technology management function in an organization understands the
value of certain technology for the organization. Continuous development of
technology is valuable as long as there is a value for the customer and
therefore the technology management function in an organization should be able
to argue when to invest on technology development and when to withdraw.

1. To
Understand the Value of Technology:

management have to understand the proper type of the technology which is needed
for that organization to attain its goals. It should evaluate the value of the
selected technology by comparing input and output. By evaluating this it has to
take decision about what type of technology it has to use.

2. To
Establish Technical Vision:

compete with the global competition it has to be technically enriched. So that
it has to establish separate technical vision where greater importance is
imposed.It will help the organization to achieve its goal.

3. To
Formulate strategies & Policies:

management should formulate technology development related strategies and
plans-either it will research in their own laboratory or it will import
technology. These should be clear and flexible. These will accelerate its

 4. To Monitor & Assessing New

management has to identify, access, investigate high risk, high return technology,
possessing high potential application within existing business or creating new
business. It has to actively monitor new technologies and assessing their
applicability to business opportunities.

5. To Provide
Training to the Employees:

implement the technology in the organization it is important to educate its
human resources with technological knowledge. For this purpose the management
should organize different training programs, seminars. It will increase the
skills of the employees.

 6. To Establish R&D Laboratories:

Most of
the case the innovators or the exporting parties of technologies are more
benefited  than the importers of it. So
by evaluating the financial capacity the management can establish R&D
Laboratories. It will accelerate thre organizations technological development.

7. To
Establish Formal & Informal Network:

management should establish formal and informal network. This will help to
implement the policies and to ensure that they are aligned throughout the
organization. It thus becomes the tool of evaluation.

8. To  Invest in Technology Expertise:

As the
success of the organization depends on the availability of technological
facilities in its all sectors. And to use these facilities properly the
management should adequately invest in technology expertise. The invest
decision should be justified prop[erly.

9. To Motivate
Employees To Be Flexible:

It is
the major role of the management to motivate the employees to become flexible
to accept the on going technical changes. Because technology is promptly
changes. The success depends mostly on compatibility of the organizations with
the changes.

10. To
Strengthen Information Technology in Organization:

 Proper management of information technology is
the critical factor for the success of any organization. For this the
management have to establish strong and reliable information system in the
organization. Proper access should be given to the authorities.

11. To
Facilitate Organization with Updated Technologies:

It is
the major task for the management to facilitate the organization with updated
technological facilities. These should be compatible with the type of the
organization.This will be in the capacity of the organization.

12. To Focus
the Technology Transfer Plan:

management’s responsibility is to set the tone and direction for the
organization. It may focus on the technology transfer if it will be helpful for
it rather than inventing. In this case it have to focus the right way of
transferring technology.

the management can be able to make the organization technology based and can
contribute in the technology development of the country.

Role of Employees in Technology

are the key factors of implementing the organizations plans. Without their
participation organizations goals can not be achived.They have a great role in
the development of technology in the organization.

1. To
Participate in Training Programs:

employees should be self motivated in developing their own skills of using modern
technology.They have to participate in different training programs organized by
the organization or by the other organizations. They should also apply the
knowledge in their works.

2. To
Implement Organizational Goals:

If the
organization is trying to compete with the global business competition it has
modern technological facilities as well as skilled human resources. So it is the
responsibility of the employees to be skilled and give their best effort to
attain the goal.

3. To Have
Technical Knowledge:

employees must have technical knowledge which can be provided by the
organization or by other sources. They should attentive and should try to
enrich their activities.

4. To
Co-operate with Management:

is always a contradictory relationship between the employees and the management.
Here the employees should keep in mind that they will also be facilitated by
the  success of the organization. So they
should be cooperative with the management in technology development.

5. To Increase

employees can increase the communication with different organizations and medias.
It will help them to increase their technical knowledge. They can be
experienced with different situations of proper use of different technologies.

6. To Be

employees should be more flexible to adopt the changing technologies. They
should be able to take the new technologies as challenge. This type of thinking
will help them to work in the changing situation properly.

7. To Have
Clear Idea about Organization’s Policies & strategies:

must have ideas about the organizations technology related strategies and policies.
It will help them to perform their duties properly. That will also increase
their confidence.

8. To Exchange
Ideas & Knowledge:

As all
can be able to have all type of knowledge. If they exchange their ideas and
technical knowledge among them that will increase their skill. It will also
help them to reduce their difficulties in their duties.

9. To
Participate in Decision Making:

may have the better idea about the work and which technology is suitable and
better for performing it.So if the management allow they should participate in
the decision making.It also enhance their involvement in their work.

 10. To Participate in Different
Seminars,Courses etc.:

If no
training is available in the organization about modern technology ,they can
participate in the non-organizational trainings, seminars etc.

role can be played by the employees in the organization for the technological development.

Role of Social Leaders in Technology

leaders are the important figures in the society.Most of the implementation of
the governments decisions are depended on their activities. They can play a
vital role in technology development.

1. To
Participate in Strategy Formulation:

social leaders should participate in strategy formulation. They should concern
about that the strategies should be fruitful for the society’s development,
increase their life standard. These will have positive effects for the
development of the country.

2. To
Implement Policies:

leaders can play a vital role in the implement of the formulated policies. In
this case they have to be more concern about the development of then country
and people.

3. To Increase
Investment In Technology Development:

create technology based society they have to invest more in technology. But in
that case they have to compare the input and output of investing. More R&D
laboratories should build for doing research.

4. To
Faciliate Local Technology Based Business:

leaders can take a major role in enhancing local technology based business.They
can help them in their financing,researching,marketing activities.The social
leaders can be played a supportive role.

5. To Develop
Supportive Infrastructure:

develop a technology based economy it is essential to build all supportive
infrastructure facilities. Otherwise the development will be slowdown. So
proper steps regarding this should implement.

6. To Expand Market

market is an important factor for the development of technology based economy.
Here the social leaders can come forward to expand the communication network
with different organizations, countries. This will broaden the market network.

7. To Arrange
Different Competition Programs:

To find
out the skilled people different competition programs can be arranged. Here
proper arrangement can be arranged to stimulate them. Social leaders can
sponsored here.

8. To
Implement Technology Based Education:

create technology based society it is essential to spread the technology
related knowledge.For this technology related courses should be included in the
education.Social leaders can participate in preparing the proper education

9. To Concern
people About Technology:

technological development it is necessary to spread the knowledge in the
society.It is impossible without participating the general people in it.Social
leaders can take different initiatives to concern the general people about it.

10. To
Introduce Technology Based Culture:

create technology based culture they can help the government in taking
different technology related decisions. Here different medias, organizations
come forward to establish that culture. The leaders can integrate them to
implement the activities.

the social leaders can come forward to develop technology in the society and
take part in creating improved economy.

Technology Institute (TI) in Bangladesh
for Managing Technology

TI supports full service print publication and digital
media facilities for effective communication and technology transfer of
research results. In addition, TTI provides researchers and sponsors with
networking and computing support in the development of web sites and databases.
Along with easy access to services provided by Texas A&M University’s world
class Sterling C. Evans Library, a specialized transportation library at TTI
also houses the Institute’s published research reports, along with other
transportation-related materials.

Establishing technology transfer infrastructure as a strategy for
promoting manufacturing automation in Taiwan

enhance the productivity and competitiveness of the manufacturing sector, the
Taiwan government is establishing technology transfer infrastructure as a
strategy for promoting automation. This paper first reviews the status of the
automation capability, then discusses the role of government in shaping the
industry from the perspectives of four determinants: firm strategy and
structure, factor creation, demand condition, and related and supporting

For Training in Managing Technology

TTT – Training
and Technology Transfer

and Technology Transfer (TTT) was established in 1989 and formally incorporated
in 1992. TTT is an international development organisation focused primarily on
working with the public sector in developing countries to:

Experts (Both local and international consultants in over 38 sectors)

Implement Training Programmes (Both in-country and overseas, including study
tours, benchmarking visits, specialised tailor-made courses, workshops, formal
degree, diploma and post-graduate studies)

Research (Project Technical Assistance, Evaluation, Impact Studies, Monitoring
Programme, Needs Analysis and Specialised Research)

Facilitation Services (Managing large-scale programmes and projects, managing
contracts, project procurement and disbursements, financial management and
other facilitation services)

TTT has
a global scope of operation covering 40 countries and has offices and
representatives in 22 countries. TTT is formally incorporated in the United
Kingdom, the United States, New Zealand, as well as in many countries in South
Asia and South East Asia.

Since its inception TTT has completed over 210 projects and programmes
worldwide encompassing such sectors as:

Education – Tourism – Rural Development – Financial Reform

– Fisheries – Urban Development – Environment – Forestry

– Governance – Information Technology – Land Reform – Mining

– Technical Reform – Gender Development – Health – Transport

– Civil Defence Reform – Oil and Gas – Transport – Infrastructure

– Agriculture – Livestock – Crop Science – Climate Change

– Customs – SME – Project Management – Telecommunications

TTT has completed projects funded by the World Bank, Asian Development Bank,
European Union, DANIDA, SIDA, NZAID and other bilateral and multilateral
funding organisations. There have also been many direct-government funded
projects, including with the Governments of Malaysia, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos,
Indonesia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and many others.


5 – 49 Employees


Training & Education Exporters

resource development Programmes

Needs and Training Plan

selection for training/education

training /education courses

training/education programmes

Assurance Programmes

Management Facilitation Services



Training and Technology Transfer (TTT)
was established in 1989 and formally incorporated in 1992. TTT is an
international development organisation focused primarily on working with the
public sector in developing countries to:

Provide Experts (Both local and international
consultants in over 38 sectors)

Implement Training Programmes
(Both in-country and overseas, including study tours,
benchmarking visits, specialised tailor-made courses, workshops, formal
degree, diploma and post-graduate studies)

Undertake Research (Project
Technical Assistance, Evaluation, Impact Studies, Monitoring Programme, Needs
Analysis and Specialised Research)

Project Facilitation Services
(Managing large-scale programmes and projects, managing
contracts, project procurement and disbursements, financial management and
other facilitation services)

TTT has a global scope of operation
covering 40 countries and has offices and representatives in 22 countries. TTT
is formally incorporated in the United Kingdom, the United States, New Zealand,
as well as in many countries in South Asia and South East Asia.

Since its inception TTT has
completed over 210 projects/programmes worldwide encompassing such sectors as:




Financial Reform


Urban Development





Land Reform

Technical Vocational


Gender Development

Civil Service Reform

Rural Development

Oil and Gas


Climate Change

Micro credit



Crop Science




Project Management


The above are some of the sectors
in which TTT has implemented projects. For detailed list of projects see Project Portfolio

TTT has completed projects funded by
the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, European Union, DANIDA, SIDA, NZAID and
other bilateral and multilateral funding organisations. There have also been
many direct-government funded projects, including with the Governments of
Malaysia, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri
Lanka and many others.

Number of training institute in Bangladesh in managing
Technology Transfer and particulars of training institutions in Bangladesh in
technology development:

of Water Modelling provides training courses on water and environmental
modelling, decision support systems, GIS, advanced data acquisition and survey
techniques. The objectives of the training programs are promoting technology
transfer, exchange of experience, initiating developmental processes and

with partner organisations in Bangladesh and abroad IWM forms an international
network offering theoretical and on-the-job training to a wide range of
participants from home and abroad.In addition to the training courses  IWM
offers support to undergraduate and post- graduate students from national and
international institutes and universities.

wide range of commercial and customized modelling tools are available for the
training course.

Advanced Professional Training on
Water and Environmental Modeling

Advanced Professional Training on
Survey and Data Acquisition

Professional Training on
Information Technology and Management


IWM offers support to
undergraduate and post- graduate students from national and international
institutes and universities listed below:

Bangladesh University of
Engineering and Technology, Bangladesh 

Ahsanullah Engineering College,

Asian Institute of Technology,

International Institute for
Infrastructural, Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering,

The Netherlands CEARS, New Zealand


Institute of Technology, Thailand


Hyhdraulic Institute, Denmark 


University of Engineering and Technology, Bangladesh




Water Development Board


Hydraulic Institute


Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia 





Management Modelling

Conjunctive Use Modelling

Flow Modelling

Sediment Transport Modelling

Quality Modelling

Flood Forecasting


Rainfall-runoff Modelling


Decision Support Systems

in-depth knowledge about the use of a wide range of advanced survey techniques
and equipment for data acquisition and surveys. 

Training provides on the use of the
following equipments:

GPS, DGPS, RTK-GPS, Total Stations, Digital Current Meters,
Self Recording Current Meter, Digital Echosounder, Digital Levels, Automatic
Water Level Recorder, Pressure Cells, CTP, Sediment Sampler, Turbidity Meter,
Salinity Meter

Database System Development

Geographic Information Systems

System Support and Network



  Bangladesh Water
Development Board


  Water Resources Planning Organization,


  Roads and Highways
Department, Bangladesh


  Dhaka Water and Sewerage
Authority, Bangladesh


  Department of Public
Health Engineering, Bangladesh


  Jamuna Multipurpose Bridge
Authority, Bangladesh


  Bangladesh University of
Engineering & Technology


  River Research Institute,


  Bangladesh Engineering
& Technological Services


  Sir William Halcrow and
Partners Ltd.

  Mott McDonald and Partners

  DHV Consultants Bv

  Kampsax International



of Technology development in Bangladesh

In the
face of rapid globalization, liberalization and privatization, technology has
become a strategic variable for economic development and competitiveness.

At the
very beginning of his article, referring to the newly industrialized countries
in Asia, deliberate policy and planning initiatives could lead a country to
attain desired scientific and technological change. Science and Technology
policy initiatives and their devoted implementation in countries like Korea,
Taiwan, Singapore and Malaysia bear testimony to his conviction. However the
realization among the leadership of the country of the importance of S&T
development for achieving economic progress and competitiveness is a
precondition. The leadership of the newly industrialized countries in Asia understand
this clearly. For example, the active industrialization effort of Korea,
together with the development of science and technology, began with the First
Five Year Economic Development Plan launched in 1962. From this first stage of
industrialization, the Korean Government fully appreciated the role of science
and technology as the driving force for economic growth. Therefore, from the
very beginning, they duly emphasized technology development initiatives.

issue of technology culture and technological temper of the society is also
vital. In Bangladesh, there are a number of roadblocks in embracing a
technology culture. Some of them, as mentioned by the author, are: traditional
value, habit of resignation, bureaucratic decision making system, education
system, etc. However, the leadership of the country can adopt a proactive role
in promoting the technology culture of the country. In Korea, for example, when
they needed highly skilled technicians, the government made it a point that the
highest level vocational training certificates (Master Craftsman) would be
given by the President of the country. This helped to change the attitude of
the people towards technical skills, as the President of the country did not
give Ph.D. certificates.

In his deliberations about the
technological resource base of Bangladesh, the low level of literacy in the
country. He further added that historically the policies related to the human
resources in this part of the Indian subcontinent were directed more toward
arts than sciences or technical subjects. It may be mentioned that in contrast,
Japan recognized the importance of science and technology education long ago
during the Meiji Restoration period and was documented explicitly in the
country’s constitution.

For post-graduate education and
training, Bangladesh Government does not have any significant scholarship
scheme of its own. Professionals usually depend on foreign government-sponsored
scholarship schemes or research/teaching assistantships offered by the foreign
universities. In the 21st century when the world has entered into
the knowledge economy, human resource development has become a prime concern
for all countries. Countries like Vietnam and Pakistan are moving aggressively
in this respect. The government of Pakistan has established the “Higher
Education Commission” that looks after university education. The main idea is
to get rid of the bureaucratic norms of the Ministry of Education. The
government is spending huge amounts for scholarships for post-graduate
education. The salary structure of the university professors have been
separated from others and were raised considerably2. Vietnam is also
moving aggressively for developing its human resources: not only the central
administration, but also the local bodies are spending huge amounts on
scholarships for higher studies. For example, Ho Chi Minh City Corporation of
Vietnam has taken a project called “Project 300” where it would give
scholarships to 300 persons for Masters and Ph.D. degrees in selected universities
around the world during a period of 5 years3.

While discussing the S&T
achievement indices of Bangladesh, the author has indicated non-availability or
non reliable data. The author has not mentioned whether he attempted to collect
data from the local sources or not for Tables 1 & 2. By entering into the
web sites of the organizations responsible for collecting, compiling and
analyzing the data in Bangladesh (i.e. BANBEIS, BANSDOC etc.), one can hardly
find any up-to-date information there. BANSDOC conducted a study to estimate
the S&T achievement indices in 19954. I am not aware of any further
study updating the indices after that. We need to know our position for
devising strategies and policies for advancement.

Research and Development (R&D)
activities other than in the agricultural sector are negligible. Sub-critical
levels of manpower and fund allocation are painfully evident for R&D units
outside the agricultural sector. It can be seen from the tables of R&D
allocations in various annual development plans (Tables 4(a), 4(b)) that there
is no consistency in R&D allocation except for agriculture. This
inconsistency may indicate either or both of the following: one, lack of vision
and strategy for the development of the sector. So decisions are taken on
ad-hoc basis; two, leadership does not realize/appreciate the importance of
S&T for economic development. One needs to invest in R&D consistently.
Then only could the benefits be seen. Bangladesh has achieved considerable
technological advancement in the crop sector because of the consistent
investment in R&D in this sector.

National Science and Technology
Policy (NSTP) came into existence in 1986. After 20 years of adoption of the
Science and Technology Policy, the country does not have any mechanisms for its
implementation. One may go even further and ponder, is there at all any good
intention of the leadership of Bangladesh behind these policies? Otherwise, how
is it possible that the apex bodies such as the National Council for Science
and Technology (NCST), headed by the Prime Minister and the Executive Committee
of the Science and Technology (ECNCST), have rarely met during the last three

The author indicated that the
modalities of opening the economy to foreign investment have been worked out.
However, institutional arrangements for adaptive initiation and technology
spin-off are not yet in place. Foreign investment helps a lot in bringing
technology to the country. However, national initiatives for assimilation of
the technology is a necessary condition to get the desired spin-off effects.

While discussing the impact of
externally funded projects, the author indicated that the funding agencies
backing a development project have their own objectives, formalities and
procedures that may not be conducive for technology transfer and capability
development. Bangladesh’s position on the technological implications of a
development proposal is either not clearly spelled out or has not been
formalized. Thus, the funding agencies in their desire to quickly show the
results put pressure to have their own way. Here arises the question of clarity
of the objectives and doing the homework for that purpose, which is lacking in

When, in general, there is a low
level capability to absorb imported technology, it is heartening to know the
notable exception of KAFCO where introduction of process changes and technical
improvements were initiated, planned and implemented by local engineers. And
the result is that of reaching a production target 15-20% above the nameplate
capacity. This indicates that the talents are there in many areas. What is
needed is to establish a proper policy environment that would encourage the
people to innovate.

While discussing the emerging
technologies, the author mainly discussed information and communication
technologies (ICT). Bangladesh has an ICT policy, and the Ministry of Science
and Technology has been renamed as Ministry of Science and Information and
Communication Technology. I fully agree with the author that unfortunately, in
the process, the ministry seems to have lost the holistic view of Technology
that cuts across all sectors of development. It is very encouraging that the
Government is giving considerable importance to the development of ICT. However
two points are to be remembered. First, ICT literacy is more than general
literacy. Second, in the mega-merger process, computer, telecommunication and
multi-media are merging together. It is high time to recognize it and take this
into account in policy planning and implementation.

Poverty Reduction Strategy has been
emphasized in meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in Bangladesh.
Primary education has been emphasized as part of the poverty reduction strategy
along with others. However we can see the genuine frustration of the author,
when the government did not incorporate (or even recognize) the wide-ranging
policy initiatives and aggressive programs for the development of science,
technology and innovation proposed by the S&T Task Force of the UN
Millennium Project. Even the situation analysis of the Bangladesh scene with
respect to the S&T issues raised in the UN document was not carried out
before exclusion. This indicates the commitment of the leadership for the
development of S&T. The author has presented different levels of commitment
in Table 3. Perhaps the commitment of the leadership of Bangladesh is still in
the border line of 2nd and 3rd level.

The author has referred to the World
Bank document where it has praised GOB for spending less than

India on education at the tertiary
level. Definitely this praise has been sadly misplaced. Bangladeshi policy
makers should not heed such praise. The author has rightly indicated that India
and East Asian countries have done well to ignore such prescriptions for budget
reduction in the tertiary sector. Without a determined bid to improve
scientific and engineering education at the tertiary level it would be difficult
to take part in the global knowledge economy.

The paper has raised a number of
issues that the leadership of Bangladesh and policy planners should take into
consideration. They need to recognize, realize and appreciate the role of
technology for national economic development and competitiveness. Only then
will effective implementation of the S&T policies take place. It seems from
the paper that the leadership of Bangladesh is yet to realize/recognize it. We
hope, in the near future, that the leadership will realize and appreciate the
role of technology for economic development, leading to the rapid development
of S&T in Bangladesh.

Prospect of IT in Bangladesh

At present Information Technology (IT) is a subject of
widespread interest in Bangladesh. There are around 100 software houses, 35
data entry centres, thousands of formal and informal IT training centres and
numerous computer shops. The Government has declared IT as a thrust sector and
that computer training centre will be set up in each divisional and district
headquarters of Bangladesh. Import of computer hardware and software is now
duty free, VSAT is deregulated, high speed DDN (Digital Data Network) has been
introduced. One fourth of the 45 recommendations of JRC report on software export
has already been implemented; rest is in the process of implementation. A
tremendous activity is going on in every sector including e-commerce,
e-governance, computer networking, Internet, web browsing, web applications,
multimedia product development etc. Some active steps and initiatives are
already there, as described below for an exposure of the present and future
prospects of IT in Bangladesh.

Telecommunication: Bangladesh has one of the lowest
tele-density in Asia, with a mere 0.6 (in India 1.5) lines per 100 people. In
terms of phone connectivity, the charge of Bangladesh Telephone and Telegraph
Board (BTTB) is one of the highest in the world, approximately US$500.00 (in
India US$60) for normal single telephone line connection. However, there has been
significant improvement in services of telecommunication within last few years.
Present government is also trying to get additional telephone lines from a
Canadian firm. If these telephone lines are available in Bangladesh, most of
the PC users will be able to use internet and find a scope to build up
international career.

and professional bodies

The associations and professional bodies who are
playing vital role to develop the IT sector in Bangladesh are as follows:

* Bangladesh Computer Society (BCS) was formed in
1979. This is an association of the IT Professionals.

* Bangladesh Computer Samity (BCS) was formed in 1987.
This is basically an association of Computer Vendors.

* Bangladesh Association of Software and Information
Services (BASIS) was formed in 1998 to promote the interest of IT business,
especially for software development and related IT services.

* Bangladesh Software Marketing and Promotions (BSMP),
a private organisation, has been formed with the view to helping the local
computer programmers and promote their software.

* Bangladesh Computer Writers Association has been
formed to promote the writers activities in the country.

* Bangladesh Association for Information Technology
Education (BAITE) has been formed to promote the activities toward
standardising informal IT education in the country.


Well-trained Bangladeshi IT professionals can start
their business like Data entry, Web development, Multimedia, ISP and Medical
Data Transcription services, Cybercafe and IT Training Centre. They can easily
get financial help from bank. A number of government banks have already started
credit programmes to encourage the entrepreneurs in software industry. Some
private banks are using our locally developed software too. However, due to
some constraints the outcome is not up to the expectation.

Government initiatives: The Government of Bangladesh
has taken some important initiatives to develop our IT sector. Still we are
waiting to see a fruitful change in our Information Technology. However, some
remarkable steps of government are highlighted for information.

* IT has been declared as a thrust sector.

* Quick implementation of the recommendations of JRC
report (a high powered committee for software export).

* Waiving all taxes and duties from import of computer
hardware and software.

* Hundred percent remittances of profit and capital
gains for foreign investors without any approval.

* BTTB’s implementation of DDN service.

* Decision to link Bangladesh to global highway
through submarine cable link by next two years.

Computer Council

Bangladesh Computer Council is the apex body of the
government dealing with Information Technology. BCC is running according to BCC
Act, 1990 as an autonomous organisation under the administrative control of the
Ministry of Science & Technology. BCC is playing various types of roles
regarding the IT booming over the country.


Human resource is the most important component for IT
industry. Bangladesh has a huge educated, unemployed youth force with the
ability to read and write English. The country can take advantage of its
immense manpower to train and prepare programmers and IT professionals.
Government has already started a project to develop Computer Programmers in
Bangladesh. All the universities are offering one year post-graduate Diploma
course for the graduates. Our unemployed educated persons can take this
opportunity to build their career as IT professionals.


Young generation in Bangladesh is very enthusiastic
and has correctly identified IT as the future of the country. There are
numerous computer clubs, computer festivals, programming contests, web design
contests, IT related seminars and discussions in many cities of the country.
There are about 16 magazines and four digital IT magazines are being published
monthly and some daily newspapers publish IT pages once/twice a week. A few of
the magazines are in collaboration with other international magazines, however,
most of these are Bangladeshi origin. There are a few interactive sites and
forums. A number of business centres and cybercafes have started up recently.
Most of these business centres provide e-mail; e-mail to fax, phonefax services
and cyber cafes offer Internet browsing.


Recently there has been a surge in E-commerce
activities in Bangladesh. There are E-commerce related seminars and symposiums
in the country almost everyday and all the major training centers are offering
courses on E-commerce. Government is now formulating laws for e-commerce to
enhance the business rapidly and smoothly.

IT Park
and international market

Some private organizations have already started to
work for setting up IT park and IT villages in the country. Some investors are
foreigners and they are very much interested to build Bangladeshi students as
IT professionals. They have already started to commission their views. Our
Bangladeshi students can take this chance and hit the international job market
in the IT field. There are lot of scopes of working and entering into the
international market. Just we have to take proper initiatives. Bangladeshi IT
professionals have a good demand in international IT job market, which has been
proved by some of our BUET students.


Our Bangladeshi students should be more aware about
Information Technology and they should take proper decision to build their
career. Indians have changed their whole financial position by IT. Their
government also is very much serious about IT. Anyway, Bangladesh has a long
way to go in a very short time to enjoy the fruits of information age. It will
be only possible when there will be political commitment with better IT
infrastructure, internal network, country domain and above all a high speed fiber
optic link to the Information Superhighway.

Bangladesh:  Science & Technology

The need for faster technological development is
increasingly felt in Bangladesh. Development plans of Bangladesh have
emphasized science and technological research to develop technologies through
adoption of imported technology as well as development of indigenous technologies.
As the country is heavily dependent on imported technologies, proper planning
is required for its effective transfer through acquisition, assimilation and

A National Science and Technology Policy has been formulated and adopted by the
Government. It has laid down the directions for S and T activities and
research, institutional and manpower development. Dissemination and
documentation facilities. The National Council for Science and Technology
(NCST) determines S and T policies, reviews the activities of different
institutions and provides direction towards S and T research and activities.

ICT Development in Bangladesh by ADB:

To fight poverty and improve
the country’s economic standing, the government has declared ICT as a
“thrust” sector and a tool to facilitate the process of establishing good
governance. Through its National ICT Policy (2002), Bangladesh aimed to work
towards building an ICT-driven nation comprising of a knowledge-based society
by 2006, with emphasis given to building a country-wide ICT infrastructure to
be used for “human resources development, governance, e-commerce, banking,
public utility services and various on-line ICT-enabled services.”1

In May 2008, the government
embarked on a policy review and concluded that the National ICT Policy 2002
“could not reach the professed levels of success due to lack of appropriate
plans to achieve the goals set in the policy as well as poor implementation
of the underlying actions.” Therefore, a new ICT Policy was crafted and proposed
in September 2008, which incorporates all the ingredients of the National ICT
Policy 2002 in a structured manner as well as new policy directions in line
with the changing technological advancements. The major revisions include (1)
a methodical framework of the policy document and (2) inclusion of planned
action items in conformity with policies and strategies.2

The government has undertaken
some initiatives for establishing ICT communications across various levels of
the administration.3 The “Information Technology in Government: An
Action Plan for Bangladesh” emphasized the need to establish ICT
infrastructure, a pre-requisite to reap the benefits of the information age,
including that of e-Government. The Action Plan was contained in the National
ICT Policy 2008 (proposed), with the overarching vision to “expand and
diversify the use of ICTs to establish a transparent,responsive and
accountable government; develop skilled human resources; enhance social
equity; ensure cost-effective delivery of citizen-services through
public-private partnerships; and support the national goal of becoming a
middle-income country within ten years and join the ranks of the developed
countries of the world within thirty years.4 In 2009, the
government adopted National ICT Policy 2009, which includes action items for
realizing the goals of national development.

The Ministry of Science and
Information and Communication Technology* (MoSICT) is the government entity
mandated to achieve the mission of supporting the attainment of overall
socio-economic development through research, development, extension and
successful utilization of science and technology including information and
communication technology. One of its vision is develop infrastructures and
human resources for rapid growth and expansion of ICT and software export and
be a model e-government ministry.

ICT Indicators for the Bangladesh

are various means to measure the level of ICT capacity and development
according to a country’s context. This can be done by measuring subscription
and access of the population to ICT. Global efforts have developed indices to

readiness – an international assessment of countries’ capacity to exploit the
opportunities offered by ICTs by looking at the extent of increase in the use
of ICT in a specific country and the factors that enable this (World Economic Forum*); and

readiness – a systemic assessment of how governments use Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) to provide access and inclusion for all (United Nations*).

Economic Indicators








growth rate (%)








lines (per 100 people)




cellular subscribers (per 100 people)




subscribers (per 100 people)




users (per 100 people)




computers (per 100 people)




with a television set (%)




Development Indicators







Readiness Index










Readiness Index




ADB-Funded ICT-Related Projects in Bangladesh

2000 and 2009, Bangladesh implemented 11 ICT projects with ADB funding
support. These consist of eight (8) loans worth USD458.7 million and three
(3) TA/Grants amounting to USD2 million. The huge amount is a function of
three projects:

2334 – a power project amounting USD60 million, but whose ICT component is an
area for capacity building and institutional development in the power sector,
including the use of e-procurement and MIS.

2266 and 2267 – an education project worth USD85 million that uses GIS, MIS,
and the internet, and aims to develop an ICT curriculum and provide teaching
training and facilities, among others, to help develop secondary education.

2254 – an agriculture project worth USD 96.1 million that aims to reduce
poverty in 23 districts of northeast and central Bangladesh, which uses ICTs,
such as MIS, wide area network (WAN), and a website.

As of
December 2009, ADB has helped Bangladesh fund and implement 13 ICT-related
projects, which consist of five (5) loans and eight (8) TA/grants amounting
to $589.22 million.5

Approved Projects



Public and Environmental Health Sector Development Program (Program Loan)

improve access to and use of effective, efficient, and sustainable quality
urban public and environmental health (UPEH) systems and practices in the
six city corporations of Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi,
and Sylhet.

?  Modernized and computerized accounting
systems (IT to enhance financial management, improve tax collection, and
expand the tax base to strengthen municipal finances)



Urban Public and
Environmental Health Sector Development Program (Project Loan) 

ICT-related Projects